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Essa custodisce Vi si accede dai chiostri della basilica di San Lorenzo a Firenze, da cui il nome Laurenziana. Medicea deriva invece dal fatto di essere nata dalle collezioni librarie di membri della famiglia Medici. Gli obblighi, puntualmente assolti, erano di mantenere le collezioni nel luogo e negli ambienti per loro pensati e di aprire il Museo al pubblico per la conoscenza degli studiosi e l'educazione dei giovani. Dell'originale Fontana del Porcellino d'acqua. Il modello in cera mentre il torrente Mugnone inondava la zona intorno al Parco delle Cascine. Furono almeno 1.

Questo era un gioco che sviluppava i muscoli e dall'artigianato fiorentino come l'oreficeria e il ricamo. I migliori stilisti di delle braccia e delle gambe in una lotta a corpo a corpo per la contesa di qualcosa Milano usano le industrie tessili di Firenze per l'esecuzione dei loro modelli. CUCINA - Nel cuore della cucina fiorentina ci sono quattro ingredienti fondamentali: pane piatto, senza sale, ben cotto con una crosta croccante e un di dentro leggero ; olio extra vergine d'oliva, senza dubbio il migliore anche per friggere, carne alla griglia, bistecche di manzo alla fiorentina, selvaggina arrostita o brasata col vino come il cinghiale, il cervo e il coniglio ed infine il vino stesso.

Proveniva da una famiglia di militari: il padre colonnello delle prestigiose Coldstream Guards, il nonno governatore generale del Bengala, India, da dove ebbe inizio la ricchezza della famiglia che il. Continua a pagina When visiting Los Angeles come see us for authentic Venetian Cuisine. At Osteria Mamma you are always welcome! La Provincia di Pisa Si estende dalla piana alluvionale del fiume Arno, nell'ovest della Toscana, fino al mar Ligure e ha la forma di una pistola rovesciata.

Pisa, settembre settembre La sua potenza commerciale marinara prosegui in periodo longobardo e carolingio e intorno al Mille era eretta a libero comune. Estese quindi la sua influenza in Sardegna e Sicilia, conquistando i mercati orientali con la sua partecipazione alla prima Crociata. Perse cosi la Corsica, nel la Sardegna e ben presto gran parte dei mercati orientali. I Medici ne risollevarono le sorti XV secolo e dopo di loro i Lorena. Fu dunque la prima opera ad essere intrapresa in quella che fu poi la Piazza dei Miracoli.

Il Duomo venne via via ad abbellirsi di numerose opere d'arte, attraverso lunghi anni. Presenta tre ordini o piani di elevazione e al terzo ordine o tamburo si eleva la cupola. Pur con la sua gigantesca mole il Battistero resta ingentilito da tanta decorazione di stile gotico. I per riqualificare la medievale Piazza degli Anziani, detta anche delle Sette Vie per il numero di strade che partono dalla piazza. Il nome deriva dall'Ordine dei Cavalieri di Santo Stefano, creato dal Granduca per la difesa del Mediterraneo dalle invasioni turche.

I magnifici edifici costruiti nella piazza erano proprio le sedi predisposte per l'Ordine. Fino al secolo XIX conservava anche una serie di monumenti sepolcrali e busti di illustri scienziati e docenti dello Studio pisano. Maria de Pontenovo, mutato poi in sull'isocronismo del pendolo, riferite dal S. Comprende inoltre stava costruendo anche il Battistero. I piani complessivi sono 8, circondati da una Meloria. In quella occasione viene illuminata anche la Torre Pendente. La famosa piazza, un tempo sede del foro romano ed oggi sede di coronato da interessanti fuochi artificiali.

Alla certosa sono anche conservati cinque libri liturgici con notazione musicale. Due sono libri stampati nel Seicento e altri due, ugualmente stampati, risalgono al Sette-Ottocento. Fu il processo di disboscamento innescato dall'utilizzo crescente di legna a indurre de Larderel a sfruttare direttamente il vapore naturale allo scopo di far evaporare l'acqua per ricavarne l'acido borico. Oggi conserva un notevole centro storico di origine etrusca di questa epoca rimane la Porta all'Arco, magnificamente conservata; la Porta Diana, che conserva i blocchi degli stipiti; gran parte della cinta muraria, costruita con ciclopici blocchi di pietra locale; l'Acropoli, dove sono presenti le fondamenta di due templi, vari edifici ed alcune cisterne; numerosissimi ipogei utilizzati per la sepoltura dei defunti , con rovine romane fra tutte il Teatro ad emiciclo ed edifici medievali come la Cattedrale, la Fortezza Medicea ed il Palazzo dei Priori sull'omonima piazza, centro nevralgico dell'abitato.

Un murale di metri quadrati che rappresenta 30 personaggi incastrati come in un puzzle. Alti piatti tipici Pisani sono: la minestra di pane e ribollita, pappa al pomodoro, trippa, baccala, mucco pisano, torta co'bischeri, torta ai pinoli e schiacciata di Pasqua. Confina a ovest con il mar Ligure, a nord-ovest con la provincia di Massa e Carrara, a nord con l'Emilia-Romagna province di Reggio Emilia e Modena , a est con le province di Pistoia e di Firenze, a sud con laprovincia di Pisa. Le vie strette e tranquille di Lucca si diramano tra edifici medievali, aprendosi improvvisamente per rivelare chiese, piazze e molti altri luoghi caratteristici, tra cui i resti di un anfiteatro romano.

I lavori per la costruzione dei bastioni cominciarono nel , quando le nuove tecniche militari resero inutili le antiche difese. Oggi si organizzano occasionali visite guidate all'interno dei bastioni. Fino al la piazza era costellata di baracche, che furono fatte abbattere da Maria Luisa di Borbone.

Basse arcate ai punti cardinali della piazza segnano le porte attraverso le quali i gladiatori entravano nell'arena. Le tre navate all'interno sono divise da colonne e capitelli dell'epoca, ricco di incisioni, sculture, affreschi e tele di notevole pregio. Puccini in seguito ebbe diverse residenze, ma rimase sempre legato alla casa paterna. Il museo custodisce arredi originali, preziosi oggetti appartenuti al musicista, tra cui quadri, fotografie, bozzetti, cimeli e documenti preziosi.

All'interno del museo si trova anche il costume di Turandot, realizzato secondo il figurino di Umberto Brunelleschi e indossato dal soprano Maria Jeritza per la prima rappresentazione dell'opera al Metropolitan Opera di New York nel Martino, fondato nel sec. VI, ha una bella museo casa natale di giacomo puccini Pfanner, Costruito nel , ha una magnifica facciata asimmetrica ma armoniosa, decorata con scene della vita del santo e marmi bianchi, rosa e verdi.

All'interno si trova una scolpito da Nicodemo all'epoca della crocefissione. L'interno fu ridisegnato nel XVI secolo, con la navata e il transetto che risultano rialzati. Da vedere due opere del Guercino : Santa Lucia, al quarto altare nella navata destra, e Assunta e santi, collocata nel transetto sinistro. L'ultima ricognizione canonica del corpo mummificato fu effettuata nel , insieme allo studio paleopatologico. La settimana del 27 aprile si tiene a Lucca, presso la basilica di San Frediano e l'anfiteatro di Lucca, in onore della santa, una manifestazione floreale volta a ricordare il miracolo dei pani trasformati in fiori.

Nata Gemma Umberta Maria Galgani nel a Camigliano frazione del comune di Capannori rimase orfana della madre a sette anni. Suggeriamo ai visitatori di visitare non solo l'affascinante mondo sotterraneo,. Dentro la grotta sono stati costruiti confortevoli sentieri cementati e tutte le meraviglie sotterranee presenti sono illuminate da riflettori: dalle vivide scintillanti stalattiti e stalagmiti, alle policromatiche pietre di alabastro, dalle piscine incrostate di cristalli ai ruscelli sotterranei, alle strane forme di erosione. Tutte le visite sono condotte da guide speleologiche che spiegano i vari fenomenali in maniera molto accurata.

Abitanti 46, In una delle sue frazioni, si trova un tratto della Via etrusca del ferro. Byron, Shelley, Heine, d'Azeglio. Oggi una visita della cittadina offre monumenti del XLX secolo, anche in stile neogotico, come la chiesa inglese , in via Crawford e il cimitero anglicano. Dal la Garfagnana fu incorporata nella provincia di Modena, per poi passare sotto Massa-Carrara. I flussi migratori si diressero in particolare verso gli Stati Uniti e l'Australia. Si tratta di un esemplare di farnia Quercus robur o peduncolata , una specie di quercia molto diffusa in tutta Europa.

Si narra che questa pianta fosse il punto di ritrovo per le streghe che erano solite fare i loro riti e danzare sopra di essa. La sua forma schiacciata, con i rami sviluppati quasi orizzontalmente, caratteristica inusuale per gli alberi di questa famiglia, sarebbe dovuta alla ripetuta presenza delle streghe sulla chioma. Le ville e gli stabilimenti balneari furono costruiti intorno agli anni '20, proprio dopo un grosso incendio, e sono in tipico stile liberty.

A Calafuria, il mare contiene. Le coste di Quercianella e Castiglioncello sono rocciose. Le acque intorno alla provincia di Livorno a volte contengono delfini. Periodo, definito dalla Casa Savoia, compreso tra i moti insurrezionali del e la fine della prima guerra mondiale nel Dopo quarantotto ore di combattimenti furiosi, Livorno veniva espugnata. Quale frazione del Porto Pisano, la borgata "Livorna", piccolo centro peschereccio, trova riscontro storico per la prima volta nel Divenne poi porto fortificato dei pisani nel a consolidamento delle difese del Porto.

Passata ai Visconti di Milano, fu venduta ai genovesi nel , da questi fu in seguito ceduta ai Medici di Firenze nel Le agevolazioni doganali, ne favorirono l'ulteriore sviluppo, grazie anche all'afflusso di molti commercianti stranieri, specialmente ebrei. Nel fu eretto il campanile e nel Settecento furono aggiunte le cappelle laterali, il transetto e il Battistero.

Successivamente, nel , su progetto di Gaspero Pampaloni, fu aggiunto il campanile a pianta quadrata in sostituzione di quello a vela seicentesco.

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Distrutto dai bombardamenti della seconda guerra mondiale, il Duomo fu poi ricostruito, seguendo fedelmente il modello originale. Durante la costruzione della cupola ottagonale si presentarono problemi di natura statica, che resero necessario cingere l'estradosso della cupola con un possente tiburio, che ancora oggi domina il panorama urbano labronico. Creato da Pietro Tacca, il monumento prende il nome dalle quattro statue bronzee di schiavi "moreschi" che si trovano alla base di un'opera precedente composta dalla statua di Ferdinando I e il suo piedistallo monumentale.

La nave fu progettata dal Tenente Colonnello Francesco Rotundi, Tenente Colonnello del Genio Navale, venne costruita nei cantieri di Castellammare di Stabia nel e varata il 22 febbraio Equipaggio dell'Amerigo Vespucci: 16 ufficiali, 70 sottufficiali e circa marinai. In estate ospita gli allievi del primo anno dell'Accademia Navale di Livorno per un totale di persone. Proprio sul lungomare, si trova all'interno della magnifica terrazza Mascagni, di fronte al Santuario dei Cetacei del Mar Ligure, che comprende questo tratto d'acqua.

La visita al museo inizia con una ricostruzione di ambienti marini, che porta a una sezione chiamata "Un nuovo mondo", incentrata su insetti, anfibi e rettili. L'acquario ha 33 vasche espositive contenenti animali di specie diverse. Tuttavia, malgrado l'indubbia importanza storica ed architettonica, l'edificio si inserisce a lato di una piazza utilizzata sostanzialmente come parcheggio, facendo da sfondo, al contempo, ad un trafficato nodo stradale.

XIX durante il governo dei Lorena,. Nel XIV secolo, ad opera di Francesco di Giovanni e Puccio di Landuccio, fu costruita una fortificazione di pianta quadrata attorno alla torre, la cosiddetta Quadratura dei Pisani, posta a sua difesa. La Fortezza Nuova fa parte del progetto dell'architetto Buontalenti per la riqualificazione di Livorno in epoca medicea.

Si trova su un isolotto ricavato. La statua di Leopoldo II collocata il 6 giugno fu danneggiata durante i moti del e rimossa il 7 maggio ; il 5 novembre dello stesso anno fu incaricato lo scultore Emilio Santarelli di realizzarne un'altra che fu collocata al posto di quella vecchia.

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La vecchia statua fu ritrovata nel e collocata in piazza Venti settembre. Il 20 agosto la piazza fu rinominata piazza Carlo Alberto fino al 2 giugno quando ebbe il nome attuale. La piazza del Voltone era anche un luogo di ritrovo e passaggio delle carrozze; esistono ancora oggi i pilastri ai quali le carrozze vengono legate.

Nell'interno uliveti e vigneti coprono le colline, mentre le montagne presentano una folta vegetazione. Anche Piombino riveste una notevole importanza per la presenza di grandi acciaierie. I Faro del Porto fu costruito nel dalla Repubblica Pisana per "guida ai naviganti" come si legge nell'effige all'ingresso. Originariamente chiamato Fanale dei Pisani, venne distrutto nel '44 e ricostruito nel su progetto originale di Giovanni Pisano inizi del Si tratta di una grandissima piazza affacciata proprio sulle acque cristalline del mare.

Solo nel l'area fu trasformata in una grande piazza, grazie al progetto dell'ingegnere Enrico Salvais. Assurge a grande floridezza nel secolo VII a. Nel III sec. E nota per i valori archeologici che aiutano gli studiosi a capire la storia e l'origine misteriosa del popolo etrusco. Venne subito reclamata dal granduca di Toscana Cosimo I de' percorso dall'Arno nel tratto che scorre fra Arezzo eFirenze; Tramite l'agevole Medici per la sua collezione, il quale la espose pubblicamente presso il Palazzo valico del Torrino e la valle del Cerfone e il passo della Scheggia, si ha accesso a Vecchio, nella sala di Leone X.

Venne poi trasferita presso il suo studiolo di Palazzo Pitti, in cui, come riportato da Benvenuto Cellini nella sua autobiografia, "il duca Nord-Est alla quarta vallata, la Valtiberina, percorsa dal primo tratto del Tevere. Voluta dal vescovo Guglielmo degli Ubertini per custodire le spoglie del santo, i lavori di costruzione iniziarono verso il e durarono fino agli inizi del Cinquecento.

I tre portali ad arco acuto, separati da una coppia di lesene, sono sormontati da un rosone e un coronamento di archetti pensili. Nella lunetta si. Di fronte al Palazzo delle Logge, nella parte bassa della piazza, si trovano una serie di edifici antichi in pietra tra cui la merlata Torre Faggiolana del XIII secolo, il Palazzo Cofani-Brizzolari e la casa-torre dei Lappoli.

Bellissimo anche il palazzo della Confraternita dei laici, costruito in stile gotico nel piano inferiore e rinascimentale in quello superiore, che oggi ospita gli uffici della Procura della Repubblica e del Tribunale. Risale a questo periodo un foro boario destinato al mercato degli animali come, ad esempio, i bovini di razza chianina.

Il Museo orafo Uno A Erre, ricostruisce questa gloriosa storia artigianale ed industriale. Arezzo a tutt'oggi un artigianato ed un commercio della ceramica, in particolare quella artistica. Il territorio della provincia di Pistoia si estende per ,98 kmq nella parte centro-settentrionale della regione e confina con le province di Prato, Firenze e Lucca e a nord con l'Emilia Romagna. Pistoia riserva al turista un piccolo centro storico raccolto intorno a una armoniosa piazza medievale.

Nella piazza, di fronte al Duomo, si trova il battistero ottagonale, completato nel su progetto di Andrea Pisano. La sua attuale conformazione risale al , in seguito all'aggiunta di un piano superiore e la restaurazione del cortile interno. Il portico fu realizzato da Michelozzo. Poco distante, nel Palazzo Tau, si trovano opere dello scultore pistoiese Marino Marini Ha ospitato per 5 volte , , , , gare di Coppa del Mondo femminile di sci alpino. Attualmente sulle piste toscane si svolgono abitualmente gare di Coppa Europa, Carving Cup, ed il celebre trofeo "Pinocchio sugli Sci", campionato internazionale per ragazzi a cui prendono parte delegazioni provenienti da tutto il mondo.

Qui sorge Villa Garzoni, costruita nello stile tipico lucchese su una collina adiacente al paese.

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Ospita circa animali fra mammiferi, rettili, uccelli, anfibi e invertebrati, tra cui lemuri del Madagascar, leoni,tigri, lupi, elefanti indiani, giraffe, e orsi bruni. La frazione conserva un'antica rocca e l'aristocratica Villa Garzoni con ampio giardino, e fonda la propria economia sul turismo anche grazie al parco dedicato a Pinocchio. I rioni: Grifone colori bianco e rosso ; Cervo Bianco verde e bianco ; Leon d'Oro giallo e rosso e Drago verde e rosso.

Oggi Pistoia vanta circa duemila aziende che coltivano piante da esterni per la grande distribuzione, per il verde pubblico, per giardini privati, per il paesaggio e per altri fini ornamentali. Come primi piatti: la zuppa di pane alla pistoiese, la zuppa di pane della montagna pistoiese, il carcerato, la farinata con le leghe ed i maccheroni all'anatra piatto tipico della festa del patrono San Jacopo. Come contorni infine: i fagioli di sorana al fiasco, i fagiolini serpenti in umido, i funghi trifolati.

I dolci tipici sono, invece, il berlingozzo, i cenci tipici del periodo carnevalesco , oltre ai necci e al castagnaccio tipici della collina pistoiese fatti dalla farina neccia o farina dolce tratta dalla frantumazione delle castagne, i confetti di Pistoia confetti a forma di riccio , i brigidini. L'attuale territorio della provincia deriva dall'omonimo compartimento del Granducato di Toscana, denominato Compartimento di Siena.

Siena si trova nella Toscana centrale al centro di un vasto paesaggio collinare, tra le valli dei fiumi Arbia a sud, Merse a sud-ovest ed Elsa a nord, tra le colline del Chianti a nord-est, la Montagnola ad ovest e le Crete senesi a sudest. Se i progetti del XIV caratteristica, dal colore rosato donato le dalla pavimentazione in mattoni. Tra che quasi la incornicia e da una serie di splendidi palazzi. Il fianco destro, IL del profilo cittadino. Fu completato nel e aveva il compito di suonare il coprifuoco notturnoe raggiunge un'altezza di 77 metri.

Le prime testimonianze da parte del Rosso Padellaio. I fantini, che cavalcano fosse costruita la lanternaattuale, per un'altezza globale di 48 metri. Contiene una serie di affreschi duecenteschi e vengono benedetti nelle chiese della contrada. Migliaia di spettatori si riversano nella piazza per vedere la corsa e la nella storia dell'arte. Il vincitore riceve in premio il palio stendardo in esista un'altra cripta della cattedrale, quella originaria, sotto la cupola, in locali seta. Le feste e le polemiche si protraggono per le settimane seguenti.

Diverse piante sono nome di Pio II. Una seconda sezione. Le origini del giardino risalgono all'inizio del secolo XVII, quando l'Orto dei Semplici dell'ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala era usato per la coltivazione di piante medicinali. Nel , il giardino fu spostato nella sua attuale location. La facciata ha subito un importante restauro e ha mantenuto dal Quattrocento solo il rosone, opera di Francesco di Giorgio Martini.

Gli stemmi in marmo sulla facciata rappresentano le famiglie di Siena che hanno dato un contributo al restauro della chiesa, avvenuto alla fine del XIX secolo. Dal al gli ebrei di Siena dovettero risiedere nel ghetto alle spalle di Piazza del Campo. Nel quartiere; ancor'oggi riconoscibile nonostante gli sventramenti del ; sorge la sinagoga neoclassica. La Sinagoga di Siena, progettata nel sul sito dove sorgevano i precedenti luoghi di preghiera, si trova in vicolo delle Scotte.

L'architettura gotica si manifesta qui nelle forme di un'architettura scarna e severa, interamente in mattoni. All'interno, nella Cappella delle Volte, fu collocato nel l'affresco di Andrea Vanni, unica opera rimasta, raffigurante la Santa, che possa ritenersi un suo ritratto. E' anche patrona delle contrade dell'Oca nel cui territorio si trova la sua Casa e del Drago nel cui.

I pannelli della fontana, creati da Jacopo della Quercia tra il ed il , sono ritenuti un sorrile esempio della scutura italiana di quel periodo. Gli originali possono essere ammirati nella loggia del Palazzo Comunale. Ogni artista ha visitato il bosco ed ha quindi fatto una proposta specifica per il luogo scelto. E non dimenticate di accompagnare questi eccellenti piatti con del buon vino toscano. STEMMA DELLA PROVINCIA DI PRATO - Di verde, al cavaliere miniato nel codice Regia Carmina di Convenevole da Prato, con il viso di carnagione, armato di tutto punto, di azzurro l'elmo cimato dal giglio d'oro, munito di spada d'argento guarnita d'oro, i fianchi ornati dalla sopravveste di rosso, seminata di gigli d'oro, tenente con la mano destra non visibile l'asta di rosso, con il ferro a punta di nero, posta in sbarra, munita del gagliardetto bifido, di rosso, seminato di gigli d'oro, con la mano sinistra non visibile lo scudo di Prato, il cavaliere cavalcante il cavallo d'argento, con gli zoccoli di nero, con gli arti anteriori sollevati, con la testa di fronte, interamente gualdrappato con grande gualdrappa di rosso, seminata di gigli d'oro, con il morso d'oro unito ad una catenella dello stesso; il tutto accompagnato da sette bisanti d'oro, quattro posti sotto il gagliardetto, due e due, tre posti in punta a destra, ordinati in fascia.

PRATO - Testimonianze archeologiche fanno supporre l'esistenza nei pressi dell'attuale centro, di un insediamento etrusco-romano. Stefano attuale Duomo. Vi ebbe origine la famiglia degli Alberti, potente casato che estendeva i suoi possedimenti dall'Appennino bolognese alla Valdinievole e dalla Valdelsa alla Maremma. Risale molto probabilmente al VI secolo. Un altro evento astronomico si verifica invece il 15 luglio alle ore che corrispondono alle ore dell'orario solare pratese. In questo caso, un raggio solare che penetra sempre attraverso la lanterna della cupola va ad illuminare un disco collocato sopra l'altare maggiore della basilica in ricordo dell'apparizione miracolosa della Vergine risalente al 6 luglio del calendario giuliano.

Sul lato sud prospetta l'ottocentesco Palazzo Vestri, davanti al quale si erge la statua di Giuseppe Mazzoni, uomo politico pratese, realizzata da Alessandro Lazzerini, al lato del Duomo il Palazzo vescovile e di fronte Palazzo Dragoni ristrutturato nell'Ottocento. Al centro della piazza l'ottocentesca fontana del Pescatorello soprannominata "fontana del Papero" scolpita da Emanuele Caroni e Ulisse Cambi. La giovinezza e l'aspetto euforico del Bacco dovevano rispecchiare il rinnovamento cittadino. Oggi la scultura originale e la prima vasca si trovano al coperto nell'atrio del vicino Palazzo Comunale, mentre all'aperto sono state collocate delle copie novecentesche.

Notevole, in una cappellina, il raffinato rilievo marmoreo quattrocentesco con la Madonna e il Bambino, di Matteo Civitali. Viene considerata un capolavoro architettonico del primo Rinascimento, tappa cruciale della riflessione sugli edifici a croce greca. Secondo la tradizione, il 6 luglio un bambino, Iacopino Belcari detto della Povera, vide animarsi l'immagine di una Madonna col Bambino, dipinta sulla parete delle carceri pubbliche di Prato dette "delle Stinche", come a Firenze.

In seguito ad altri simili eventi ed alla crescente devozione popolare, fu deciso di realizzare in quel luogo una basilica. Nella basilica di Santa Maria delle Carceri avvengono due distinti eventi astronomici. La sua collocazione geografica perfetta sarebbe stata nell'Italia del Sud accanto a capolavori di architettura fortificata come Castel Del Monte o Lagopesole.

La costruzione fu iniziata nel per volere dell'Imperatore Federico II di Svevia, nell'ambito di un progetto finalizzato a porre sotto controllo militare le principali vie di comunicazioni che dal sud del paese portavano in Germania, in particolare la strada che dal passo di Montepiano portava attraverso la valle. I diversi materiali da costruzione usati nei distinti edifici ci permettono ancora oggi di distinguere le sagome delle torri primitive. Sul colle di fronte si trova la Villa di Artiminio, progettata da Buontalenti per il granduca Ferdinando I. Conosciuta anche come "la villa dei cento camini", ospita il Museo archeologico etrusco, ricco di reperti.

Per quanto riguarda l'artigianato, sono ancora attive e diffuse le lavorazioni del marmo e dell'onice finalizzate alla produzione di oggetti per l'arredamento. In questo documento i biscotti vengono detti alla genovese. Nel XIX secolo Antonio Mattei, pasticciere di Prato, ne mise a punto una ricetta divenuta poi classica, con la quale ricevette numerosi premi a fiere campionarie in Italia e all'estero, tra cui una menzione speciale all'esposizione universale di Parigi del Bagnata ad ovest dal mar Tirreno, include anche le isole meridionali dell'Arcipelago Toscano: l'Isola del Giglio, quella di Giannutri e isolotti minori non abitati, tra cui le Formiche di Grosseto e la Formica di Burano.

Paralleli alla costa, cadono in mare a scogliera. Sulla vetta si levano la Torre dell'Uccellina m. Il Duomo sorge in piazza Dante, la principale piazza cittadina. Nel fu innalzato il campanile, restaurato e modificato nel Le mura sono imponenti, larghe al loro interno contengono lunghe gallerie percorribili anche con i carri e ben conservate. Roselle era situata a 10 km da Grosseto, nel punto di passaggio tra la valle dell'Ombrone e la Maremma grossetana, sulla riva dell'antico lago Prile, ed era un'antica lucumonie dell'Etruria centrale, membro della Dodecapoli etrusca.

Il bastione Maiano fu il primo bastione delle mura di Grosseto ad essere costruito. Durante il dominio degli spagnoli sec. Porto S. Notevole ed importante centro peschereccio intensamente legato al turismo sia come punto di imbarco verso le isole del Giglio e di Giannutri, sia per la bella spiaggia. Filippo, costruiti dallo spagnolo Filippo IV. Centro peschereccio e balneare di notevole importanza.

Giglio offre agli appassionati del mare bellissime spiagge e una costa estremamente varia con delle calette isolate di rara bellezza. Le sue limpidissime acque sono un affascinante mondo subacqueo per gli amanti delle immersioni. Protagonista di grandi momenti di splendore legati prima al clero quando decise di trasferire la sede Vescovile da Populonia sec. Successivamente, a partire dal a. Si narrava che il diavolo uscisse da qui quando lasciava gli inferi.

Il territorio veniva descritto come un luogo in cui sgorgavano acque stregate, che andavano a depositarsi in pozze fumanti e bollenti, diffondendo nell'aria un acuto odore satanico. Le cronache del tempo ricordano convegni di maghi e di streghe, sortilegi e riti sabbatici. Sempre nel medioevo le terme di Saturnia vennero citate da Papa Clemente III che in una bolla del cita "hospitale de balneo" e "un locale di soggiorno per coloro che si recavano ai bagni caldi sulfurei di Saturnia".

Oggi le Terme di Saturnia sono conosciute in tutto il mondo, tuttavia ebbero una prima struttura organizzativa soltanto nel , quando il Dott. Bernardino Ciacci provvide a bonificare il Continua a pagina Subito dopo aver attraversato il largo piano dei Mucini, si sale il colle e si entra nella cittadina, che conserva tuttora un interessante patrimonio monumentale del periodo medioevale, costituito dal nucleo storico-artistico di Piazza Garibaldi. La caratteristica palazzo aldobrandeschi Continua a pagina Duomo di Barga.

Di grande bellezza Palazzo Pretorio e le sue ceramiche robbiane. Dal porto, in autobus potrete arrivare nel borgo medievale di Giglio Castello, arroccato su una collina a metri sul livello del mare. Qui si produce uno dei migliori vini della Toscana, e del mondo: il Brunello di Montalcino. Dopo una passeggiata per il centro e una visita al Museo Civico per la Preistoria del Monte Cetona, spingetevi nei campi vicini, per ammirare la bellezza, bucolica, della campagna senese. Michele, costruita nel Mille a ridosso della fortezza e della torre, trasformata poi in campanile".

Immancabili i camminamenti sulle mura e la vista su Chianti e Valdelsa. Nel periodo medievale, le torri, che rappresentavano il potere e la ricchezza delle famiglie nobili, erano ben It is the home of Buitoni pasta, founded by Giulia Buitoni in Salendo la strada statale 74 Maremmana, vi troverete di fronte le caratteristiche casette a strapiombo ed affacciate su uno sperone di tufo. Cecilia therefore lived for some years in the house of lay protectors, continuing to manifest the signs of her vocation, accompanied by ecstasies and visions. Her confessor, the Carmelite father Bonaventura Pinzoni, was convinced that Cecilia was destined for a future of holiness, while the patriarchal vicar Giorgio Polacco was rather of the opinion that she was possessed by the devil.

Finally Cecilia found hospitality at the Carmelite house of Santa Teresa founded by her sister Maria. Towards the end of , however, Cecilia was reported and in June arrested by order of the inquisitor Agapito Ugoni. Subjected to trial under the accusation of fiction of sanctity, on the 1 st of September she was sentenced to seven years in prison. In the sentence was commuted to the forced residence in Padua, guarantor cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo, and in January she regained full freedom especially thanks to the pressure of her protectors and an intervention by the doge of Venice Domenico Contarini on the Congregation of the Holy Office.

She lived in relative tranquillity the last years of her life, dying in Venice on January 17, Chiara was born from Damiano and Iacopa in Montefalco, a small Umbrian town that dominates the Spoleto valley. Chiara had a sister and a big brother, Giovanna and Francesco. Giovanna founded, with the financial help of her father, the home for women of San Leonardo, of which she became the first director; women retired there, living in cloister and praying, inspired by the rule still not fully recognized at the time of Francis of Assisi. The community grew, Giovanna and the women of the cloister moved to the hill of Santa Caterina del Bottaccio, not far from Montefalco, in an incomplete building.

But the new settlement, which implied the construction of a real monastery, was not welcomed peacefully in the city. In Giovanna asked the bishop of Spoleto to facilitate the institutionalization of the community, in which the rule of St. Augustine would be introduced, which, unlike the Franciscan one, was fully recognized.

With the new monasteries of the Holy Cross and of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, the intentions of these religious women merged: that of the eremitical vocation, represented by the experience of the reclusive, with the other of the monastic rule. Giovanna became Abbess, remaining the settlement under the direct jurisdiction of the bishop.

Chiara grew following the fate of this place; only on the occasion of the great famine of , together with another companion, she left the cloister to live by begging, but after eight times she was prevented from continuing; from this moment, until her death, she remained isolated in seclusion.

She belonged to a very wealthy family in Rimini, but was deprived at the tender age of the guidance of her mother and, later, of her husband. She soon fell prey to the dangers to which her youth and beauty exposed her and began to lead a life of sinful dissipation. The father and brother died the same day during the war against the Malatesta, so that all the richness of the Agolanti family were concentrated in the hands of the young widow. Chiara obeyed the command, not knowing where it came from, and then began to reflect on her life. She made the decision to enter the Third Order of Saint Francis, in order to atone for his sins with a life of penance.

Soon she became a model of every virtue, but above all of charity towards the poor and the afflicted. Later, Chiara entered the order of the Poor Clares, together with several other pious women; she obtained the blessing of the bishop of Rimini Guido Abasio and became superior of the convent of Our Lady of the Angels in Rimini. She would have performed many miracles and towards the end of her life the Lord would have given her the gift of very high spiritual graces.

Source: Wikipedia Once again we find in Chiara a female figure whose collocation could be that of a beguine, at least before her monastic profession. Christina Ebner is not actually a beguine. However, we report her biography to show the passages between the Beguinal and the monastic world.

Christina was born in the imperial city of Nuremberg, daughter of the patrician Seyfried Ebner and his wife, Elizabeth Kuhdorf. In , at the age of twelve, she entered the monastery of St. John the Baptist in Engelthal, a community of nuns of the second Dominican order outside the city. Founded as a beguinage some fifty years earlier, in the following one hundred years this monastery was to become a very well-known centre of spirituality and learning. According to some, it may have been the first centre of mystical life at the beginning of the fourteenth century in Germany, if not in all of Europe.

Less than a year after her admission, Christina becomes seriously ill. This affliction would reappear up to three times a year for the next decade.

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Moreover, afterwards, she often suffered from various diseases. She had strong ascetic behaviours, e. So she began to write her first book, Leben und Offenbarungen Life and revelations in She continued living there at least until Around , Christina began to compile the Book of Sisters Schwesternbuch , a register of mystical visions and life experiences of other nuns in her monastery, called Von der genaden uberlast Of the weight of grace. It can be attributed to Christina Ebner, based on a manuscript of Between and , Christina wrote a second book of Revelations Offenbarungen.

In it, she deals with historical and political events of the time such as the revolts of Nuremberg in ; the earthquake of the same year; the outbreak of the black plague; the procession of the Flagellants of ; and the long quarrel between the Holy Roman Empire Louis IV and the Holy See. Christina is not limited to the role of a spectator. Instead, she is deeply interested in events, develops her own opinions about them and also actively tries to influence their course.

At that time, her reputation had spread widely across Northern Europe. In , the same emperor Charles IV came to visit her in the monastery, looking for her guide and her prayers. Christina dies in her monastery in Engelthal on December 27, in her 67th year of monastic life. John Taulerio, a disciple of Eckhart, was her great friend. Source: Wikipedia. Source: Walter Simons. Initiated by the family to become a shepherdess or a herdsman, Christina knows her first mystical experiences while grazing.

Jesus was constantly near her. Her behavior and abilities, beyond human understanding, arouse repugnance and admiration. He lives for 9 years in Borgloon with the anchorite Jutta. We know that in in Borgloon, near the hospital of Gratem, just outside the city walls, there was a Beguinal presence in the hospital service Simon, p. Christina usually begs door-to-door not for herself, but to support the sins of those who give her food.

If she ate food that had been procured illegally, she became ill. Her body to which she had inflicted the worst trials, towards the end of her life is totally submissive to her. Her experience resembles that of a fakir resistance to fire, boiling water, cold, crushing weight , but also to shamanism for her ability to transform the body bird, ball, snake-woman and self-healing in the moments of greater difficulty milk of her breast, oil produced by the body ….

She had the damned souls at heart. Having visited hell and purgatory during an apparent death, she had made the salvation of these souls the meaning of his atonement. She is founded on the scaffold of the hanged man and among the graves of cemeteries. According to her jubilation or her loud cries of anguish, the inhabitants can know the supernatural destination of the dying person. During her ecstasies, a sound that rose from her throat and from her chest causes chills to her listeners. During her first burial, she gets up and flies towards the ceiling of the church.

Fear makes all those present escape. She returns to her body after choosing, like a Buddhist bodhisattva, not to leave the earth to atone for the souls in purgatory and thus save them. Later, with her ethereal body, she lives among the trees. She died in and was buried in the Benedictine monastery where she had been ill for three weeks. Her remains are currently in the sanctuary of the Stennaert Redemptorists. The Orientalist Louis Massignon was very impressed by this woman, whose cult was approved by Pius IX in The figure by Christina hits Massignon at various levels, personal and spiritual.

But his work offers a rather caricatural and eager for unnecessary exaggeration, which however remains the only source after the fourteenth century. Over the centuries this text has been revisited and commented. The father was a prosperous farmer who worried that his daughter would receive an education; though Christine could not write, she could still read the psaltery. In the brief account of her youth, written by her parish priest, Johannes, under his dictation, Christine states that the Virgin Mary in person at the age of nine appeared to her and taught her the sequence to the Holy Spirit.

Moreover, in , at the age of 5 he had a vision of the infant Jesus. At 12 or 13 years he escapes a marriage arranged by his father and, wanting to participate in a more religious life, she becomes part of the Cologne beguinage. At the age of 15 she receives the stigmata at the hands and feet and the signs of the crown of thorns on her head. She was tempted several times by the devil, even on the brink of suicide. For example, Christine continually lost blood from her mouth and nostrils, the demon scourged her with thorn whips, flooded her with the bed of fleas, forced her to silence for 15 days, and for another 14 deprived her of sleep covering her with pustules every once he tried to fall asleep, he beat her with red-hot hammers, humiliated her by covering her with excrement materialized from nothing.

The outward signs of these experiences led her sisters to believe that she was crazy and therefore a few years later they took her away. Christine had to leave the community, which satisfied her so much, because of an illness that had struck her, but above all because she was misunderstood by the others who did not understand her eccentricity.

Christine had ecstasies and apparitions and in she received the stigmata on her hands and feet, which became visible at certain times of the year; she was tried throughout her life by many sufferings, which she endured by always looking at the value of the Cross. Recognized as blessed, her cult was approved by Saint Pius X Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, pope from to and is remembered on November 6 the day of his death in the Roman martyrology, in Lotaringia.

Lucetta Scaraffia, La santa degli impossibili. In she join the St. Clare congregation that she felt called to reform. His work, not without obstacles, led to the birth of 17 monasteries. She died in in Ghent. Source: Walter Simons, p. She is married to a rich, pious man, but of bad character, with whom she will give birth to nine children. Having become a widow, she transfers herself to Marienwerder and there she will be guided, until the end of her life, by her spiritual director, and then biographer, the famous Jean de Marienwerder.

He will assemble her spiritual communications in three Vita in Latin and one in German, Leben. We also have from her a work in Latin, Septilium , in which are exposed seven grace she has received and the 36 degrees of love summed up in three progressive stages: fervent ardens, magnificus, excellenter magnificus, also expressed by three adjectives: strong, stable, insurmountable.

And again the Liber de festis , a collection of her visions, according to the liturgical periods. This work is partly unpublished. Native of Digne South of France , she was born in a pious bourgeois family, then grew up in Barjois. She makes the decision to become a beguine by returning from a stay at the convent of thr Poor Clares of Digne. In the s, Douceline de Digne, sister of the Franciscan Hugues de Digne, founded two beguinages in Provence that espoused charitable works, collectively known as the House of Roubaud.

Douceline believed that the role of founder and spiritual mother of lay religious women included a commitment to the ideals of active charity and absolute poverty. Sources: www.

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Mother at 15 years old, at 20 she is already a widow with three children. After the death of her husband in , because of the plague, she refuses to remarry and she retires subsequently in two castles, but in the end she chooses a modest home in Marburg Germany where, in , she built a hospital that she maintains with her resources — which impoverished her totally- where she dedicates herself entirely to the care of the poor and the lepers. She accepts the poverty that came and works the wool or even begs alms to help others.

Her choice of poverty unleashes the fury of her brothers-in-law who even manage to deprive her of her children. She integrates herself into the Third Franciscan Order, thus dedicating herself to the most destitute, by visiting ill people twice a day and by assuming the most humble tasks. One does not speak of her as a beguine, but we can assume that before she joined the Third Order she had these characteristics.


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She was famous for the splendour of her miracles and her charitable works spread throughout the centuries. Her worship will be fixed on the day of her death. She is often chosen as patroness of beguinages, as for example by that of Antwerpen Antwerp-Belgium. The Vita of Elisabeth exists in only one manuscript: Bodleian Library, Douce , a fifteenth-century manuscript written in Middle English. Elisabeth was perhaps born in a noble family, and despite being a beguine, she did not live in a beguinage, but at home in the rural Spalbeek Belgium with her mother and sister Simons, p.

Jesse Njus, in his thesis mentioned below, argue that she provides an exceptional example of the spiritual networking described by scholars such as John Coakley and Anneke Mulder-Bakker. In addition, major documents concerning Elisabeth have, until now, escaped any collective analysis. That has led this scholar to reinterpret her role in the last recorded event of her life, the French court battle between Queen Marie of Brabant and the chamberlain Pierre de la Broce. Elizabeth de BERG 13th After the death of her husband between , she became beguine at Tongeren and she even offered help to married woman.

She had no children of her own. Wealthy, with many properties, Elisabeth owned a house at St. We know little about her life. Julienne de Cornillon, fifteen years older than Eva, had indeed encouraged her in her vocation and had promised to see her at least once a year. It is probably under the impetus of these two mystics that the first Corpus Christi Feast is celebrated in by Robert de Thourotte, the new bishop of Liege. After the death of the latter in , Julienne is faced with strong opposition from the local bourgeois, clergy and the new Prince-Bishop Henri de Gueldre, to the point that she was forced to exile, where she died in The latter sends her a missive on September 8, to inform her of the institution of the Corpus Christi Feast by the papal Bull Transiturus of hoc mundo , promulgated on August 11, Eve de Liege was declared blessed by the Catholic Church, the May 1, She was born in and baptized with the name of Francesca, but in the house and in the circle of friends they call her Franceschella or Ceccolella.

She is a wise and precocious child, devoted to the point of building a small hermitage at home, as a place for her personal encounter with God. This natural inclination undergoes a sharp backlash at the age of 12, when she can not escape the custom of the time and is promised to be married to Lorenzo de Ponziani, of a well-to-do family, who trades in cattle and grains.

The unwanted marriage unleashes in her a violent nervous reaction, of a clear psychosomatic nature, to heal which her parents would like to resort to the magical arts, which Franceschella refuses decisively. The right therapy comes through a celestial vision, which gives back serenity to inner peace to face marriage. In the new house she finds help and support in her sister-in-law Vannozza, devout and sensitive, of great charity, together with whom, little by little, she transforms the rich house in Trastevere into a reference point for the many in need of the city.

With simplicity, Francesca accepts her married life: the love of the groom, his noble titles, his wealth, the three children born of their union. Rome, plundered and humiliated, finds in this woman a model of faith and a guide. Rome considers her as a saint, the whole city rushes to venerate her body and her fame defies time: in Francesca Romana is officially enrolled in the register of saints and still today young couples for the celebration of marriage prefer the church of Santa Maria Nova at the Fori Imperiali, where her mortal remains are venerated.

Here are some other biographical elements taken up by Mario Sensi: As widow, she served in Roman hospitals and specialized in treating the sick, using ointments. At the beginning it was a secular devotional confraternity. Gertrude van der Oosten or Gertrude of Delft is a Dutch beguine who probably received the stigmata and is considered a mystic. She was born in Voorburcht, from peasant parents, and then entered domestic service in Delft.

Here, she makes use of the ample opportunities for contemplation accorded by life in this community. She had a great devotion to the mysteries of the Incarnation, especially to the Passion of Christ. It is believed that she received the stigmata. She implored God that this grace could be withdrawn, and her prayer was heard to the extent that the blood ceased to flow, but the signs of the stigmata remained. She also showed the gift of prophecy. Gertrude dies on the day of the feast of the Epiphany on 6 January and is buried in the church of Saint Hippolyt in Delft, since the beguinage did not have its own church and cemetery.

Her name has never been inscribed in the Roman Catholic Martyrology, although it has been commemorated in various others. Her cult is purely local. The Brabantine language of her writings places her in the Duchy of Brabant, in Antwerp according to a late tradition or perhaps in Brussels. Only her work remains: 31 letters in prose and 16 in rimes, 45 songs and 14 visions. In Dutch literature Hadewijch plays a fundamental role since she is one of the first authors to make prose and mysticism, an exception in this literature.

Women-mystic-prose: it has been emphasized that this link is not a coincidence. Hadewijch spoke of God not in Latin but in vulgar Dutch. By a creative and daring operation the language of mysticism came out of the world of clergy and was reformulated into vulgar. Grundmann has shown that the birth of spiritual literature in the vernacular is directly related to the extension of this feminine movement. From her writings it emerges that Hadewijch was a guide of a group of friends whom she exhorted to live radically for the Minne , the noble Love, the only theme of her life, metaphor of the relationship between lovers, therefore also between a woman and God.

The community was based on its own statutes. They practiced the profession of guilt and blood scourging. Another mortification practiced by them was the use of lying down on the threshold when they left the house, to allow themselves to be trampled on by each other. Due to their closeness to the Free Spirit movement they were tried in Ita ipsa est deus cum Deo; et sicut Christus numquam separatus est a Deo. Sic nec ipsa How God is god. Testi e documenti , Edizioni di storia e letteratura, Roma, , pp e Her parents are Giselbert and Ida.

She is raised by the beguines of Borgloon and at the age of 13 joint the Cistercian monastery of Rameige Dutch: Rameien , today Klein-Geten. Ida is a mystic who developed a great devotion to the Eucharist. She has accurately described her spiritual development. One of her sisters was Ida of Nivelles. Ida thought that her name stimulated a devout life. She dies around The feast of Ida van Leeuw is October 29th.

In the past it was mistakenly thought that this Ida would come from Zoutleeuw, where there was also a beguinage. An anonymous Cistercian wrote her Vita Life. She was born in Nivelles now in Belgium in At the age of 9 years, to escape a forced marriage, s he fled in a small community of beguines in Nivelles , where she remained until the age of Ida took upon herself the responsibility of begging for her companions and with them she devoted herself to the care of the sick.

Sometimes, in , she went to the Cistercian community of Kerkom, near Tienen Tienen which a year later will transfer to La Ramee. A year later, Ida did her monastic profession and shortly thereafter came Beatrice from Nazareth. Ida was a gifted mystic and her Vita , most probably written by a certain Goswin de Villers, offers many examples of her mystical experiences. One also talks about it in the following works: A. Arnould et P. Thomas Mols, Bierges, , p She held a school for the poor of the parish from , which earned her troubles with her superiors and the schoolmaster of the parish.

Ivana Ceresa was born in in the province of Mantua Italy , where she will then live until her death in Since her high school, she wanted to be a theologian, but she must wait after the Second Vatican Council to access the theological faculty, inaccessible to women until the s. She became then a literary teacher and only later a theologian. In the introduction to the Rule of Order of Sorority, Ivana refers to the beguines of the North and how they expressed strong female freedom with their autonomy and independence towards ecclesiastical and secular control.

Born into a wealthy family, she was promised to marriage at the age of She did not want to get married, but she consented to it because the pressure from family and friends. In , at age 23, after 5 years of marriage, after the death of her husband, she distributes her goods and leaves the house and her three sons to serve in a leprosarium in Huy , then known as the hospital for the very sick. She stays there for 10 years with a small community of men and women following her. Then, in , she decides to be immured by the Abbot of Orval in a cell near the leprosarium. The Premonstratensian Hugo de Floreffe wrote her Vita.

She was in touch with Julienne de Cornillon. Lemmens, p. She called herself a beguine. This house was opened next to the Premonstratensian abbey. Julienne will be part of a community of beguines caring for lepers in the leprosarium of Mount Cornillon. This leprosarium has four parts, two of which are for healthy brothers and sisters caring for the sick in the other two parts. The double intervention, municipal and ecclesiastical, on this institution will provoke conflicts and tension especially when Julienne will exercise the functions of prioress.

This period is very hard for her who would have humbly wanted to stay on the farm of the community, to meditate the Scriptures in French and Latin, to turn to the books of St. Augustine and St. The conflict reaches the point that she must even go away with two other companions in a Cistercian monastery at Fosses, near Namur, where she will live as a recluse until her death in Following a vision, she promotes the feast of the Corpus Christi. She involves in this project Isabelle de Huy, beguine of a great reputation for holiness, and Eve of Saint Martin.

There is a first mention of it in , on the occasion of the first celebration of this feast in Liege by the new bishop Robert de Thourotte. The first texts of the celebration had originally been dictated by Julienne herself, but the task was then entrusted to the more famous Thomas Aquinas. The symposium organized in Breda in on the occasion of the th anniversary of the Bull by the Guilde of the Holy Sacreemnt of Niervaert has revealed an important information. She lives as a recluse in a cell adjacent to St. This text is a meditation halfway between a spiritual autobiography and a theological treatise.

It took to her 20 years to write, rewrite and refine it, without even mentioning her own name, in the concern that the revelations are only for the benefit of all brothers and sisters in the faith. Studium, Roma, , p. At the centre of her message is the mercy of God, from which the optimism that emerges from its spiritual edifice: All shall be well Ch 27 is the message that seems to characterize it at best and that is so often recalled in the book of Revelations.

According to her, we are creatures that need to be reassured by the maternity of God that does not deprive us of the milk of supernatural life. The realization of the motherhood of God entrusted to the Son, the second figure of the Trinity, is one of her most original affirmations in harmony with some contemporary theological currents.

But this should not be understood as a claim of maternity against paternity, rather a more rich and balanced vision of God. The discovery of a God so familiar opens us to confidence and joy, feelings of which her book overflows. A great mistress of discernment, balanced and lucid, she combines affective piety with a robust theological basis.

We will also find in her a genial woman and, taking up the beautiful image of P. Renaudin, a smiling face that gives the world her inner joy. Warned by the other beguines, the judicial officer of Bruges prosecuted the three men, proving that the matter was taken seriously into account. Kateline could then return to the beguinage. Simons, p. Source: Simons, p. With this enigmatic incipit, it opens a text of the fourteenth century, written in medium-high German, included by Franz Pfeiffer in the volume dedicated to Master Eckhart.

But who is sister Katrei? Marco Vannini, editor of the Italian edition, assumes that most likely Katrei was a beguine , very inspired by the thought of Eckhart. Even such a humble girl, she eventually surpassed the Master for the radicality of her conclusions. Katrei is considered a beguine because she could operate her choices freely, move her residence and be independent of any authority. The name sister perhaps intervenes to indicate her belonging to the Free Spirit movement, with which Eckhart also had contacts.

For this he was accused of heresy and called to a trial, but he died during the journey to go and justify himself to the pope. At that time there were 85 houses of beguines in Strasbourg and in Cologne. These places were well known and frequented by Master Eckhart, especially during his position as Vicar General of the Order from in Strasbourg, but also in Cologne where he tought in the Dominican Studium perhaps starting from In her profound spiritual experience, collected in the above mentioned manuscript, Katrei arrives at the conclusion of being able to achieve a stable condition of grace bewerung in German , of permanent union with God.

Not the God gotten determined in the ways of the various religions, but the unnamed Deity gotheit , bottomless bottom, which no one can not appropriate. The first church is occupied by Lutherans for 5 years. In this period some beguines organize a clandestine Catholic cult. The beghina Linke reads old sermons she copied; she is expelled from the city after being bodily punished.

She is one of the most venerated Dutch saints. Lydwine was the only female daughter of Peter, a night watchman, and Petronella, who had eight other sons. Disability progressively increases, and in the last years of life she could only use her left hand. In fact, she began to suffer from a debilitating disease from the age of 15, shortly after her fall, and later her motor skills decreased and began to suffer from severe headaches and toothaches. At the age of 19, she was paralyzed on both legs and had vision problems. During the next 34 years, her condition worsened even though there were periods of stability.

According to other authors, she presented the symptoms of anorexia. For her strength of mind, many contemporaries, especially chronic sick people, went to visit her to receive advice and comfort. She died at the age of According to some hagiographies Lydwine would have had the stigmata. After her death, her tomb became a destination for pilgrimages. Thomas of Kempis wrote a biography. Another famous hagiography of the saint was written, in two different versions, by the Franciscan preacher Johannes Brugman between and She is part of the Secular Franciscan Third Order, of which some even attribute an important role in its expansion.

Her story could also be that of a beguine who sought an institutional refuge in the Third Order in harmony with her penitent and poor life choices, considering the then impossibility of having another religious and secular status at the same time. The couple spent much time in a hunting lodge, belonging to the Pecora family, on the hills on the border between Umbria and Tuscany.

In , during a hunt, Arsenio was attacked and assassinated because of the Guelphs and the Ghibellines feuds of the time. She entrusted the care of her son to the minor friars of Arezzo and in she became a Franciscan tertiary, dedicating herself exclusively to prayer and works of charity. Her spirituality pays particular attention to the Passion of Christ, in line with what Francis of Assisi and Angela of Foligno lived. Margherita had many mystical crises and visions. She gave life to a congregation of tertiaries, called Poverelle ; founded a hospital in in the church of San Basilio and formed the Confraternity of Santa Maria della Misericordia, for the ladies who intended to assist the poor and the sick.

Mystical woman, but also of action, courageous, sought for her advice, she was attentive to public life and, in the disputes between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, she was a peacemaker. Her body is preserved in Cortona, in the basilica dedicated to her, in an urn placed above the high altar. Source: wikipedia. Francis of Assisi. Maria will deepen the life of the foundress thanks to her degree thesis in theology Since she is trained in Bach flower therapy and various other therapeutic addresses thanks to which she could help many people.

She died there in Syr in Nivelles and Marquina, an anchorite of Willambroux. Marie was born in Nivelles Belgium in by wealthy parents, who became later disappointed for her indifference towards rich clothes and ornaments. Although she well knows the Cistercian world, she does not want to become a monastic nun. At 14, her parents forced her to marry Jean, also from a wealthy family of Nivelles.

Immediately after marriage, finally out of parental control, she initiates intense ascetic practices of fasting, prayer and charity. After a few months from the marriage, Jean lives a conversion that brings him closer to God. Then, they leave their home in Nivelles and join an informal community of apostolic life not far away, in Willambroux, near a leper colony. They will remain there for 12 or maybe 15 years.

Together with the other members of the community, Marie and Jean nurture and care for lepers, but also for others ill or poor, instruct children, offer religious education and pray together. Too disturbed by these crowds coming from the city and surroundings, in she moved to Oignies near the priory of St Nicolas, living as a recluse in a cell next to the choir of the church. It was a life of fasts and prayers, but also offering spiritual advices. In , she meets Jacques de Vitry, a canon coming from Paris to visit her and eventually become her disciple.

Marie urges him to return to Paris, where he is ordained in , and then to come back to Oignies to serve the lepers and the needy. Marie is also remembered for her preaching, a practice adopted by the beguines , at least before the prohibition of Gregory IX in , and for her gift of prophecy. She is known for her incredible fasts, the last of which lasts for 53 days. At her death at the age of 36 she weighed 33kg. However, contrary to what is sometimes read, she did not receive the stigmata. She died on 23 June , the day when she is commemorated as a Blessed in the Roman Martyrology. The last beguine in the world dies during her sleep on Sunday, April 14, in Kortrijck in the home Sint-Jozef who had welcomed her after she lived in the beguinage of Kortrijck Courtrai from to With her integrating into the community of Mont-Saint-Amand Gent Marcella starts her year-old history as a beguine.

Her life, along with that of other beguines, has been described by Claude Bouckaert, in De Laatste der Begijnen , Uitgeverij Groeninghe, Almost blind she played the piano, the organ, the accordion and had a good sense of humor. In the communal authorities had celebrated her magnificently. Marcella Van Hoecke was going to be years old. Her death marks the end of years of beguinal presence in Gent. From to , she also took the helm of Ter Hoyen Beguinage.

In , Marcella had retired to Avondvrede Nursing Home, where she died. Her funeral is scheduled for May 31 at the beguinage church. This text circulates rapidly among the contemplatives in France. The Mirror is condemned the first time between and by Gui de Colmieu, bishop of Cambrai, it is burned in the public square of Valenciennes and forbidden to read under pain of excommunication.

The next bishop, Philippe de Marigny, made her life even more difficult: he sued her for a second trial and then turned her over to the Inquisition Court. Always hunted by hierarchies, Marguerite is imprisoned for more than a year the time allowed for reflection by the Inquisition.

She does not dodge the conflict and remains consistent until death. She also refuses to receive sacramental absolution for faults that she considers not to have committed. This same Guillaume is the confessor of Philip the Fair, monarch despot who also crushed the Knights Templar. A huge crowd and the highest civil and ecclesiastical authorities attend her martyrdom. The book is conceived as a dialogue between Love and Reason, the latter being always in default. The original text in the Piccard language is lost; the extant text in a vernacular French version of the XV century was used for translations into English, Italian and Latin.

God is Love and Love is God, is it written in the Mirror. Love desires nothing but the effacement, the annihilation of the will of the soul in favour of the divine will. The theme is not original. Luc Richir, supplement to La Vie , March 4, For centuries, we have believed this work lost. It is the historian Romana Guarnieri who finds it in in a fund of the Vatican Library and publishes it for the first time in with her critical comments. Father Paul Verdeyen published in Latin this treatise by taking over the translation made by the Inquisition and the Corpus Christianorum into Flemish.

The accomplishment of my work is always wanting nothing. For as long as I do not want anything, I am alone in him, without me, and all liberated; while wanting something, I am with me, and so I lose my freedom.

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And if I do not want anything, if I have lost all my will, I miss nothing: free is my conduct, and I want nothing from anyone. When I want nothing, and have lost everything out of my will, then I miss nothing; free is my maintenance. The historian Lemmens points out the divergences that exist between specialists on the figure of Marguerite, who, probably a beguines, was nonetheless an atypical beguine.

Was she an isolated, wandering beguine, or did she live in the beguinage of Valenciennes at the Service of St. We know that she worked in Valenciennes, in Lorraine and in the bishopric of Reims and even in Paris. Her book was even introduced to the London Charterhouse by the following of the Queen.

Sometimes considered belonging to the Brothers and Sisters of Free Spirit; it seems however that she was never part of it Lemmens, p. Simone Weil in her Cahiers quotes some extras from the Mirror , without yet knowing who the author was, as for a long time one thought to be a man. He tells that Margherita lived piously with her mother and sisters, under the guidance of a Dominican friar, Zeger of Lille, from the age of 18 until her death in This confessor tried to stop her alms that she did for lepers.

Her visions gained fame in all of Flanders. It is not known, however, if she was part of a beguinal community, attested hoever starting from Simons, p. She belongs to the ecstatic movement. She was born in or in an aristocratic family of Saxony. From the very young age of 12, she received her first mystical experience, which she recounts in her work The flowing Light of the Godhead IV, This event makes her leave the paternal home very young.

To the convent for high lineage girls, she prefers a community of beguines in Magdeburg, where she leads a life dedicated to prayer, penance and her extraordinary encounters with God. For about 30 years she did not speak about her experiences; it was only in , under the advice of her confessor, the Dominican Heinrich von Halle, that she began to write her experiences on scattered leaves, then collected by Heinrich himself.

She could finish it at the end of her life. This work will bring her admirers, but also many opponents, especially among the high ranking clergy including the pope , whom she did not hesitate to criticise. This hostility forces her to leave the community of Magdeburg at the age of 60 to find protection first in her family and then in the Cistercian convent of Hefta, with the abbess Gertrude von Hackerbon.