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Nevertheless, there are still many inconsistencies and irregularities to be observed. Noticeably, across the range of herculana song texts I examined it is the third section of the stanza that seems to offer the greatest structural variety. Variations occur here both between individual herculana texts, and between individual stanzas within the same poem. A closing line can appear in print once, twice or even three times; there might be two closing lines to a stanza yet these will not be identical; or again, there can be three lines to a final section and these will either all be identical, or two will be distinct while one employs repeated material.
For example, the herculana poem that makes up the booklet Bravata alla bulescha, sun quel aiere de Sant'Herculano cosa piacevole, e con altre sette stanze ch'in quelle non erano, e novamente ristampate Venice: Matteo Pagano, 11 appears on the page with the final line of each stanza printed twice Figure 3. This can seem like redundant textual repetition unless one accepts the notion of a musical rendition, as called for in the title-page: sun quel aiere de 'Sant'Herculano' [to the tune of 'Sant'Herculano'].
From the body of stampe that includes references to popular songs, and from various musical scores that actually contain popular contemporary pieces or identifiable quotations , it is evident that neither the boundaries we perceive today between serious and popular culture nor the processes that brought this repertoire into being were fixed in the Cinquecento. Easily memorised tunes were juxtaposed with various poetic texts, becoming part of the modular interplay between literary and musical components, and moving away as is the case with folk-music in many cultures from the notion of a static musical-textual paradigm.
In this popular tradition the same tune could receive radically different interpretations with performers engaging in both textual and musical variation, the better to entertain. Representations of the most successful of these variations found their way into print, allowing consumers to reproduce a favourite textual-musical experience at their own convenience. Several contemporary editions of lute and keyboard compositions included pieces with titles that were similar or identical to text appearing in stampe popolari, whilst editions of vocal polyphony contained works in which composers appropriated popular textual as well as musical material.
Assessing and assembling fragments of a vanished tradition a kind of musico-poetic 'archaeology' helps us to understand more fully the mosaic of performance, production and consumption linked to popular songs such as the herculana in the context of the urban musical culture of sixteenth-century Venice. I found relevant musical evidence of the herculana in three extant sources: two lute pieces, identified as herculane in their titles, and one three-part vocal composition a type of villotta known as a veneziana set to a herculana verse.
The first of the lute pieces is by Domenico Bianchini, and is found in his Venetian anthology Intabolatura de lauto di Bianchini ditto Rossetto di recercari, motetti, madrigali, canzon francese, napolitane, et balli, libro primo , first published by Antonio Gardano. After returning to Switzerland, Wecker published his collection of Italian lute duets in Born similarly out of the contemporary publishing frenzy surrounding popular lute anthologies, Wecker's encounter with Bianchini's score then took the herculana on a geographical voyage far beyond the borders of La Serenissima, a journey that resulted in the publication of the only surviving printed musical version of the song outside Italy and the introduction of what was essentially a parochial Italian cultural product to a wider European audience.
Unfortunately, only the Tenor lower part of the duet for Descant and Tenor lutes entitled Santo Herculano: Padovana has survived, thus depriving us of possibly the more revealing part of the score. Finally, Giulio Bonagiunta's E vorave saver, Colonna mia identified on the title page not as a herculana but as a song composed 'in the Venetian style' was first published in Venice by Girolamo Scotto in an anthology of three-part villotte entitled Il primo libro de canzon napolitane a tre voci, con due alla venetiana di Giulio Bonagiunta da San Genesi, et d'altri auttori, di novo poste in luce As well as pieces by Bonagiunta, the edition contains material by several other musicians, most of whom were living in Venice or Padua at the time.
"Authority" in "Comedia" Editions: Tirso de Molina's "Santa Juana" / Margaret Rich Greer
Bonagiunta, however, was the driving force behind the collating and editing of the material, 17 and it was he who dedicated the original publication to the patrician Gabrielle Ottobono, a man whose patronage he had secured, and in whose salon villotte were likely to have been performed on a regular basis. Given that the reprint did not have a patron, such economy was perhaps a necessary evil. E vorave saver, Colonna mia previously the penultimate item became the final song in this abridged edition, either by default or perhaps because Scotto and Bonagiunta believed it provided a more engaging finale.
Whatever the reason, the change in sequence gave the piece a key position in the index, and doubtless helped to raise its profile. Though the title page specifies that the collection includes two songs alla veneziana by Bonagiunta, the part-books themselves identify pieces by composer rather than by compositional style or genre title. As a result, it is not immediately apparent which of the pieces are veneziane and which are napolitane.
Specific reference to veneziane and napolitane in the title page places these two song-styles firmly in the limelight and invites the consumer to note the distinction between them. While villanesche alla napolitane reworked folkloric material that was polyphonic in origin, veneziane were three-part compositions based in the main on popular monody, 21 and set to texts that, as one might expect, included traces of Venetian rather than Neapolitan dialect.
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Unlike Bianchini and Wecker's lute pieces, E vorave saver, Colonna mia follows a more erudite compositional model that moves beyond the originallively dance song template. Bonagiunta neglected to identify E vorave saver, Colonna mia as a herculana both in the title page and later on in the index, even though the text clearly comprises six herculana stanzas; by withholding this metadata he may have sought to mask the rustic origins of the piece to some extent in the hope of appealing to a more elevated artistic palette. However, Bonagiunta's three-part composition is still indebted to the popular herculana in many ways: in the composition's second section the composer acknowledges his musical source by moving towards a more energetic rhythmic mode, with the steady downbeat and regular, balanced melodic phrases absent in the opening and closing sections that match the poetic couplets of a standard herculana stanza's middle section.
In addition, though he avoids parallel motion between outer voices elsewhere in the piece, in the first bar of the second section Bonagiunta allows the Canto and Basso to move in parallel. Such deliberate 'lapses' into relatively unsophisticated writing at this particular point in the composition help to confirm that the herculana 's second section may have acted as an independent nio a ballo in the oral culture of the time. It is an inescapable fact that relevant hard evidence for the musical influence of the herculana song-text survives only in a few extant compositions.
"?Que He De Hacer?": The Comedia as Casuistry
These, however, still bear crucial witness to the cultural appropriation of an urban performance phenomenon. Their existence, coupled with the variety and frequency of contemporary textual references to the actual singing of the herculana and the amount of otherwise redundant textual repetition in the layout of printed stampe lyrics, allows us to infer that in the Cinquecento mainly in Venice and its terraferma there was an established notion of the herculana as a lively song type that enjoyed extensive instrumental and vocal currency within the context of the region's popular and semi-popular performance traditions.
During the sixteenth century the herculana song type embarked on an intriguing journey that saw it appropriated from rustic monody in the popular dance tradition, rendered into the performance repertoire published in authored stampe popolari , and eventually transformed into salon polyphony and printed instrumental scores.
Accordingly, the label herculana and its variations , while perhaps at first denoting one specific tune and text in the local oral tradition, over time began to represent an expanding body of cultural products. It no longer simply referred to a complete song or a fixed set of lyrics, but rather suggested an array of musical and textual combinations that shared on one level or another characteristic sectional structure, recurring poetic and musical metric patterns, stock melodic and rhythmic gestures, cadential formulas, and most probably stylistic conventions in terms of performance practice.
Please refer to the complete thesis for an in-depth exploration of the musical, textual, iconographic and socio-cultural significance of the early modern herculana song type. This naturally impedes a more in-depth academic investigation of these rich and varied historical sources. A copy of it exists in the British Library: Herculana texts appearing in stampe popolari were commodities of the print industry that served the socio-economic needs of manufacturing and purchasing interests in Venice and beyond. Their thematic content could either function as self-contained reading material, or as lyric sheets awaiting the application of familiar melodies for completion.
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Bell, P. Bennet and J. Bevan, 1— Raccolta di scritti critici, di ricerche storiche, filologiche e letterarie Milan, , pp. Biadene suggests that if not the text-type's progenitor, Rava was certainly an early champion of the herculana. It seems more likely, however, that the poet merely adopted and adapted a popular poetic formula that significantly predated the material in the Vicentine anthology. Eleven of the poems in the anthology are herculane.
Unlike their counterparts published within stampe popolari , none of the Vicentine herculane contain material that suggest the likelihood of musical performance.
Fisiologia Humana, Used - AbeBooks
It seems that once published, the significance of these poems lay more in the sophistication of their content and their cachet as desirable cultural products rather than in their importance as blueprints for entertainment; similarly, outside the orbit of the Accademia they were probably appropriated as reading material not as song texts. The list helps delineate the precise historical period in which the herculana enjoyed popularity. La minera del mondo by Gio.
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