Manual La Négresse du Sacré-Coeur (Blanche) (French Edition)

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Musique nouvelle de MM. Pares, Ackermann, A. Danses anglaises reglees par Miss Doris Birch sous la direction de Mrs. John Tiller. Choregraphie de Madame Komarova. Conduite de la Revue: M. Georges Triel. Regie: M. Lucien Gaget. Costumes et Rideaux brodes de Max Weldy. Cartonnages de M. Walle et de M. Machinerie de Courbois et Charton. VAN, Hedendaagsche historie of tegenwoordige staat van alle volkeren.

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Fa parte di: Lo stato presente di tutti i paesi, e popoli del mondo naturale, politico e morale, con nuove osservazioni, e correzioni degli antichi e moderni viaggiatori. Fa parte di: Lo stato presente di tutti i paesi e popoli del mondo naturale, politico e morale, con nuove osservazioni, e correzioni degli antichi e moderni viaggiatori. China en Japan, als mede Amsterdam, Isaak Tirion, With engraved frontispiece, 3 engraved folding maps and 7 other engraved plates including 5 folding.

The maps show: 1 China 2 Japan and 3 the Philippines, including the greater part of Indonesia. Contemporary half calf, gold-tooled spine. Met naauwkeurige Landkaarten en Printverbeeldingen voorzien. Met naauwkeurige Landkaarten en Printverbeeldingen versierd. Met naauwkeurige Landkaarten en fraaije Printverbeeldingen versierd. Hedendaagsche historie, of tegenwoordige staat van alle volkeren; in opzigt hunner Landsgelegentheid, Personen, Klederen, Gebouwen, Zeden, Wetten, Gewoontens Vertaald en merkelyk vermeerderd door M.

Hedendaagsche Historie of tegenwoordige Staat van alle Volkeren. Een kort Begrip der Historie van Frankryk, van de oudste tyden af, tot heden. Eene beschryving van den Godsdienst, de Vryheden van de Kerk, de Geestelyken en 't gene daar toe behoort: van den Koning en 't gene zo to zyne Persoon als Familie en Hofhouding betrekkelyk is; enz. Behelzende den Tegenwoordige Staat van 't Duitsche Keizerryk Amsterdam, Tirion, Hedendaagsche historie of Tegenwoordige staat van alle volkeren IX deel, behelzende 't Vervolg van den Tegenwoordigen staat des Duitschen Keizerryks Bohemen, Moravien, Silesien, Hungaryen, Zevenbergen.

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Georges Dominique Rouault

Hedendaagsche historie of Tegenwoordige Staat Hedendaagsche historie of tegenwoordige staat van alle volkeren, VIII deel, behelzende Salmon; Nu vertaelt en merkelyk vermeerdert door M. Met naeukeurige Landkaerten en platen versiert. Parte II: Che contiene il Compendio dell'antica e moderna istoria della Repubblica di Venezia Fa parte di: Lo stato presente di tutti i paesi, e popoli del mondo naturale, politico e morale, con nuove osservazioni, e correzioni degli antichi, e moderni viaggiatori.

Tegenwoordige staat van Rusland, Zweden, Denemarken en Noorwegen: als mede van de landen onder de Noord Pool gelegen, en van de Groenlandsche visschery. Nu vertaald en merkelyk vermeerderd door Matthias van Goch. Tegenwoordige staat van't Duitsche keizerryk in't algemeen; als mede van de Opper-Saxische, Neder-Saxische, Westphaalsche, en Nederrynsche Kreitsen in't byzonder. Tegenwoordige staat der Oostenryksche, Fransche en Pruissische Nederlanden.

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An essay on ancient Chinese symbolism and its implications. Institute of fine arts. New York University. Published under the patronage of the China-Institute, Berne. Artibus Asiae. Artibus Asiae Vol. Carved Jade of ancient China. Die chinesische Landschaftsmalerei. Sino-Siberian art in the collection of C.

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Een bewuste voorbereiding op de bevalling. AND J. Die Geschichte des Prinzen Siddharta. AND TR. Ibsen's Heroines. Mary Ward. Mit Buchschmuck von Franz Strasser. Liebeslyrik aus dem alten Israel. Geschreven calligrafie door G. Eric Salomon. De la vie d'un photographe. With contributions by Raymond Allchin and M. Foreword by the Dalai Lama. Herausgegeben v. Wilhelm Hennis und Hans Maier.. The bedroom was above the dining room. The kitchen was built at the back with a sloping glass roof. The garage was built into the ground floor. The Modern City In a program of renovation began, with run-down districts like the Marais being restored.

Simone de Beauvoir Influential philosopher and lifelong companion of J. Sartre, de Beauvoir fought for the liberation of women in the s. Ducting at of Culture, begins renovation the Pompidou program of run-down Center districts and monuments. Jacques Chirac is installed as first elected Mayor of Paris since Students at the Barricades In May , Paris saw a revolution of a kind.

The Latin Quarter was taken over by students and workers. What began as a protest against the war in Vietnam spread to other issues and became an expression of discontent with the Government. President de Gaulle rode out the storm, but his prestige was severely damaged. Over , people work here, with further expansion due by Eurostar Center-right Nicolas hurricanes hit Paris: inaugurated: Versailles loses 10, trees Sarkozy elected president Paris to London in France hosts — and wins — the 3 hours soccer World Cup tournament. To help make the most of your stay, the following 20 pages are a time-saving guide to the best Paris has to offer.

Museums and galleries, historic churches, spacious parks, gardens and squares are all described. Each sight has a cross reference to its own full entry. Below are the top tourist attractions to start you off. Remarkable Parisians By virtue of its strategic position on the Seine, Paris has always been the economic, political, and artistic hub of France.

Over the centuries, many prominent and influential figures from other parts of the country and abroad have come to the city to absorb its unique spirit. In return, they have left their mark: artists have brought new movements, politicians new schools of thought, musicians and filmmakers new trends, and architects a new environment. Artists In the early 18th-century, JeanAntoine Watteau — took the inspiration for his paintings from the Paris theater.

Later, Paris became the cradle of Impressionism. In , Pablo. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec — drank and painted in Montmartre. Films and Filmmakers Paris has always been at the heart of French cinema. Jean-Luc Godard and other New Wave directors preferred to shoot outdoors. Actresses such as Catherine Deneuve b. Musicians Jean-Philippe Rameau — , organist and pioneer of harmony, is associated with St-Eustache see p Soprano Maria Callas —77 gave triumphal performances here.

The composer and conductor Pierre Boulez b. The diminutive chanteuse Edith Piaf —63 , known for her nostalgic love songs, began singing in the streets of Paris and then went on to tour the world. The acclaimed movie about her life, La Vie en Rose, was released in Hardouin-Mansart — designed Versailles see pp— Haussmann —91 gave the city its boulevards see pp36—7. Gustave Eiffel — built his tower in A century later, I. To the existentialists, the district of St-Germain was the only place to be see pp—5. Ernest Hemingway — and F.

Scott Fitzgerald — wrote novels in Montparnasse. Louis Le Vau —70 and Jules. It is near the statue of Denis Diderot —84 , who. The city granted them a rent-free mansion in the Bois de Boulogne. Paris has a Quartier Pasteur, a Boulevard Pasteur, a Pasteur metro, and the world-famous Institut Pasteur see p , all in honor of Louis Pasteur — 95 , the great French chemist and biologist.

His apartment and laboratory are faithfully preserved. The discoverers of radium, Pierre — and Marie Curie — , also worked in Paris. The great era of church building was the medieval period, but examples survive from all ages. During the Revolution see pp32—3 churches were used as grain or weapons stores, but they were later restored to their former glory.

Many churches have superb interiors with fine paintings and sculptures. Montreuil, who added the transepts with their fine translucent rose windows. This was the first Gothic building, and it was from here that the Gothic style spread. The finest Gothic church in Paris is the city cathedral, Notre-Dame, tallest and most impressive of the early French cathedrals.

Begun in by Bishop Maurice de Sully, it was completed over the next century by architects Jean de Chelles and Pierre de. The style was toned down to suit Renaissance French tastes and the rational temperament of the Age of The effect of the Italian Enlightenment see pp30— The Renaissance swept through result was a harmonious and Paris in the 16th century.

It led to a unique architectural style in monumental Classicism in the form of columns and domes. St-Gervais—St-Protais enormous gilded. The Gothic Tour St-Jacques, the only element still extant from a long-gone church, reflects the medieval love of the defensive tower. St-Etienne-du-Mont, with its pointed gable and rounded pediment, shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance.

With its ornate spires, Ste-Clotilde is a Gothic Revival church. Modern landmarks include the mosque, with its minaret. The dome is supported by four pillars, built by Guillaume Rondelet, linking four great arches. Construction of this church began in and consisted of a two-story portico, topped by a triangular pediment. Neo-Classical An obsession with all things Greek and Roman swept France in the midth century and well into the 19th century.

The excavations at Pompeii and the influence of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio produced a generation of architects fascinated by the column, geometry, and engineering. Showy churches were built in the new districts created by Haussmann in the Second Empire pp36—7. Here historic detail combines with modern iron columns and girders in a soaring interior space.

It has a grand patio, inspired by the Alhambra, woodwork in cedar and eucalyptus, and a fountain. They date from many different periods and have been central to Parisian life for the past years. The Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes enclose the city with their lush, green open spaces, while elegant squares and landscaped gardens, such as the Jardin du Luxembourg, brighten the inner city and provide a retreat for those craving a few moments of peace from the bustling city. Parc Monceau This English-style park features many follies, grottoes, magnificent trees, and rare plants.

Montparnasse Bois de Boulogne The Bagatelle gardens, set in this wooded park, have an amazing array of flowers, including the spectacular rose garden.


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Esplanade des Invalides From this huge square, lined with linden trees, there are wonderful views over the quays. Jardin des Tuileries These gardens are renowned for ornamental ponds, terraces, and the collection of bronze figures by Aristide Maillol. Parc des Buttes-Chaumont Once a scraggy hilltop, this park was transformed to provide open spaces for the growing city.

It is now beautifully landscaped with huge cliffs revealing caves. Place des Vosges Considered one of the most beautiful squares in the world, it was finished in and is the oldest square in Paris. Jardin des Plantes The botanical garden has a vast collection of plants and flowers from around the world. Jardin du Luxembourg This park is a favorite with Parisians wanting to escape the bustle of the Latin Quarter.

Exploring Gardens, Parks, and Squares Paris is dotted with many areas of parkland, intimate gardens, and attractive tree-lined squares. This aim has been preserved right up to the present day. A haven of peace in a busy district is the Jardin du Palais Royal, built by Cardinal Richelieu in the 17th century. An elegant arcade encloses the garden. The 19th-century Parc Monceau, in the English picturesque style, has follies and grottoes. The 17th-century botanical garden Jardin des Plantes is famous for its ancient trees, flowers, alpine garden, hothouses, and small zoo. The Jardin du Luxembourg also has the traditional formal plan — straight paths, clipped lawns, Classical sculpture, and a superb 17th-century fountain.

It is shadier and more intimate than the Tuileries, with lots of seats, pony rides, and puppet shows to amuse the children. The unregimented planting and rolling lawns of Hyde Park and the leafy squares of Mayfair inspired him to bring. Every age of garden design has produced these ornaments. The huge Gloriette de Buffon in the Jardin des Plantes was erected as a memorial to the great naturalist p It is the oldest metal structure in Paris.

The pyramid in the Parc Monceau, the oriental temple in the Bois de Boulogne, and the 19th-century temple of love in the Bois de Vincennes reflect a more sentimental age. In contrast are the stark, painted-concrete follies that grace the Parc de la Villette. The two smaller Alphand parks, Parc Montsouris in the south and Parc des ButtesChaumont in the northeast, are also pleasant. Part of the town-planning programs for the old city included squares and avenues with fountains, sculptures, benches, and greenery.

Here is the largest fountain in Paris and fine views of the river and the Eiffel Tower. The planted walkway Oriental temple. They house some of the greatest and strangest collections in the world. Together they make an unrivaled feast for visitors. This Babylonian monument, the Code of Hammurabi, is the oldest set of laws in existence. The center also has art libraries and an industrial design center. Its historic buildings surround attractive garden courtyards. Third-century Roman baths adjoin the museum. It also has other fine Leonardos. They are to be found along with superb Titians, Raphaels, and other Italian masters.

Admired for its fine Impressionist and PostImpressionist collections,. The Petit Palais has an interesting collection of 19th-century paintings with four major Courbets, including The Sleep. French century. Louis all aspects of present. The highlight Ville de Paris Art Deco. They drawings, and sculptures.

Furniture every luxury trade, including and the decorative arts are well perfume, wines and spirits, and represented in a plethora of clothing. Numismatists will find museums.

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The smaller but wellwork of the celebrated Francode Soubise, has Sri Lankan chosen Chinese collecSwiss architect forms the basis historical documents theatrical mask tion, noted for its of the Fondation Le Corbusier. Famous The showpiece is his s villa reliefs. Paintings of scenes of breathtaking surroundings. Paris Salon of that year. It has period. He brushwork designed always liked to paint to capture the fleeting effects of light falling on a scene. Their favorite subjects were landscapes and scenes from contemporary urban life.

The movement had no founder, though Edouard Manet —83 and the radical Realist painter Gustave Courbet —77 both Harvesting by Pissarro inspired many of the younger. It is due to. Gabrielle by Renoir outdoors and encouraged others to follow his example. There were seven more Impressionist shows up to By then the power of the Salon had waned and the whole direction of art had changed. From then on, new movements were defined in terms of their relation to Impressionism.

The leading Neo-Impressionist was Georges Seurat, who used thousands of minute dots of color to build up his paintings. It took later generations to fully appreciate the work of the Impressionists. Of the great artists whose genius is now universally recognized, only Renoir and Monet were ever acclaimed in their lifetimes. Artists in Paris The city first attracted artists during the reign of Louis XIV — , and Paris became the most sophisticated artistic center in Europe; the magnetism has persisted.

During the 18th century, all major French artists lived and worked in Paris. In the the latter half of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century, Paris was the European center of modern and progressive art, and movements such as Impressionism and Post-Impressionism were founded and blossomed in the city. Vouet revived a dismal period in the fortunes of French painting. His style slowly became more Classical in his later years Louvre. From June, Paris is slowly turned over to tourists; the city almost comes to a standstill for the French Tennis Open, and the major race tracks stage the big summer horse races.

Dates of events listed on the following pages may vary. For details, consult the listings magazines, or contact Paris Infos Mairie. The Office du Tourisme see p also produces an annual calendar of events. It is the season for fairs and concerts, when the marathon street race is held and the outdoor temperature is pleasant. Spring is also the time when hoteliers offer weekend packages, often with tickets for jazz concerts and museum passes included.

Vast farming fair. Jazz, blues, soul, and funk. Printemps du Cinema 3 days late Mar. Movies can be seen for a very reasonable price at theaters across Paris and throughout France. Large fair with amusements. Chemin de la Croix Good Friday. Paris Ceramics Festival mid-Apr. Renowned artists display their wares related to various themes. Food, wine, house and garden, and tourism show. Classic plays performed outdoors. Open-air concerts and pyrotechnic displays on Versailles lake. Parisian society meets sports. Sunshine Hours The northerly position of Paris gives it long and light summer evenings, but in winter the daylight recedes with few truly bright days.

Summer Summer begins with the French Tennis Open, and there are many events and festivities until July. Thereafter, the French begin thinking of their own annual vacation, but there are big celebrations on Bastille Day July 14 , with military displays for the president and his guests. Concerts emphasize largescale choral works p Flower show, Bois de Boulogne. Rose season in the Bagatelle Gardens. Nightlong summer solstice musical celebrations. Jazz musicians come to play in Paris pp—2.

Prix de Diane-Longines midJun , Chantilly. French equivalent of the British Ascot highsociety horse-racing event. Son et lumiere in the gardens with music, dance, and theater p Gay Pride end Jun. Lively parade around the Bastille. Dance, music, theater, ballet. Paris-Plage mid-Jul—midAug. Sand and palm trees deposited on the Right Bank of the Seine create a beach. Tour de France late Jul. Temperature The chart shows the average temperatures for each month. It is hottest in July and August and coolest between December and February, though Paris is rarely freezing cold.

Temperatures are pleasant in the spring when the number of visitors peaks, and also in the fall. Fall September sees the start of the social season, with gala showing of new movies, and parties in big houses on the Ile St-Louis. The pace barely slackens in October and November when Parisians begin to indulge their great love of movies. Music, dance, theater pp—9. La Villette Jazz Festival midSep. Historic buildings, monuments, and. October Nuit Blanche one Sat in Oct. Museums stay open all night and there are art installations around the city.

An international field competes for the richest prize in European horse-racing. Commercial auto show,. Mois de la Photo Oct—Nov, every two years, next in Numerous photography shows, film screenings, and public discussions. Beaujolais Nouveau 3rd Thursday Nov. Rainfall August is the wettest month in Paris as well as the hottest. In August and September you risk getting caught in storms.

Sudden showers, sometimes with hail, can occur between January and April — notoriously in March. There is occasional snow in winter. Winter Paris rarely sees snow; winter days tend to be invigorating rather than chilly. There are jazz and dance festivals, candlelit Christmas church services, and much celebrating in the streets over the New Year.

After the New Year, the streets seem to be slightly less congested, and on bright days the riverside quays are used as the rendezvous point of strollers and lovers. Life-size Nativity from a different country each year. Salon du Cheval 1st 2 weeks. Equestrian trade show, exhibitions, and competitions. Jan 6. The boulangeries are full of galettes des rois. Fashion shows, summer collections. See Haute Couture p Say farewell to winter with these colorful and impressive displays of crocuses and snowdrops. No other European city defines itself by its river in the same way as Paris. The Seine is the essential point of reference to the city: distances are measured from it, street numbers determined by it, and it divides the capital into two distinct areas, with the Right Bank on the north side of the river and the Left Bank on the south side.

These are as well defined as any of the supposedly official boundaries. The quays are lined by fine bourgeois. Above all, the river is very much alive. For centuries, fleets of small boats used it, but motorized land traffic stifled this once-bustling scene.

Today, the river is busy with commercial barges and massive bateaux mouches pleasure boats cruising sightseers up and down the river. The octagonal lake in the Jardin de Luxembourg is a favorite spot for children to sail their toy boats. The Seine is host to larger craft, including many pleasure cruisers. Les Bouquinistes, the bookstands on the river banks, are treasure troves of secondhand books and prints, which passers-by can casually examine.

View of the Seine from Notre-Dame. From Pont de Grenelle to Pont de la Concorde The soaring monuments and grand exhibition halls along this stretch of the river are remnants of the Napoleonic era and the Industrial Revolution with its great exhibitions. Palais de Chaillot The curved wings and arching fountains make this a spectacular setting for three museums and a theater p Passerelle Debilly The Statue of Liberty was given to the city in It faces west, toward the original Liberty in New York.

Petit Palais Now the Paris museum of fine arts, this was first designed as a companion to the Grand Palais p The Zouave is a statue of a soldier on a central pier of the bridge. It is used by Parisians to measure the level of the Seine when it is in flood. For keys to symbols see back flap. From Pont de la Concorde to Pont de Sully The historic heart of Paris lies on the banks and islands of the east river. Today it is still vital to Parisian life. Jardin des Tuileries These gardens are in the formal style p Sainte-Chapelle and parts of the Conciergerie are the only buildings of the period that remain today pp78— Conciergerie During the Revolution this building, with its distinctive towers, became notorious as a prison p St-Gervais—St-Protais The oldest organ in Paris, dating from the early 17th century, is in this church p The Batobus river service operates as a shuttle or bus service,.

The main city canal trips operate along the old industrial St-Martin canal in the east of the city, passing through areas of Paris steeped in history. Types of Boats Bateaux mouches, the largest of the pleasurecruise boats, are a spectacular sight with their passenger areas enclosed in glass for excellent all round viewing.

At night floodlights are used to pick out river bank buildings. A more luxurious version of these is used on the Bateaux Parisien cruises. The vedettes are smaller and more intimate boats, with viewing through glass walls. The Canauxrama canal boats are flat-bottomed.

Seine Cruises and Shuttle Services The Seine cruises and shuttle services information below includes the boarding points, the nearest metro and RER stations, and the nearest bus routes. Meal cruises must be booked in advance, and passengers must board them 30 minutes before departure. Timings may vary — visitors are advised to check ahead. Vedettes de Paris Seine Cruise These superb cruises cover major sights along the river.

Some tickets include a snack or champagne. The boarding point is: Port de Suffren Map 10 D3. Tel 01 44 18 19 W Champs de Mars. Departures mid-Feb—Oct: am—11pm mid-Feb—. Every 30—45 mins. Duration 1 hr. Bateaux Parisiens Tour Eiffel Cruise This company offers sightseeing and meal cruises with a commentary in 13 languages. The boarding point is:.


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Port de la Bourdonnais Map 10 D2. Tel 08 25 01 01 Departures every 30 mins. Lunch cruise pm. Duration 2 hr. Dinner cruise 6pm, pm, 9pm. Duration 2. Quai de Montebello Map 13 B4. W St-Michel. Port de Suffren Map 10 D3. Departures May—Aug: pm Mon—Sat. Boarding Points The boarding points for the river cruises and the Batobus services are easy to find along the river.

Here you can buy tickets, and there are amenities such as snack bars. Major cruise companies also have foreign exchange booths. There is limited parking around the points, but none near the Pont Neuf. The St-Martin journey passes along the tree-lined canal, which has nine locks, two swing bridges, and eight romantic footbridges.

The Bords de Marne cruise travels well into the suburbs, as far as Bry-sur-Marne. The Paris Canal Company 01 42 40 96 97; www. Batobus Cruises Shuttle service. Tel 08 25 05 01 Departures daily; Sep 8— Apr 10am—7pm every 25 min ; Apr 11—Sep 7: 10am— pm every 20 min. Board at: Eiffel Tower: Map 10 D3. Louvre: Map 12 E2. Notre-Dame: Map 13 B4. Jardin des Plantes: Map 13 C5.

Tel 01 42 25 96 Duration 1 hr 10 min. Lunch cruise 1pm Sat, Sun and bank hols embark from pm. Duration 1hr 45 min. Unders half price. Dinner cruise pm daily embark from pm. Duration 2 hr 15 min. Formal dress required. The boats are of an older style, for a quainter cruise. Price reductions can be obtained when booking tickets online. Tel 01 46 33 98 The boarding points are: Bassin de la Villette: Map 8 E1.

Tel 01 42 39 15 On weekday mornings there are concessions for students, pensioners, and children under Children under four travel free although trip is not recommended for this age. Concert cruises are available on chartered trips on the Canal St-Martin and the Seine. Duration 2 hr 30 min. The trip includes a commentary, stories, and dancing. Reservations recommended. Duration 8 hr. This island on the Seine was no more than a primitive village when the conquering Julius Caesar arrived in 52 BC.

Ancient kings later made it the center of political power and in medieval times it became the home of church and law. It no longer has such power, except to draw armies of tourists to the imposing Palais de Justice and to its Gothic masterpiece, Notre-Dame. The medieval huddles of tiny houses and narrow streets that so characterized the island at one time were swept away by the.

But there are still small areas of charm and relief, among them the colorful bird and flower market, the romantic Square du Vert-Galant, and the ancient Place Dauphine. This former swampy pastureland was transformed into an elegant 17th-century residential area, with picturesque, tree-lined quays. More recently, rich artists, doctors, actresses, and heiresses have lived here. Birds are sold at the Sunday market. One tribe, the Parisii, eventually gave its name to the city.

The island offered a convenient river crossing on the route between northern and southern Gaul and was easily defended. There is no older place in Paris, and remains of the first buildings can still be seen today in the archeological crypt under the square in front of Notre-Dame, the great medieval cathedral and place of pilgrimage for millions of visitors each year. At the other end of the island is another Gothic masterpiece, Sainte-Chapelle — a miracle of light. With its ancient towers lining the quays, the old royal palace is today a massive complex of law courts.

Its history extends back over 16 centuries. A jewel of Gothic architecture and one of the most magical sights in Paris, Sainte-Chapelle is noted for the magnificence of its stained glass. The Statue of Charlemagne commemorates the King of the Franks, who was crowned emperor in He united all the Christian peoples of the West. The Rue Chanoinesse has had many famous residents, such as the 17th-century playwright Racine. No other building is more associated with the history of Paris than Notre-Dame.

Pope Alexander III laid the first stone in , marking the start of years of toil by armies of Gothic architects and medieval craftsmen. Ever since, a procession of the famous has passed through the three main doors below the massive towers. The cathedral is a Gothic masterpiece, standing on the site of a Roman temple. At the time it was finished, in about , it was ft m long and featured flying buttresses, a large transept, a deep choir, and ft m high towers. West Front Three main doors with superb statuary, a central rose window, and an openwork gallery are important details here.

Map 13 B4. Tel 01 42 34 56 South Rose Window This south facade window, with its central depiction of Christ, is an impressive 43 ft 13m high. This is bisected by a huge transept, at either end of which are medieval rose windows, 43 ft 13 m in diameter. Works by major sculptors adorn the cathedral. In this majestic setting, kings and emperors were crowned and royal Crusaders were blessed.

But Notre-Dame was also the scene of turmoil. Revolutionaries ransacked it, banished religion, changed it into a temple to the Cult of Reason, and then used it as a wine store. Napoleon restored religion in and architect Viollet-le-Duc later restored the buildings, replacing missing statues, as well as raising the spire and fixing the gargoyles. The steps up the north tower lead to sights of the famous gargoyles and magnificent views of Paris. From the main entrance, the view takes in the high-vaulted central nave looking down toward the huge transept, the choir, and the high altar.

Key Suggested route. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Paris guilds presented a painting to the cathedral on May Day each year. This 13th-century stained-glass window depicts the Virgin encircled by figures from the Old Testament. The future Louis XIV was born in , but it took 60 years before the promises were kept. One of the surviving features from that time is the carved choir stalls. Noted for their early 18th-century carved woodwork, the choir stalls were commissioned by Louis XIII, whose statue stands behind the high altar. Among the details carved in bas-relief on the back of the high stalls are scenes from the life of the Virgin.

A 14th-century high stone screen enclosed the chancel and provided canons at prayer with peace and solitude from noisy congregations. Some of it has survived to screen the first three north and south bays.