Guide A Brief HistoryOf The Incas: From Rise, Through Reign, To Ruin

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  1. The Inca Empire
  2. Ancient Incas – modern day wonders
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Categories: Guidebooks. Description This book is an introduction to Inca history. A great read this book. Dec 26, Ietrio rated it it was ok Shelves: junk. Shallow scholarship with a below average writing style. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Brien Foerster.

Brien Foerster. Brien was born in Rochester, Minnesota, U. At age 11, he became fascinated with the Native art of the Haida native people, and began carving totem poles, and other related art forms, learning from Native teachers. After completing an Honours Bachelor Of Science degree, Brien decided to take up carving and sculpture full time, at the age of In he Brien was born in Rochester, Minnesota, U. Peru became his next major area of interest.

The Inca Empire

He is also assisting to improve the number of foreign tourists that visit, as well as is fundamental in expanding tourism in general, especially as regards showing all visitors the 10, years of human occupation of this area, through tours of major and minor archaeological sites. Other projects, which will result in published books, include one about the ancient history of Hawaii, the mysterious stone monuments of Peru that predate the Inca, and the search for the lost continent of Mu. This will require combining all that he has learned so far, with trips to New Zealand Aotearoa , Hawaii, and Easter island Rapanui.

He is the author of 8 books, 4 appearances on Ancient Aliens, season 3, numerous radio interviews, and resides in Peru with his wife. Books by Brien Foerster. Trivia About A Brief History o No trivia or quizzes yet.

Ancient Incas – modern day wonders

They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows Above all, they lacked a system of writing Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture, especially stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles , use of knotted strings quipu for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, and the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor.

The Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars: [11]. The Inca empire functioned largely without money and without markets. Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. The Inca rulers who theoretically owned all the means of production reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects.

The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu , [4] "the four suyu ". In Quechua , tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu "regions" or "provinces" whose corners met at the capital. The four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu north , Antisuyu east; the Amazon jungle , Qullasuyu south and Kuntisuyu west.

The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. As such, the name Imperio inca "Inca Empire" referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered. The Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", that is indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations.

The Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku c. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about years.

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Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. The Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century.

A Brief History of the Incas : From Rise, Through Reign, to Ruin

Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves. Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans. Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live. They traveled for a long time. On the way, Ayar Cachi boasted about his strength and power. His siblings tricked him into returning to the cave to get a sacred llama.


When he went into the cave, they trapped him inside to get rid of him. Ayar Uchu decided to stay on the top of the cave to look over the Inca people. The minute he proclaimed that, he turned to stone. They built a shrine around the stone and it became a sacred object.

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Ayar Auca grew tired of all this and decided to travel alone. Only Ayar Manco and his four sisters remained. Finally, they reached Cusco. The staff sank into the ground. The people who were already living in Cusco fought hard to keep their land, but Mama Huaca was a good fighter. When the enemy attacked, she threw her bolas several stones tied together that spun through the air when thrown at a soldier gualla and killed him instantly.

The other people became afraid and ran away. It is said that he and his sisters built the first Inca homes in the valley with their own hands. His son, Sinchi Roca, became the second emperor of the Inca. In , they began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Sapa Inca paramount leader Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui , whose name literally meant "earth-shaker". During his reign, he and his son Tupac Yupanqui brought much of the modern-day territory of Peru under Inca control. Pachacuti sent spies to regions he wanted in his empire and they brought to him reports on political organization, military strength and wealth.

He then sent messages to their leaders extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles and promising that they would be materially richer as his subjects. Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. Refusal to accept Inca rule resulted in military conquest. Following conquest the local rulers were executed. The ruler's children were brought to Cusco to learn about Inca administration systems, then return to rule their native lands.

This allowed the Inca to indoctrinate them into the Inca nobility and, with luck, marry their daughters into families at various corners of the empire. Traditionally the son of the Inca ruler led the army. At its height, the Inca Empire included Peru, western and south central Bolivia , most of what is now Ecuador and a large portion of what is today Chile , north of the Maule River. Traditional historiography claims the advance south halted after the Battle of the Maule where they met determined resistance from the Mapuche.

However, most of the southern portion of the Inca empire, the portion denominated as Qullasuyu, was located in the Altiplano. The Inca Empire was an amalgamation of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. The Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labour.

The following quote describes a method of taxation:. For as is well known to all, not a single village of the highlands or the plains failed to pay the tribute levied on it by those who were in charge of these matters. There were even provinces where, when the natives alleged that they were unable to pay their tribute, the Inca ordered that each inhabitant should be obliged to turn in every four months a large quill full of live lice, which was the Inca's way of teaching and accustoming them to pay tribute.

Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro and his brothers explored south from what is today Panama , reaching Inca territory by This approval was received as detailed in the following quote: "In July the Queen of Spain signed a charter allowing Pizarro to conquer the Incas. Pizarro was named governor and captain of all conquests in Peru, or New Castile, as the Spanish now called the land.

Perhaps more importantly, smallpox , influenza , typhus and measles had spread from Central America. The forces led by Pizarro consisted of men, one cannon , and 27 horses. Conquistadors ported lances, arquebuses , steel armor and long swords. In contrast, the Inca used weapons made out of wood, stone, copper and bronze, while using an Alpaca fiber based armor, putting them at significant technological disadvantage - none of their weapons could pierce the Spanish steel armor.

In addition, due to the absence of horses in the Americas, the Inca did not develop tactics to fight cavalry. However, the Inca were still effective warriors, being able to successfully fight the Mapuche , which later would strategically defeat the Spanish as they expanded further south. Hernando de Soto was sent inland to explore the interior and returned with an invitation to meet the Inca, Atahualpa, who had defeated his brother in the civil war and was resting at Cajamarca with his army of 80, troops, that were at the moment armed only with hunting tools knives and lassos for hunting llamas.

Pizarro and some of his men, most notably a friar named Vincente de Valverde , met with the Inca, who had brought only a small retinue. The Inca offered them ceremonial chicha in a golden cup, which the Spanish rejected. The Spanish interpreter, Friar Vincente, read the " Requerimiento " that demanded that he and his empire accept the rule of King Charles I of Spain and convert to Christianity.

Atahualpa dismissed the message and asked them to leave. After this, the Spanish began their attack against the mostly unarmed Inca, captured Atahualpa as hostage, and forced the Inca to collaborate. Atahualpa offered the Spaniards enough gold to fill the room he was imprisoned in and twice that amount of silver. The Inca fulfilled this ransom, but Pizarro deceived them, refusing to release the Inca afterwards. The Spaniards maintained that this was at Atahualpa's orders; this was used as one of the charges against Atahualpa when the Spaniards finally executed him, in August Although "defeat" often implies an unwanted loss in battle, much of the Inca elite "actually welcomed the Spanish invaders as liberators and willingly settled down with them to share rule of Andean farmers and miners.

The Spanish installed Atahualpa's brother Manco Inca Yupanqui in power; for some time Manco cooperated with the Spanish while they fought to put down resistance in the north. Meanwhile, an associate of Pizarro, Diego de Almagro , attempted to claim Cusco. Manco tried to use this intra-Spanish feud to his advantage, recapturing Cusco in , but the Spanish retook the city afterwards. Manco Inca then retreated to the mountains of Vilcabamba and established the small Neo-Inca State , where he and his successors ruled for another 36 years, sometimes raiding the Spanish or inciting revolts against them.

After the fall of the Inca Empire many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed, including their sophisticated farming system, known as the vertical archipelago model of agriculture. When a family member died, which would usually happen within a year or two, the family was required to send a replacement.

The effects of smallpox on the Inca empire were even more devastating. Beginning in Colombia , smallpox spread rapidly before the Spanish invaders first arrived in the empire. The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system.

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Smallpox was only the first epidemic. Most population estimates are in the range of 6 to 14 million. In spite of the fact that the Inca kept excellent census records using their quipus , knowledge of how to read them was lost as almost all fell into disuse and disintegrated over time or were destroyed by the Spaniards. The main form of communication and record-keeping in the empire were quipus, ceramics , textiles and various dialects of Quechua, the language the Incas imposed upon the peoples within the empire.

While Quechua had been spoken in the Andean region, including central Peru, for several centuries prior to the expansion of the Inca civilization , the dialect of Quechua the Incas imposed was an adaptation from the Kingdom of Cusco an early form of "Southern Quechua" originally named Qhapaq Runasimi, or 'the great language of the people' , or what some historians define as the Cusco dialect. The language imposed by the Incas diverted from its original phonetics as some societies formed their own regional varieties.

The diversity of Quechua at that point and even today does not come directly from the Incas, who were just a part of the reason for Quechua's diversity. The civilizations within the empire that had previously spoken Quechua kept their own variety distinct from the Quechua the Incas spread. Although these dialects of Quechua had a similar linguistic structure, they differed according to the region in which they were spoken.

Although many of the societies within the empire spoke or learned to speak Quechua, others continued to speak their original languages, such as Aymara , which remains in use in contemporary Bolivia, where it is the primary indigenous language and in various regions surrounding Bolivia. The linguistic body of the Inca Empire was thus varied. The Inca's impact outlasted their empire, as the Spanish continued the use of Quechua. The Incas were not known to develop a written form of communication; however, they visually recorded narratives through paintings on vases and cups qirus.

Researchers have speculated that toqapu patterns could have served as a form of written communication e. Most families did not invest very much into their child until they reached the age of two, or most of the times three years old. This ceremony was called the rutuchikuy ritual. During this ceremony the family would invite all relatives to their house for food and dance and then each member of the family would receive a lock of hair from the young child.

After each family member had received a piece of the hair, the father would then shave the child's head. According to Covey, this stage of life was categorized by a stage of "ignorance, inexperience, and lack of reason, a condition that the child would overcome with time. The next important ritual was to celebrate the maturity of child. Unlike the previous ritual ceremony, the celebration of maturity was to signify the child's sexual potency. In the western world this ceremony would be known as a celebration of puberty, however for the Incas it was called warachikuy for boys and qikuchikuy for girls.

The warachikuy ceremony included dancing, fasting, tasks to show their strength, and family ceremonies. The boy would also be given new clothes and taught how to act as an unmarried man. On the other hand, the girls ceremony qikuchikuy signified the onset of menstruation, therefore the girl would go into the forest alone and not return until the bleeding had ended.

In the forest she would fast, and upon arrival the girl would be given a new name, adult clothing, and advice. This 'folly' stage of life was important because this was the time the young adults could have sex without having to be a parent. Between the ages 20—30 the young adults were "ripe for serious thought and labor". The young adults only reached their 'full potential' once they were married.

In the end, the male and female terms describe the individuals loss of sexual vitality and humanity. Specifically, the decrepitude stage signifies the loss of their mental well being and further physical dystrophy. In the Incan Empire, the age of marriage differed for men and women; men typically married at the age of 20, while women usually got married around 4 years earlier at the age of Once married, the women were expected to cook, collect food and watch over the children and livestock. Once the marriage was final, the only way the two could be divorced was if they did not have a child together.

A family was considered disadvantaged if there was not a married couple at the center because everyday life centered around the balance of male and female tasks. In the eyes of the Inca, male and female roles were considered equal. The "indigenous cultures saw the two genders as complementary parts of a whole. Within the domestic sphere, women were known as the weavers. Women's everyday tasks included: spinning, watching the children, weaving cloth, cooking, brewing chichi, preparing fields for cultivation, planting seeds, bearing children, harvesting, weeding, hoeing, herding, and carrying water.

The women completed their daily tasks for the improvement of her household and community, to ensure her family would survive. In other words, women ascended from women and men ascended from men.