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Christological application of the Melchizedek passages of the Jewish Scriptures in the New Testament writings is unique to the book of Hebrews. This suggests that such an application is the creation of Auctor rather than part of a received tradition. The mention of priesthood in this context depends on the reference to Melchizedek, suggesting that it too derives from Auctor. This basic conclusion can be supported by an examination of the various sources proposed for First, there is no suggestion in the Synoptic accounts of Gethsemane—supposedly alluded to in —that Jesus is acting in the role of a priest or even preparing for that role.

Furthermore, the priestly themes within the passage itself are muted. This word has undeniable cultic overtones. Nevertheless, even in the New Testament the primary sense of the word is cultic. Ps is not particularly linked to priesthood. Steven Croft argues that this is actually a royal Psalm where the king prays as an individual rather than as a representative of the people. Balz and G. Schneider, trans. Howard, J.

Thompson, J. Ap- Thomas Oxford: Blackwell, ; translation of Offersang og sangoffer. In the same way, Philo gives no indication that he is thinking specifically of the priesthood in his comments in Quis Heres It seems highly likely that Auctor has used traditional material in composing —although the exact nature and identity of that material remains opaque. Ellingworth suggests that perhaps an originally non-Christian hymn- fragment was worked over by Auctor based on his own study of scripture and his knowledge of extra-biblical speculation about Melchizedek. In the Greek text these words are adjacent to one-another, highlighting the change.

Its use does not appear to be traditional and its presence in a hymn, or any other fragment of tradition, would be unexpected. His conclusion is supported by the fact that vv elaborate precisely this aspect of v If it does contain a traditional fragment, for the purposes of this study, the lack of reference to the heavenly priesthood of Christ is more significant than its use of cultic language. Among the more significant arguments are that Christ is mentioned only once in the entire 40 verses ; that there is a contradiction between the statement in , 39 that the heroes did not receive the promises and that in indicating that they did; and that the heroes are poor examples of faith suggesting that the anaphoric form had been artificially grafted onto an existing list.

The same phenomenon is seen in the treatment of the exodus generation in More recently Niederwimmer has suggested that the chapter not only contains a pre-existing document but that the interpretative comments stemming from Auctor can be identified. Pratscher and M. Each author has a specific and unique context in which an example list is thought to be relevant. It follows that the best person to select the examples to highlight and the specific aspects of their lives to emphasize is the author. No advantage adheres to using an already existing list. Even if it did, it lends no support for the suggestion that the Christology of priesthood formed any part of that tradition.

It is equally Ibid. It is because of his priesthood that they should endure suffering faithfully. However, the specific use made of the imagery is not determined by the tradition. Verse 24 does allude to the priesthood of Christ. He is called , a word which is able to bear priestly connotations. However, it is primarily a legal and not a cultic term. The phrase , ' has clear cultic significance. However, this can scarcely be said to reflect any tradition beyond Scripture itself.

It is a clear allusion to the levitical rituals—especially those of the Day of Atonement. This verse consequently provides no information suggesting the concept of the priesthood of Christ was itself traditional.

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Gayford, Sacrifice and Priesthood: Jewish and Christian 2d ed. London: Methuen, , 72; N. It is most likely that Auctor has incorporated Christian commonplaces which were circulating freely in the early Church community. Cultic language is used in two sections of the chapter—both of which show evidence of the incorporation of traditional material. A third passage is striking by its lack of cultic language. Much controversy surrounds some of this cultic language, especially in regard to the identity of the altar mentioned in v It must be noted that most of cultic language in the paragraph refers to the priests of the levitical cultus or to ordinary Christians.

Remarkably little of the language applies directly to McCown, , Auctor refers to the entrance of the levitical priests into the sanctuary with sacrificial blood If the passage is deeply imbued with traditional thought and expression, it provides no evidence that the heavenly priesthood of Christ formed part of that tradition.

However, in Heb 13 it is not surrounded by any cultic imagery at all. Michel draws attention to the highly structured character of this benediction, which may reflect its use in liturgy. Rather, Jesus is referred to the Christological title 1 which is common in early Christian literature but relatively infrequent in Hebrews.

Again, although these verses do seem to be deeply indebted to early Christian traditions, they lend no support to the view that the heavenly high priesthood of Christ was included in such traditions. See also McCown, , A survey of passages throughout Hebrews which have been identified by various scholars with varying degrees of plausibility as containing traditional material which has been utilized by Auctor has returned remarkably uniform results.

Such a result points to the conclusion that such Christology was not part of the confession shared by Auctor and the community addressed, but was rather a creation of Auctor, himself. This, in turn, leads to the question of why it features so prominently in a work intended to bolster faith in the confession. Of course there are ways of checking these findings. Dodd, According to the Scriptures London: Nisbet, , The fact that his first use of the verse is by way of allusion rather than direct quotation indicates its familiarity to his readers.

Acceptance of the theory that contains a hymn fragment strengthens the likelihood that Ps LXX had a pre-New Testament role in Christian hymns or confessions. It is generally recognized that in its original setting this is a royal psalm. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster, , ; H. Westermann, Praise and Lament in the Psalms, trans. Crim and R. In Ps LXX , the enemies are identified as the nations.

Albert Sundberg, Jr. Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the New, ed. Carson and H. Ps LXX is cited four times in Hebrews ; , 17, 21 and, according to Hay, is alluded to a further six times ; , 11, 21, , The relative pronoun Manson, Hebrews, Elsewhere Philo makes it clear that such knowledge is attainable only through strenuous mental effort, in contrast to knowledge of the physical world which is readily available through the senses.

When he then proceeds to give a catalogue of elemental teachings he does not include priesthood. However, none of the alternate suggestions make any difference to the fundamental point. Some for example, Montefiore, Hebrews, ; C. Gabalda, ], have suggested that he is referring to basic Christian teachings; others for example, Nairne, Hebrews, 15; Bruce, Hebrews, that he is referring to the Jewish matrix of beliefs from which Christian theology grew.

The suggestion of Adams that he is referring to the teaching of the historical Jesus is unlikely. That this is not the case is shown by the way Auctor uses this particular testimony. The initial allusion to Ps LXX in , as we have already noted, appears to suggest that the promise of this testimony is realized only after priestly activity is concluded.

This point is immediately developed with the use of two further testimonies Ps ; 2 Sam in Both of these testimony texts, deal with monarchical issues rather than priestly Loader, Sohn und Hoherpriester, 85; A. Bartholomew, M. Healy, K. Parry Milton Keynes: Paternoster, , See W. Evang, H. Merklein and M. However, this testimony is used at that transition point to illustrate son imagery. This strongly suggests a similar meaning in Kistemaker draws attention to the similarities between the use of Ps in Hebrews and the use of the pre-Pauline fragment found in Rom a.

Not only is the psalmist in apparent physical distress Ps , the city of Jerusalem is also broken down Ps He is sitting enthroned in the height of his Ps YHWH is understood as the master of the sanctuary and not its servant. Far from manifesting any overt priestly understanding, Auctor appears to have understood this testimony in strictly royal terms.

If the concerns undergirding the catena of testimonies in Heb 1 were some sort of understanding of a Note the use of the word in vv 1, 12, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22 of the Psalm. Hebrews adds the word to the opening of the citation from the LXX. This was necessary only because he cites a fragment of the Psalm rather than the whole. For a more abstract understanding see the New Revised Standard Version. Significantly, when an explicit contrast is drawn between their respective roles, it is in terms of rulership over the coming world , rather than in terms of priesthood , 8.

Thus it appears that Auctor inherited a royal messianic understanding of Ps LXX from Christian tradition, and just as Dodd postulated in taking the context of the testimony seriously, found another useful testimony in Ps LXX. Another testimony used in Hebrews is Ps , cited in Paul uses the testimony here in close connection with a citation of Ps This testimony is fundamental for the development of the argument of Hebrews and Ps 8 is closely related to the priestly creation narrative of Gen However, the psalm is lacking in explicitly priestly content.

The dominant imagery is royal rather than priestly. More significant is the fact that neither Paul nor Auctor use the testimony to develop priestly imagery. Any explicit indication of a priestly ministry for Jesus in the present time is absent. Auctor certainly made use of Christian traditions known to him. Although a number of attempts have been made to demonstrate that his high-priestly Christology was present in those traditions, these attempts have not been successful. It is much more plausible to argue that this distinctive Christology was the creation of Auctor, who used the traditions available to him in creative ways to meet the needs of the audience being addressed, and to give it further instruction.

Laub, Bekenntnis, Is this, in fact, the case with his high-priestly Christology? It is widely acknowledged that such a Christology is only found in its developed form in Hebrews. A basic methodological consideration makes this whole issue extremely difficult: just how does one determine when one proposition implies another? This is hardly an exact science. For example, as Maurice Wiles points out, Roman Catholics find the institution of the papacy implied—present in seminal form—in the New See, for example, B.

Protestants, by contrast, do not see such an implication at all. In some way, it probably does, but how much weight should be put on that sort of implication? Another limitation is also important: In his typology Auctor focuses on specifically cultic activities of the priests, especially those of the Day of Atonement rituals. Obviously the work of priests in the Second Temple period entailed much more than this. Various New Testament facts have been adduced as evidence for the implicit teaching of the priesthood of Jesus: The use made of Ps , LXX which is thought to imply similar Christological application of Ps , LXX ; The presentation of Jesus as opposed to the temple, claiming authority to cleanse it, predicting its destruction and replacement Matt.

Goulder London: SCM, , 9. Wiles attributes the Roman Catholic position referred to here to Cardinal Hume. Sabourin, Priesthood, Mohr [Siebeck], , ; J. Hay correctly notes that the closest New Testament parallel to Rom is found in Heb The derivation of the designation from Daniel 7 is widely accepted, although not without challenge. For arguments against a derivation of the title from Dan 7 see L. For a treatment of the figure which emphasizes his royal attributes see A. He is a representative figure but that is equally indicative of a kingly figure as a priestly one.

Much of the proffered support for a widespread priestly understanding of Jesus allows for such a reading but do not demand it. Jesus certainly exhibits a negative attitude to the Temple and its priesthood in the Gospels, but this does not necessarily entail belief that he was a priest of a superior order. Jesus prays for his disciples but prayer is scarcely an exclusively priestly prerogative, except in strict liturgical contexts. In a similar way, it goes well beyond the evidence to suggest that use of Temple imagery—even extensive use—necessarily suggests that Jesus was understood in priestly terms.

Some explicit indication would need to be present to justify such a conclusion and it is singularly absent from the New Testament, except in Hebrews. There is little doubt that Jesus was thought in some circles to be the new temple for example, Matt. None of the designations pointed to as evidence of an implicit priestly Christology , 1 1 , and is exclusively—or even, especially—priestly. The key issue here is the referent of "those who will believe in me through their word" in Jn The purpose of the Gospel is to lead others to belief Jn , or perhaps to strengthen the faith of those who already believe.

It is, therefore, possible to regard the referent as being all Christians of later generations. Spicq, Theological Lexicon of the New Testament, 3 vols. Ernst Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, , s. Procksch and K. Part 1: The New Testament Scriptures, ed. Cross Berlin: Akademie Verlag, , ; and, E. Haenchen, John, 2 vols. Funk Philadelphia: Fortress, ; translation of Das Johannesevangelium. John now deliberately turns to view this process, the history of the church. Sacrificial language, for example, is lacking.

There is no sign of an original cultic Sitz im Leben for the prayer. However, the parallels are very subtle, consisting largely of the act of the raising of the hands. The evidence for seeing a priestly allusion here is less than compelling. Similarly, Paul provides data which may serve as pointers towards a priestly Christology. But there is nothing that implies that Paul himself thought of Jesus in priestly terms.

London: SPCK, , First, the primary allusion of the verse is to the son of man of Daniel 7 who is not necessarily a priestly figure. Second, although the reference to lampstands immediately reminds the reader of the candelabra in the Temple, that is not the intended referent here. John refers not to a single lamp stand but to a group of lamp stands—presumably a total of seven, one for each of the churches about to be addressed—among which Jesus is walking.

Lastly, in the absence of a definite Temple allusion in this verse and the presence of a certain allusion to the book of Daniel, it is most likely that the image of the long white robe is derived from the dress of the heavenly messenger of Dan Given the intensely symbolic nature of the book of Revelation, it would be difficult to demonstrate that Jesus was regarded as a heavenly priest, even if this book did so picture him. Nor is it methodologically A priestly interpretation is supported by Milligan, Caird, Best, and with qualifications Mounce.

Caird, The Revelation of St. Charles, The Revelation of St. Morris, The Revelation of St. However, Auctor does not create his priestly Christology ex nihilo but rather uses the building blocks provided in some measure in early Christian tradition. The high priesthood of Christ in Hebrews is intimately associated with the utilization of Day of Atonement imagery in that book. The situation with regard to the high priestly Christology is precisely analogous to that with regard to the Day of Atonement in the New Testament.

The significance of the death of Jesus is explained in terms of the Day of Atonement almost exclusively in Hebrews. Another possible example is found in Rom See N. The evidence adduced thus far suggests that it did not include an affirmation of the heavenly priesthood of Jesus. Yet some a affirmation is made repeatedly in Hebrews, despite that books proclaimed intention to bolster faith in the confession. Evidence drawn from a rhetorical- critical reading of Hebrews can be adduced to indicate that this understanding is valid.

Significantly, has been identified by some scholars as the second element in the inclusio which brackets the first major thematic section of Hebrews see also The significance of these structural observations is that the exordium of a well- structured deliberative speech consists exclusively of material which both the orator and his audience agree upon. Divisive arguments are avoided. For further discussion see above, pp. The message is traced back through an unbroken line of witnesses to the Lord, himself. It has been endorsed by God in miraculous and charismatic ways.

His personal credibility is enhanced by his being part of this unbroken chain of tradition. Thus it may be surmised that if Auctor conformed to the rhetorical conventions of his day, it would appear likely that the heavenly priesthood of Christ was not part of the traditions or confessions of the church he addressed. And though it is abruptly introduced in c. In the classical handbooks note Quint. Two aspects of the development of thought in the paranaetic sections of the book actually provide precisely this sort of confirmatory evidence: the degree of identification Auctor makes with the recipients and the nature of the exhortations themselves.

George MacRae suggests that sixteen paraenetic sections can be detected on formal grounds in Hebrews. A significant pointer in making such an evaluation is the use of first and second person statements in the parenasis of the book. The sixteen passages identified by MacRae are ; , ; , 11, 14, 16; , ; , , 35; , , 25a, See, T. Porter and D. However, other uses of the first or second person appear to be more significant. Auctor includes himself in the exhortation, identifying himself fully with the recipients.

As the work progresses, Auctor increasingly stands apart from the congregation to rebuke them. Once again, Auctor identifies himself with the community he is addressing. Olbricht and A. The transition from first-person plurals to third person plurals, between vv 13 and 14, suggests that if the recipients heed the exhortation the identification with Auctor will be preserved—but responsibility for the continuation of this identification is theirs, not his. The first person plural form which introduced the third paraenetic block is clearly stylistic.

The exhortation concludes with a barrage of second person plurals, similar to its opening The fourth exhortation shows a mixing of first and second person plurals. A comparison between and 35 is illuminating in this regard. The language is inclusive. Auctor includes himself in the exhortation. Auctor here doubly separates himself from the recipients. Significantly he is referring to their —the very word he has previously used with regard to entrance into the heavenly sanctuary , which is referred to in with first person plurals.

The first person plurals of this verse are not merely stylistic. Auctor is declaring that he, along with his recipients had experienced and now appreciated parental discipline, analogous to the discipline God metes out to his children. How should this data be evaluated?

In classical rhetoric, as we have already noted, the function of the exordium and narratio is to gain the sympathy of the audience. In the argumentative section of classical oration, a rhetor might have to introduce arguments of a more divisive nature having endeavored to bring the audience over to his side in the exordium. This strategy is obviously fraught with risk. It is not part of the confession.

This same pattern can be seen—and for the same reasons—from an analysis of the hortatory passages themselves. Content of the Hortatory Passages The tone of the opening parenesis is mild. Bauer, W. Arndt, F. Gingrich and F. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , s. The nature of this punishment is not specified.

Actually, punishment is not directly threatened. Rather a rhetorical question is posed and the readers are asked to consider for themselves if any escape will be feasible. The exhortation is given force by the use of an example: Those who disobeyed the law of Moses were punished. Again, the nature of both their disobedience and punishment is left unspecified. Gerhard Kittel notes: in the NT alway [sic. This more serious exhortation is given the full weight of scriptural authority, being part of the citation from Ps The wilderness generation is typified as being rebellious from beginning to end.

Heb suggests inaccurately, when measured by the account in The negative is implied here. Auctor, in saying his recipients will be partners with Christ if they hold fast, suggests that they are in danger of forfeiting that right by not holding fast. Brown Carlisle: Paternoster, , 2: ; see also K. The addition of to the citation after had precisely this effect in mind. The third exhortation features further escalation of rhetoric.

It is difficult to imagine what would be more distressing to first- Attridge, Hebrews, See, for example, H. The personal examples of the previous two exhortations are abandoned in favour of an impersonal one: thorn-infested farm land. Both elements are reminiscent of the fate of those who reject salvation.

The fourth hortatory passage builds on its predecessors. The recipients are further exhorted not to abandon their confidence , The example used echoes that of the first exhortation: those who broke the Mosaic law and were punished see also However, the immediate context of the second and third exhortation also features the word ; The third exhortation uses the word , ; see also which, although not a synonym for , may have a similar import here.

However, where the first exhortation has a very general question how shall we escape? God is presented as the one who lays exclusive claim to vengeance. The final block of exhortation returns in large message to the tone of the first. The harder edge of the intervening exhortations is still evident, especially in the illustrative use made of the story of Esau , who is unable to find repentance despite seeking it with tears.

The pattern with the exhortations is exactly parallel to that seen in the degree of identification evinced between Auctor and the recipients. Exhortations two, three and four bear witness to a progressive escalation of rhetoric. Finally the fifth exhortation returns in large measure to the tone of the first exhortation although retaining and reinforcing some of the themes from the other blocks as well.

This is precisely what would be expected if Auctor were following the classical rhetorical models as he, indeed, appears to be. This lends significant weight to the suggestion that he also follows those models in the presentation of his argumentative proofs: beginning with what is known and accepted and only adding that which is new and divisive at a later stage.

This suggests that the See the discussion above, pp. The results from surveying the potential evidence for concluding that the priesthood of Jesus as a part of the confession of the recipients have been uniformly negative. Such a supposition is not supported by the rhetorical structure of the document, the use of traditional material in it, or by the witness of the rest of the New Testament.

However, contextual factors and an understanding of the meaning of lessen the likelihood that this phraseology actually indicates that priesthood was part of the confession. The comments by Ernest Scott remain as valid now as they were when they were written: Attempts have often been made to construe the Epistle as the manifesto of some school or party which rested its Christianity on a belief in the priesthood of Christ.

It is true that suggestions of this belief can be discovered elsewhere, but there is no indication that it as widely current, much less that any definite type of doctrine had grown out of it. Conclusion The importance of the reinforcing commitment to the confession as a motive for the writing of Hebrews is widely recognized. Significantly less unanimity exists with regard to the content of the confession. The specific question of whether or not E.

Some have argued that the importance of the priesthood of Christ in Hebrews necessarily implies its inclusion in the confession of that community. However, I have argued on a number of grounds that this position is unlikely. It is to this question that I now turn. There are a number of facets to this focus. First, the decision to accept Heb 2 as the most valid entry point for a discussion of the relationship of priesthood and Sonship in Hebrews needs to be justified.

Second, the rhetorical and structural position of Heb 2 within the entire book needs to be established. Third, exegesis on the chapter must be done in some detail to ascertain the nature of the argument developed therein. A Starting Point for the Investigation The Christological argument of Hebrews can broadly be divided into two sections: Heb , which deals with the person of the heavenly priest; and Heb , which deals with the work of the heavenly priest.

This is obviously an extremely broad division. It is recognized that there is much beside these topics in the two sections delineated—not least of all considerable amounts of paraenesis. It should also be noted that the dividing point between the two sections does not form an impenetrable barrier, so that no reference to the person of the priest is found in Heb , or any to his work in Heb There are three places in Hebrews—; ; and —where the Christological terminology of Sonship and priesthood are brought into particularly close connection, and the key to relationships ought logically to be sought in them.

The two latter passages indicate the close relationship between the Sonship and priesthood by explicitly juxtaposing the two concepts in the text. In the nature of the relationship is developed in a more sustained way. Hebrews The selection of this passage as the crucial starting point of any investigation of the relationship of priesthood and Sonship in Hebrews can be justified on several grounds.

The chapter is widely recognized as being very important to the development of the argument of Hebrews, even by scholars not concerned particularly with the issues explored here. However, unlike Koester, he locates the propositio in Spicq suggests the transition actually takes place in Admittedly, Jesus is not explicitly named as Son in Heb 2, but the emphasis on his rule and dominion correlates with the concept of Sonship given expression in chapter 1.

The significance of the progression from Sonship to priesthood in Heb 2 should not be overlooked. Heb is the first explicit mention of Christ as high priest. This topic is not taken up in detail until which introduces a lengthy exposition on priesthood and the priestly work lasting until The topic of priesthood is re-introduced in the same terms as it is initially 3 Koester, Hebrews, The themes of the introduction are then developed in greater detail in the subsequent exposition. Within the unit a distinct turning point, as already noted above, comes in At the very point where the discussion focussed particularly on the priesthood itself is concluded , the motifs found in and are repeated yet again.

It can therefore not be thought of as a trivial passage with regard to this theme. It suggests that forms a virtual excursus, after which Auctor returns to his previous point—the priesthood of Jesus. Hughes notices the same structural points noted here, but draws the opposite conclusion. For him, it is 10 Hughes, Hebrews and Hermeneutics, Kurianal points out that is an important argumentative conclusion in Hebrews, assuming and presupposing the entire presentation from to However, he appears to overlook the significant parallels between ,19; ; and, If Sonship implies priesthood to Auctor, the reverse seems also to be true.

Furthermore, forms a distinct unit of discourse climaxing with an explicitly priestly picture of Jesus This unit is both preceded and succeeded by exhortatory material ; The logic of looking for the key to the relationship between the christological categories of Sonship and priesthood in Hebrews in is thus strong.

The importance of the section in the work as a whole is widely recognized. The passage opens with an emphasis of Sonship and concludes with explicit mention of priesthood. Careful exegesis of the passage will reveal the logical which binds these two Christological categories together. In such exegesis, a theology which is strongly 13 Hughes, Hebrews and Hermeneutics, 9. In order for it to function within the entire document, it must have points of contact and continuity both with what precedes it and what follows it. Such points of continuity will be explored in greater depth below.

However, a turning point in the thought of the document is widely recognized in Heb 18 is dominated by an introductory citation of Ps and the exposition of it b- 9. It is clear from a reading of the Hebrew text of Ps 8 that it has numerous points of contact with the Creation narrative Gen 1. The creation reference is modified in the LXX translation and a greater degree of ambiguity is introduced in places.

Auctor further modifies the focus placing emphasis more on the end of the Eden story Gen 3 than on the initial creation narrative. Nevertheless, a relationship to the Adam story is still clear. See F. Delitzsch Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 2 vols. Peake suggests that Auctor is providing the grounds for the exhortation just given.

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Caird suggests that the citation of Ps which is introduced by actually controls the argument of Bruce, and Nairne deny this implication. One of the key functions of the argument in Heb 2 is to demonstrate the victory of the Son over the angelic rulers of this age, specifically the devil The general statements of Heb 1 on the superiority of the Son over the angels serve to prepare the way for that demonstration.

Bruce objects that the topic of is not the angels and their inferiority to the Son. Westcott, Hebrews, In ancient rhetoric such words often introduce enthymenes. This serves as both the conclusion of the proem and the introduction of the argumentative block which follows in Structural Analysis of Hebrews The topic of the following argument is consequently announced as being a contrast in relative status between the Son and the angels.

This conjunction is not used again in the rest of the chapter. Analysis of the chapter in these terms is somewhat complicated by the degree to which it consists of scriptural citations. The structure of can be outlined in this way: 24 Peake, Hebrews, Eriksson, T. Olbricht and W. This single proposition and its elaboration serve as the basis for the exhortation of The point being made here about the structure of Heb 1 and 2 remains fundamentally unaffected either way.

But it bears an even closer resemblance to the words from the Longer Septuagint form of Deut. In this verse indicate merely a shift in focus from one side of the contrast to the other, not a shift in the basic thrust of the argument. Such a shift in argumentative thrust would more likely have been indicated by than by. Similar use of is seen in v The chapter begins with an exhortation which is clearly based on the argument of the preceding chapter. Structural Analysis of Hebrews Neither the singularity of focus of nor the simplicity of the structure of is evident in the rest of Heb 2.

The dominant conjunctives suggest changes of focus rather than amplification of a single point.

Predigt: Die Sabbatruhe für das Volk Gottes (Hebr 4,1-13)

The opening of has already been noted. Other uses of follow in , 10, 11, 16, and The word occurs twelve times in , three of which are found inside scriptural citations , 9, 13c ; four more join separate nouns or noun phrases to form single noun phrases , 11, 14a, 17 ; and another is used adverbally rather than as a conjunction b. Binding tight; text in very good condition. Budapest: Ph. Wodianer, Kayserling was a German rabbi and historian. Antisemitism -- Europe. In newer binding. Pages dark; two-inch tear on title page at spine.

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Very good condition in fair jacket. Marburg, "Judische Rundschau," In German Includes relevant essays by leading Jewish scholars of the time. The extremely scare dust jacket is present 2 margin chips , very nice, although it shows water stains. Good Condition thus is Good Jacket. Goldstein, During World War II Hersch served as a representative of the American "Jewish Workers' Committee, " and was active on behalf of the Jews in the Nazi-occupied countries and in facilitating the admission of Jewish refugees to Switzerland.

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Cloth; large 8vo. Xx, 93 pages. Marbled edges; embossed boards. Bibliographical annotations; indices in Hebrew and German; notes; charts, including one fold-out chart following page x. Hildesheimer was a German historian and author. This work is an important study of the historical geography of Erez Israel. OCLC lists 15 copies of this edition worldwide. Library bookplate on inside cover identifying book as gift of Gershom Bader.

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Exegese Hebraer 4,14-16 (German, Paperback)

Mirjam Wilensky, translator. Cloth; 12mo. Translated from Russian. Illustrated with other portrait plates. Trumpeldor was a soldier, symbol of pioneering and armed defense in Erez Israel. He attained his goals, despite the severe handicaps placed before him as a Jew, by working within the system but consistently volunteering for the most difficult assignments and then distinguishing himself for bravery and accomplishment. His life and death became a symbol to pioneer youth from all parts of the diaspora.

Leaves wrinkled; boards and leaves stained. Leipzig: August Pries, Iv, 96 pages. Tell el-Amarna tablets. OCLC lists 7 copies worldwide of this edition. Bit of marginalia in pencil. Damp stained; backstrip peeling. Lacks outer wrappers. Title page soiled; otherwise, very good condition. Leipzig: L. Fort, Xx, vi, pages. Text in Aramaic, commentaries in German.

OCLC lists 17 copies worldwide of this edition. Archival repair to title page, which is missing a few letters of text. Damp stained; pages wrinkled and dark. Printed on strong laid rag paper, which has held up well. Overall Good Condition. Leipzig: Eduard Pfeiffer, Series: Staatliche Forschungsinstitute bei der Universitat Leipzig. Gulkowitsch was an eminent scholar of Jewish studies, professor first at Leipzig, and then Tartu in Estonia during the Holocaust-when Jewish studies done in German were nearly non-existent; eventually murdered by the Nazis.

Bookplate identifying it as part of Hyman G. Enelow Collection Enelow was a U. Reform rabbi, scholar, and author. Wrappers bound in. Bit of edgewear. Damp stain on upper edge of first few and last few leaves near spine, not affecting text. Breslau: Schletter, Vi, pages. In German, with occasional text in Hebrew. Includes bibliographical references and index. Kohn was a Hungarian rabbi and a prolific author. He was the first to introduce sermons in the Hungarian language.

Samaritan Aramaic language -- Glossaries, vocabularies, etc. Aramaic -- Samaritan -- Versions. OCLC lists 20 copies worldwide. Minor edgewear; pages dark. Tear in front flyleaf near spine. Contemporary binding, preserving original wraps. Wien: Eigenverlag des verfassers, Cloth, Small 8vo, ii, pages. In Hebrew and Aramaic with German on title page only.

Aramaic language -- Dictionaries. Talmud -- Dictionaries. Some rubbing to boards, title page repaired, about Very Good Condition. Leipzig: Bernhardi Tauchnitz, Marbled boards and edges. Hebrew text; preface and notes in Latin. Baer was a German-born teacher of Hebrew and writer on the Masorah; "Few scholars in the nineteenth century had so intimate an acquaintance with all the details of the Masorah as had Baer; and it was largely due to him that the study of this branch of Hebrew philology was brought to the notice of Biblical critics.

Quarter Leather, 8vo, leaves, 23 cm. In Hebrew. Front hinge repaired, Good Condition thus. Berlin: M. Poppelauer, Leather; 8vo. Decorative end papers and marbled edges. Index and notes. Ehrlich was a Russian-born Bible critic who emigrated to the United States in It served as an introduction to his German commentary on the Bible, which like his Hebrew one consists of notes on the Bible, Randglossen zur hebraeischen Bibel 7 vols. Ehrlich included part of the material from his Hebrew commentary, but in an expanded form, as well as new interpretations arrived at since its publication; many of his earlier opinions are changed here.

Only rarely does he comment on aspects dealt with by the "higher criticism. His comments, which are distinguished by their originality, at times have the quality of homiletics and are derived from Ehrlich's innovating spirit; yet through his sound linguistic instinct and fine linguistic differentiations he succeeded in illuminating and explaining, with great acumen and profundity, many verses and linguistic usages.

Ehrlich's exegetical work is an important contribution to modern biblical exegesis. Psalms -- Commentaries. Boards scuffed and edgeworn; backstrip not present. Damp stain to lower right-hand corner of first few leaves. Leipzig: J. Hinrichs, Large 8vo. Iv, pages. Marbled edges; decorative endpapers. First volume of a 7-volume set. Erlich was a Russian-born librarian and bible critic. Hebrew -- Criticism, interpretation, etc.

Solomon Schechter's copy, inscribed to him by the editor on the flyleaf. Flyleaves tattered. Some pages chipped or dogeared. Breslau: Julius Hainauer, Viii, pages. Bibliographical annotations. Abraham Geiger "was a rabbi, son of an old-established family in Frankfort, one of the leaders of the Reform movement in Judaism, and an outstanding scholar of Wissenschaft des Judentums Geiger's principal work was Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel He also supplemented the work with comments, written in a fine rabbinic Hebrew Ozar Nehmad, 3 , , First edition of the principal work of one of the great leaders of the German reform movement.

Attractive modern binding. Damp stain at top edge of first few leaves. Pages heavily foxed. Very Good Condition. Berlin: Neues Leben bei Wilhelm Borngraeber, Cloth; pages. Gilt titles and decorations. One page of advertisements at end. Grzymisch was the district rabbi of Bretten, Karlsruhe, Germany. OCLC lists 16 copies worldwide. Gilt titles. Added title page in Hebrew on facing page and on verso. Foreword in German. Midrasch Tannaim is "a tannaitic work which is a collection of beraitot, comprising fragments of a halakhic Midrash on Deuteronomy.

Hoffmann conjectured that in ancient times there was an halakhic Midrash, also on Deuteronomy, of the school of R. Ishmael, similar to Mekhilta of R. Indeed, in the Cairo Genizah several fragments of such a Midrash were found, which were published by S. Schechter in JQR, 16 , , Later Hoffmann issued an edition of Midrash Tannaim on Deuteronomy, with an introduction and notes , compiled from Midrash ha-Gadol on Deuteronomy, with the addition of the above-mentioned genizah fragments.

Since, however, the author of Midrash ha-Gadol did not indicate his sources, and even adapted, abbreviated, and expanded, subdivided, and combined them, Hoffmann's edition has to be treated with great caution. Still later, yet another genizah fragment was discovered which was likewise published by Schechter in Festschrift I.

Lewy Heb. The fragments, totaling six folios, constitute only an extremely small part of the lost Midrash, which was subdivided into sections, and the sections into halakhot. More cannot be said of its structure, nor is the date of its redaction or even its original name known. It is, however, clear that it belonged to a type A of the halakhic Midrashim.

OCLC lists no copies of this edition worldwide. Sunned; very good condition. Half cloth; 34 pages. No more published. OCLC lists 10 copies worldwide. Damp stained; boards warped and scuffed; pages stained and wrinkled. Some leaves loose. UND II. Halberstadt: Selbstverlag des Verfassers, Nobel was a rabbi, Talmudic scholar, and author. Psalms --Commentaries. Damp stained; lacks covers. Leaves brittle; some chipped or dog-eared. Title page detached but present.

Mohr Paul Siebeck , Map page Series: Handbuch zum Alten Testament; 1. Reihe, 7. Noth was a German Bible scholar who wrote commentaries to several books of the Bible besides Joshua. His studies had widespread influence on Biblical research. Joshua -- Commentaries. Damp stained; boards warped and soiled. Bit of underlining in pencil. Pick was a German rabbi and author. Title Subject: Bible. OCLC lists 24 copies worldwide. Backstrip peeling, with 2" strip missing from top edge. Pages very dark. Front flyleaf detached but present.

X, pages. Bibliography: p. Georg Salzberger was rabbi to the Frankfurt Jewish community from to , and belonged to the Reform Movement. In , he was imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp. In he was allowed to leave Germany and emigrate to England. There he became cofounder of the German-speaking Jewish community in London, and remained their rabbi until He was the recipient of numerous medals and honors. Temple of Jerusalem Jerusalem. OCLC lists 25 copies worldwide.

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Joseph Perles, editor. Munich: Theodor Ackermann, Marbled boards; gilt titles. Decorated edges. Schefftel was a German Hebraist. This Hebrew commentary was published posthumously by Perles, who was his son-in-law. Onkelos -- Commentaries. OCLC lists 21 copies of this edition worldwide. Edgeworn; pages a bit dark. I-II, 3. Helsinki: J. Hosea I-VI -- Commentaries. OCLC lists 2 copies worldwide of this edition. Some cover soil. Boards badly peeled; backstrip not present. Hinges very weak. Some soil to flyleaves and edges. Faint damp stain on some pages.

Breslau: Sulzbach, Boards; 12mo. In German and Hebrew. Wassertrilling was an Austrian Hebraist, teacher, and rabbi. This volume is "a collection of legends from the Talmud, Midrash, and the midrashic commentaries, arranged in verse in the order of the weekly lessons. Pentateuch -- Commentaries. Damp stained; pages very dark and brittle, with a few small chips or tears. Lower corner of rear board chipped off.

Book List in: Vetus Testamentum Volume 58 Issue 4 ()

Xx, pages. Gilt titles; spattered edges. Winckler was a German Orientalist and Bible scholar. He discovered the royal Hittite archives, opening the history of the Hittite kingdom to the scholarly world. Berlin: Schocken, Baeck was a German rabbi and religious thinker, leader of Progressive Judaism.

He refused offers to leave Germany during world War II, in order to support German Jews, and was deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp in , where he was named honorary president of the Aeltestenrat. After the war he lived and worked in London and the United States. In the Leo Baeck Institute for the study of the history of the Jews from German-speaking countries was established in his name, and he served as its first president.

Stamped on cover, title page and inside text: "Bibliothek der synagogen-gemeinde Konigsburg i. Cover worn and damp stained; backstrip peeling. Front hinge starting. Interior of book in very good condition. Vienna: M. Rath, Bettelheim Memorial Foundation. Study This. Hebrews Hebrews 3 Hebrews 5. Footnotes: Hebrews Greek has gone through the heavens.

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