- WKD (01) World Kigo Database . . . (WKD): Plum blossoms (ume)
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- How to Grow: Plums
- Never Prune When It's Wet
- Hattori Ransetsu’s Plum Tree
The names of the pavilions in Chinese gardens express the view or experience they offer the visitor:. Gardens also often feature two-story towers lou or ge , usually at the edge of the garden, with a lower story made of stone and a whitewashed upper story, two-thirds the height of the ground floor, which provided a view from above of certain parts of the garden or the distant scenery. Some gardens have a picturesque stone pavilion in the form of a boat, located in the pond.
These generally had three parts; a kiosk with winged gables at the front, a more intimate hall in the center, and a two-story structure with a panoramic view of the pond at the rear. Galleries lang are narrow covered corridors which connect the buildings, protect the visitors from the rain and sun, and also help divide the garden into different sections. These galleries are rarely straight; they zigzag or are serpentine, following the wall of the garden, the edge of the pond, or climbing the hill of the rock garden. They have small windows, sometimes round or in odd geometric shapes, to give glimpses of the garden or scenery to those passing through.
Windows and doors are an important architectural feature of the Chinese garden. Sometimes they are round moon windows or a moon gate or oval, hexagonal or octagonal, or in the shape of a vase or a piece of fruit. Sometimes they have highly ornamental ceramic frames. The window may carefully frame a branch of a pine tree, or a plum tree in blossom, or another intimate garden scene.
Bridges are another common feature of the Chinese garden. Like the galleries, they are rarely straight, but zigzag called the Nine-turn bridges or arch over the ponds, suggesting the bridges of rural China, and providing view points of the garden. Bridges are often built from rough timber or stone-slab raised pathways. Some gardens have brightly painted or lacquered bridges, which give a lighthearted feeling to the garden. Gardens also often include small, austere houses for solitude and meditation, sometimes in the form of rustic fishing huts, and isolated buildings which serve as libraries or studios shufang.
It was designed to create a rainbow-shaped reflection in the pond. A pavilion with a fan-shaped viewing window in the pond of the Humble Administrator's Garden in Suzhou. Long gallery for viewing the lotus pond at the Prince Gong Mansion in Beijing. The artificial mountain jiashan or rock garden is an integral element of Chinese classical gardens.
The mountain peak was a symbol of virtue, stability and endurance in Confucian philosophy and in the I Ching. These rocks, of limestone sculpted by erosion, became the most highly prized for gardens. During the Song dynasty , the artificial mountains were made mostly of earth. During the Qing dynasty , the Ming rock gardens were considered too artificial and the new mountains were composed of both rocks and earth.
The artificial mountain in Chinese gardens today usually has a small view pavilion at the summit. In smaller classical gardens, a single scholar rock represents a mountain, or a row of rocks represents a mountain range. Rock garden of the Mountain Villa with Embracing Beauty. A pond or lake is the central element of a Chinese garden. The main buildings are usually placed beside it, and pavilions surround the lake to see it from different points of view. The garden usually has a pond for lotus flowers, with a special pavilion for viewing them. There are usually goldfish in the pond, with pavilions over the water for viewing them.www.cantinesanpancrazio.it/components/bokifat/530-note-8.php
WKD (01) World Kigo Database . . . (WKD): Plum blossoms (ume)
The lake or pond has an important symbolic role in the garden. In the I Ching , water represents lightness and communication, and carried the food of life on its journey through the valleys and plains. It also is the complement to the mountain, the other central element of the garden, and represents dreams and the infinity of spaces.
The shape of the garden pond often hides the edges of the pond from viewers on the other side, giving the illusion that the pond goes on to infinity. The softness of the water contrasts with the solidity of the rocks. The water reflects the sky, and therefore is constantly changing, but even a gentle wind can soften or erase the reflections. The lakes and waterside pavilions in Chinese gardens were also influenced by another classic of Chinese literature, the Shishuo Xinyu by Liu Yiqing — , who described the promenades of the Emperor Jianwen of Jin along the banks of the Hao and the Pu River, in the Garden of the Splendid Forest Hualin yuan.
Many gardens, particularly in the gardens of Jiangnan and the imperial gardens of northern China, have features and names taken from this work. Small gardens have a single lake, with a rock garden, plants and structures around its edge. Middle-sized gardens will have a single lake with one or more streams coming into the lake, with bridges crossing the streams, or a single long lake divided into two bodies of water by a narrow channel crossed by a bridge. In a very large garden like the Humble Administrator's Garden , the principal feature of the garden is the large lake with its symbolic islands, symbolizing the isles of the immortals.
Streams come into the lake, forming additional scenes. Numerous structures give different views of the water, including a stone boat, a covered bridge, and several pavilions by the side of or over the water. Some gardens created the impression of lakes by places smooth areas of white sand, bordered by rocks, in courtyards. In the moonlight these looked like real lakes. This style of 'dry garden' was later imported into Japan and transformed into the zen garden. The streams in the Chinese garden always follow a winding course, and are hidden from time to time by rocks or vegetation.
A French Jesuit missionary, Father Attiret, who was a painter in the service of the Qianlong Emperor from to , described one garden he saw:. Pond and viewing pavilion in the Humble Administrator's Garden, in Suzhou. Flowers and trees, along with water, rocks and architecture, are the fourth essential element of the Chinese garden.
They represent nature in its most vivid form, and contrast with the straight lines of the architecture and the permanence, sharp edges and immobility of the rocks. They change continually with the seasons, and provide both sounds the sound of rain on banana leaves or the wind in the bamboo and aromas to please the visitor. Each flower and tree in the garden had its own symbolic meaning. They were often painted together by artists like Zhao Mengjian — For scholars, the pine was the emblem of longevity and tenacity, as well as constance in friendship. The bamboo, a hollow straw, represented a wise man, modest and seeking knowledge, and was also noted for being flexible in a storm without breaking.
Plum trees were revered as the symbol of rebirth after the winter and the arrival of spring. During the Song dynasty , the favorite tree was the winter plum tree, appreciated for its early pink and white blossoms and sweet aroma. The peach tree in the Chinese garden symbolized longevity and immortality. This story said that in Xi Wangmu's legendary orchard, peach trees flowered only after three thousand years, did not produce fruit for another three thousand years, and did not ripen for another three thousand years. Those who ate these peaches became immortal. This legendary orchard was pictured in many Chinese paintings, and inspired many garden scenes.
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The word 'pear' was also a homophone for 'quit' or separate,' and it was considered bad luck to cut a pear, for it would lead to the breakup of a friendship or romance. The pear tree could also symbolize a long friendship or romance, since the tree lived a long time. The apricot tree symbolized the way of the mandarin , or the government official. During the Tang dynasty, those who passed the imperial examination were rewarded with the banquet in the garden of the apricot trees, or Xingyuan.
The fruit of the pomegranate tree was offered to young couples so they would have male children and numerous descendants. The willow tree represented the friendship and the pleasures of life. Guests were offered willow branches as a symbol of friendship. Of the flowers in the Chinese garden, the most appreciated were the orchid , peony , and lotus Nelumbo nucifera.
During the Tang dynasty , the peony, the symbol of opulence and a flower with a delicate fragrance, was the most celebrated flower in the garden. The poet Zhou Dunyi wrote a famous elegy to the lotus, comparing it to a junzi , a man who possessed integrity and balance. The orchid was the symbol of nobility, and of impossible love, as in the Chinese expression "a faraway orchid in a lonely valley.
The chrysanthemum was elegized the poet Tao Yuanming , who surrounded his hermit's hut with the flower, and wrote a famous verse:. The creators of the Chinese garden were careful to preserve the natural appearance of the landscape. Trimming and root pruning, if done at all, tried to preserve the natural form. Dwarf trees that were gnarled and ancient-looking were particularly prized in the miniature landscapes of Chinese gardens.
Plum blossoms Prunus mume in the Plum Garden , Jiangsu. Lotus blossom Nelumbo nucifera. The lotus pond in Humble Administrator's Garden. According to Ji Cheng's 16th century book Yuanye , "The Craft of Gardens," "borrowing scenery" jiejing was the most important thing of a garden. This could mean using scenes outside the garden, such as a view of distant mountains or the trees in the neighboring garden, to create the illusion that garden was much bigger than it was. The most famous example was the mist-shrouded view of the North Temple Pagoda in Suzhou, seen in the distance over the pond of the Humble Administrator's Garden.
But, as Ji Cheng wrote, it could also be "the immaculate ribbon of a stream, animals, birds, fish, or other natural elements rain, wind, snow , or something less tangible, such as a moonbeam, a reflection in a lake, morning mist, or the red sky of a sunset. The season and the time of day were also important elements. Garden designers took into account the scenes of the garden that would look best in winter, summer, spring and autumn, and those best viewed at night, in the morning or afternoon.
Ji Cheng wrote: "In the heart of the tumult of the city, you should choose visions that are serene and refined: from a raised clearing, you look to the distant horizon, surrounded by mountains like a screen; in an open pavilion, a gentle and light breeze invades the room; from the front door, the running water of spring flows toward the marsh. Actually borrowing scenery is the conclusive, last chapter of Yuanye that explains borrowing scenery as a holistic understanding of the essence of landscape design in its entirety.
How to Grow: Plums
The ever-changing moods and appearances of nature in a given landscape in full action are understood by the author as an independent function that becomes an agent for garden making. It is nature including the garden maker that creates. Another important garden element was concealment and surprise. The garden was not meant to be seen all at once, it was laid out to present a series of scenes.
Visitors moved from scene to scene either within enclosed galleries or by winding paths which concealed the scenes until the last moment. The scenes would suddenly appear at the turn of a path, through a window, or hidden behind a screen of bamboo. They might be revealed through round "moon doors" or through windows of unusual shapes, or windows with elaborate lattices that broke the view into pieces. The garden plays an important part in Chinese art and literature, and at the same time art and literature have inspired many gardens.
The school of painting called " Shanshui " literally 'mountains and water' and with the actual meaning of 'landscape' , which began in the 5th century, established the principles of Chinese landscape painting, which were very similar to those of Chinese gardening. These paintings were not meant to be realistic; they were meant to portray what the artist felt, rather than what he saw.
The landscape painter Shitao — wrote that he wanted to "' That is the vertigo that exists in the natural universe. To express it in painting, you must show jagged peaks, precipices, hanging bridges, great chasms. For the effect to be truly marvelous, it must be done purely by the force of the brush. In his book, Craft of Gardens , the garden designer Ji Cheng wrote: "The spirit and the charm of mountains and forests must be studied in depth; The spirit rejoices at the mountains and ravines.
Suddenly the spirit, detached from the world of small things, is animated and seems to penetrate to the interior of a painting, and to promenade there In literature, gardens were frequently the subject of the genre of poetry called "Tianyuan", literally 'fields and gardens,' which reached its peak in the Tang dynasty — with such poets as Wang Wei — Wang Wei — was a poet, painter and Buddhist monk, who worked first as a court official before retiring to Lantian , where he built one of the first wenren yuan , or scholar's gardens, called the Valley of the Jante.
In this garden, a series of twenty scenes, like the paintings of a scroll or album, unrolled before the viewer, each illustrated by a verse of poetry. For example, one scene illustrated this poem:. The Valley of the Jante garden disappeared, but its memory, preserved in paintings and poems, inspired many other scholar's gardens. The social and cultural importance of the garden is illustrated in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin which unfolds almost exclusively in a garden. The Chinese classical garden had multiple functions.
It could be used for banquets, celebrations, reunions, or romance. It could be used to find solitude and for contemplation. It was a calm place for painting, poetry, calligraphy, and music, and for studying classic texts.
Taoism had a strong influence on the classical garden. After the Han dynasty BC — AD , gardens were frequently constructed as retreats for government officials who had lost their posts or who wanted to escape the pressures and corruption of court life in the capital. They chose to pursue the Taoist ideals of disengagement from worldly concerns. For followers of Taoism, enlightenment could be reached by contemplation of the unity of creation, in which order and harmony are inherent to the natural world. The gardens were intended to evoke the idyllic feeling of wandering through a natural landscape, to feel closer to the ancient way of life, and to appreciate the harmony between man and nature.
Never Prune When It's Wet
In Taoism, rocks and water were opposites, yin and yang , but they complemented and completed one another. Rocks were solid but water could wear away rock. The deeply eroded rocks from Lake Tai used in the classical garden illustrated this principle. The winding paths and zig-zag galleries bridges that led visitors from one garden scene to another also had a message. They illustrated a Chinese proverb, "By detours, access to secrets". According to the landscape historian and architect Che Bing Chiu, every garden was "a quest for paradise. The scholar's garden participated in this quest; on the one hand the quest for the home of the Immortals, on the other hand the search for the world of the golden age so dear to the heart of the scholar.
A more recent view of the philosophy of the garden was expressed by Zhou Ganzhi, the President of the Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture, and Academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, in "Chinese classical gardens are a perfect integration of nature and work by man.
They are an imitation of nature, and fully manifest the beauty of nature. They can also be seen as an improvement on nature; one from which the light of human artistic genius shines. The Chinese classical garden had a notable influence on the early Japanese garden. His reports had a profound influence on the development of Japanese landscape design.
During the Nara period , when the Japanese capital was located at Nara , and later at Heian , the Japanese court created large landscape gardens with lakes and pavilions on the Chinese model for aristocrats to promenade and to drift leisurely in small boats, and more intimate gardens for contemplation and religious meditation. He also brought green tea from China to Japan, originally to keep monks awake during long meditation, giving the basis for the Japanese tea ceremony , which became an important ritual in Japanese gardens.
The Japanese garden designer Muso Soseki — created the celebrated Moss Garden Kokedera in Kyoto, which included a recreation of the Isles of Eight Immortals , called Horai in Japanese, which were an important feature of many Chinese gardens. During the Kamakura period — , and particularly during the Muromachi period — the Japanese garden became more austere than the Chinese garden, following its own aesthetic principles.
My two oldest apricot trees just up and died. Tomcot and Moorpark. Dead as doornails. I think Appleseed70 met similar frustration trying to grow them, and gave up. Cots must not like the Appalachians. As I have often said, apricots are fragile trees- fluctuating temps can be the death of them in humid regions. But they are impossible to predict. They are not productive on my property but rarely die, at other sites where they produce very well and grow better they occasionally die- but I never know coming out of winter where there might be fatalities- it often comes at seemingly favored sites.
Odd about Apricots. Here in the Rocky Mountain foothills, Apricots are tough cookies. They normally get shut out in fruiting but are nearly xeric and even naturalize a little near drainage areas—unheard of with any other commonly grown fruit.
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- How Old Is a Plum Tree Before it Bears Fruit??
I wonder if its rootstock related? Maybe these trees should all be on apricot roots? I still have my Puget Gold on K86 and its going strong after 7 or 8 years. Here they are easily the biggest pain in the arse you could possibly plant. I was not familiar with the use of the word either. Now it is very fashionable amongst western garden writers judging from a search I just did. Maybe the dryness of fall there helps them harden off better. It is excessive water in the cells that causes plants to die in extreme weather. Cells expand, rupture and die.
Appleseed, have you ever tasted a tree ripened apricot? World Kigo Database. They are a symbol of refinement, purity and nobility and also a reminder of past love. Sugawara Michizane was especially known for his love of the plum blossoms shared in many Tanka poems. More about him below. Ume, Prunus mume, is biologically of the apricot family. For kigo of other seasons related to the plum fruit , see below.
The plum blossom is seen as a symbol of winter and a harbinger of spring. The blossoms are so beloved because they are viewed as blooming most vibrantly amidst the winter snow, exuding an ethereal elegance, while their fragrance is noticed to still subtly pervade the air at even the coldest times of the year.
Therefore the plum blossom came to symbolize perseverance and hope, but also beauty, purity, and the transitoriness of life. In Confucianism, the plum blossom stands for the principles and values of virtue. More recently, it has also been used as a metaphor to symbolize revolutionary struggle since the turn of the 20th century. Because it blossoms in the cold winter, the plum blossom is regarded as one of the "Three Friends of Winter" , along with pine, and bamboo. Their scattered shadows fall lightly on clear water, their subtle scent pervades the moonlit dusk.
Snowbirds look again before they land, butterflies would faint if they but knew. Thankfully I can flirt in whispered verse, I don't need a sounding board or winecup. As with the literary culture amongst the educated of the time, Lin Bu's poems were discussed in several Song Dynasty era commentaries on poetry. JAPAN Japanese tradition holds that the ume functions as a protective charm against evil, so the ume is traditionally planted in the northeast of the garden, the direction from which evil is believed to come. The eating of the pickled fruit for breakfast is also supposed to stave off misfortune.
Many temples and famous estates have a special ground for plum blossom viewing see below. Plum trees have been introduced to Japan via China as a medicine quite a long time ago. Bownas A. It is wrinkly in shape, unlike its non-dried counterpart. David Lanoue ume ichi-rin ichirin hodo no atatakasa Hattori Ransetsu one plum blossom brings us just one more step to the warmth Tr: Gabi Greve Read more about this famous haiku and look at one plum blossom.
Hattori Ransetsu’s Plum Tree
Peter Beilenson Two ume trees in my garden Bloom at a different time; How dear the difference! Shoji Kumano Two flower branches of plum, one early, on late, oh deeply loved. This poem might refere to a Chinese poem mentioned in the collection Wakan Roeishu. Two willow trees are dropping their leaves at different times.
Shall I go to the south? Shall I go north? Buson and the Four Directions. The fragrance of an inkstone in the Chinese guesthouse. So, why is this beautiful woman gathering her eyebrows up? One of the haiku readers I have says that although Masaoka Shiki and Takahama Kyoshi read this action as meaning that the girl had eaten one of the very sour green fruits that the plums grow, Buson probably had the legendary Chinese beauty Xi Shi in mind when he wrote the haiku. The use of the present participle here brings out the allusion because it describes the woman as being in the act of knitting her eyebrows, which then returns us to Li Bai's poem to fill out the image with the fact that she is about to cry.
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Sasaki, McCabe, Iwasaki in the book "Chado: The Way of Tea" koobai ni miageru sora no aosa kana between red plum blossoms looking at the sky so blue, so blue!