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Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Montgomery Hyde, ed. Penguin Books Limited London, , Strangely, McCleery passes over the trial itself, and so neglects some of the most important archival material bearing on the case, such as the lawyer's brief discussed later in this article.
Booth, ed. On the novel's publishing history and earlier entanglements with the law, see Michael Squires, introduction to D. Squires Cambridge, , xvii—lx, here xxviii—xl; John Worthen, D. Lawrence: The Life of an Outsider London, , chaps. Old Bailey, London, E. Before: Mr Justice Byrne. When quoting statements in court, I usually rely on Hyde's edition, which is based on the court stenographers' transcripts. Rolph, ed. Penguin Books Limited—The Transcript of the Trial Harmondsworth, , rushed out by Penguin after the trial, is often cited, but it is less comprehensive than Hyde's edition.
The Rolph volume was probably based on the partial transcripts produced by the Press Association. The courts could be reluctant to make copies of the official transcripts, in which case journalists fell back on what the Press Association provided.
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The multiple legal systems operating within the United Kingdom mean that the arguments made here do not fully apply to the other constituent countries, especially to Scotland. Hicklin , 3 Queen's Bench — : , at This was despite the fact that Cockburn's remarks were obiter dicta , not a binding precedent. Furthermore, although Cockburn held the title of chief justice, his was not Britain's highest court. Alan Sheridan ; repr. See, for example, Martin J.
Lawrence discusses the policing of obscenity as one of a number of areas of governance and public life in which such thinking underwrote paternalist practices — James Paterson, 3 vols. George B. James Roberts London, , ; C. A classic contemporary interpretation is J. Priestley, English Journey ; repr. Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution , 8th ed. London, , chap.
London, , 1: vi. Hicklin , 3 Queen's Bench — : , at Blackburn J. I think this is to minimize the powerful continuity over the two centuries of what William J. The continuing commitment to ideas of the peace in the nineteenth century—and the twentieth—is evident in the fact that obscenity fell within the purview of vagrancy legislation and municipal statutes and regulations.
Colorado , U. See Lisa Z. Samuel Smith was unmoved by the notion that immoral literature could circulate safely in expensive editions; the market was such that it would always be profitable to produce cheap versions for mass circulation. HC Deb. Matthew, Gladstone, — Oxford, , — Paul Johnson has contrasted the strict regulation of working-class financial institutions and personal indebtedness and the more forgiving regime of bankruptcy law and limited liability that governed middle-class finances after the s.
The Oxford English Dictionary s. Lawrence, October 23, A guinea was a pound plus a shilling twenty-one shillings in total. See also Judith R. The copies of the book that had been on sale at the gallery were destroyed, but the police did not seek to have the edition itself suppressed. Munro, Inky Stephensen , 85— Sharpe to A. Askew, October 11, , July 18, Hank Janson was the creation of Stephen Frances, though after about other authors wrote under the name.
Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, 4 vols. Boston, , 2: —, here March In this brief, Bodkin said that he had been told by Sir John Anderson, the senior civil servant in the Home Office, that the law should be pressed to the limit against a book of this kind. The cabinet minister responsible was Sir William Joynson-Hicks, a vigorous moral campaigner.
On Joynson-Hicks's politics, see James J. Griffiths, James J.cszplayers.com/44.php
Daphne du Maurier
Nott, and William Whyte, eds. The prosecutor was Griffith-Jones. See also Lewis, Penguin Special , The author is apparently well recognized as a writer of distinction. In the past, such testimony had occasionally been admitted, but usually it was disallowed, and suggestions that there could be public-interest defenses against obscenity charges had lacked the sanction of the superior courts.
Lampe, Donald M. Mackinnon, Hugh Montefiore, Alec R. Vidler, and H. Leavis: A Life in Criticism London, , — See also Hugh Thomas, ed. Annan was one of the few scholars whom the prosecution also tried, unsuccessfully, to recruit. Annan to Sir Theobald Mathew, August 24, While Lady Chatterley's Lover could be plausibly said to articulate its author's philosophy, the spiraling ambivalence of Lolita makes it much harder to discuss in terms of authorial philosophy and authorial responsibility.
I think the court stenographer on whom Hyde relied misheard Griffith-Jones. Other twentieth-century criminal libel cases that support the generalization above include R. Criminal libel cases were usually confined to police or magistrates' courts and were not reported—hence the archival references. For a detailed survey of reported cases, see G.
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Singing the Lesbian Blues in s Harlem | Collectors Weekly
Download all figures. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. Gelatin silver print, 25 x Hirschfeld, Geschlechtskunde, p. Collection Dakis Joannou, Athens. Photomontage, 18 x 23 cm. Benutzung der Bubikopfmode Male Transvestite. Use of Bubikopf hairstyle. Moll, Polizei und Sitte, p. Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, no. Liebende Frauen, 5. Die Freundin, Oct. Die Freundin, March 5, , p. Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, August 10, , p. Die Freundin, 4 Jg. Error in sexu Pseudohermaphrodite with dominant feminine behavior.
The Granger Collection, New York. Bilderteil: Geschlechtskunde, Figs. Photomontage with watercolor, 30 x Museum Folkwang, Essen. Niels Hoyer, ed. Stenning New York: E. Dutton, , facing page Moll, Polizei und Sitte, between pp. Frontispiece, Hoyer, Man into Woman, Hoyer, Man into Woman, , facing page Frontispiece, Aveux non avenus, Oil on canvas, x 65 cm.
Oil on canvas, Photomontage, 30 x 22 cm. Goauche, 63 x 47 cm. Berlinische Galerie 7. Gouache, 45 x 32 cm. Watercolor 40 x 57 cm. Watercolor, 72 x 57 cm. Ink on Paper, 23 x 23 cm. Landesbank Berlin AG. Gouache, 45 x 62 cm. Oil on canvas, 90 x 60 cm. I am grateful to Tirza True Latimer, whose insight and suggestions helped me to develop my thesis in its early stages.
I would like to thank my committee members Catherine Scallen, T. Kenny Fountain, and above all, my advisor Anne Helmreich, whose intellectual clarity helped me to structure my argument. I am especially indebted to my second reader Ellen G. Landau, whose invaluable assistance in the final stages of the writing process enabled me to complete this dissertation.
I would like to thank the staff of the Kelvin Smith Library and Inter Library Loan for their professional and friendly assistance. I am indebted to Sabine Balke of the Berlin Spinnboden Lesbenarchiv who generously allowed me to acces Weimar materials and Ralf Burmeister of the Berlinische Galerie who was never too busy to locate information and provide valuable advice. I am grateful to my parents and my sisters and the many friends and accomplished individuals who have inspired, encouraged, and generously supported me throughout the years.
Because of this, her work is generally explored within the context of mainstream media and, to a degree, this is adequate. The Dadaists engaged with these media both as a raw material in their art, and as publishers. In their hands, the photomontage, composed from contemporary media fragments, constituted a politically and culturally disruptive act. Referencing Expressionist artists E. Kirchner and Ludwig Meidner, Gale remarks that when they engaged with urban themes, they were generally depicted as alienating or as apocalyptic visions.
The Malik Verlag served as a political platform for pacifist and communist-informed texts and satirical illustrations. Johnson has identified the sources of images; however, the sources of the remaining images have yet to be determined by Johnson, or others. When they met, Hausmann was married and had a seven year old daughter.
Frauen in Not was intended to raise awareness for the plight of women faced with unwanted pregnancies with no alternatives but illegal and medically risky procedures, or suicide. Cyankali was shut down by Nazi eugenicists in Yet, unlike other studies, the primary focus of this one will not be popular, i. Instead, her oeuvre will be newly considered in relation to publications that, while available to the average reader, nevertheless fell at the fringes of Weimar culture. Depictions of women in the Weimar media were generally informed by patriarchal heterosexism, yet lesbian print culture offered an alternative to this model.
As this study newly reveals, mainstream and lesbian print media were often, for all practical purposes, interchangeable. Lesbian journals newly emerged in Weimar and were regularly published and distributed in Berlin between and Heaven fig. However, their satire was especially vitriolic when addressing sexism and gender-related themes. Connelly, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , The subsequent war only exacerbated the process. During the s for the first time in history , Weimar lesbians expressed themselves via public media, especially with magazines and books.
However, the women involved in the authorship of these materials were faced with the task of representing what had traditionally been represented by men, 25 and often within a prurient or pornographic context. Staple media representations included dancers, show girls, nudists, and New Women a term that will be expounded upon later.
Wolfe and Julia Penelope, eds. But these are not works within a Lesbian literary tradition. While the two works, cannot, with absolute certainty, be characterized as a pair, as this chapter will argue, they may nevertheless be situated firmly within Weimar lesbian subculture. Heaven 3. The Scrapbook includes imagery from the s and s and was most probably assembled in Cambridge: University of Cambridge, , By , the National Socialists Nazis had become so powerful that they dominated Weimar politics. Yet, despite these developments, each woman continued, either in her art or writing, to courageously resist Nazi policy and politics.
The dual and ambiguously gendered Tamer will be shown to reflect, in a significant way, contemporary sexological publications and Weimar sexual subculture. This chapter will present an overview of the nineteenth-century theorists whose research laid its foundations. Weimar sexology was largely based upon the work of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs , Carl Westphal , and especially Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing See, Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, , Contemporaneous popular debates surrounding the New Woman figure will also play a key role in Chapter V.
Both artists may be characterized as New Women; they were economically and sexually independent and lived in an urban environment. The New Woman was an international phenomenon largely generated by historical events. After World War I, in what has been described as the feminization of the city, vast numbers of women flocked to European urban centers in search of employment. While Tamer, Strong Men, and The Sweet One disrupt stereotypical representations of gender, above all, the latter two imply its increasing medicalization.
Beginning in the s, the boxer and boxing became a favorite and frequent motif among artists. It will trace in much greater detail than ever before exactly how selected works, both before and after her years with Brugman, were influenced by the dynamic discourse of gender and sexual identities in Germany. Nevertheless, as will be seen, these experiences appear to have inspired her lifelong engagement with gender-related themes.
This will be followed by a discussion of photomontage, a medium characterized by the cutting and recombining of photographic and other readymade graphic imagery. Active within international avant-garde circles, Brugman fig. Brugman was clearly not afraid of controversy, yet her forceful personality was at times a liability. Above all, male artists with whom she was affiliated rejected and feared her bold critique and sarcasm, which was often at their expense. Images from the s and s, especially those depicting children, for example, suggest that she had not yet fully come to terms with her terminated pregnancies which took place in and From the mid s, figures all but disappear from her work and her brief marriage with Matthies seems to have had little influence on this development.
This c. In part, this may be attributed to dramatic changes in the German publishing industry. However, under Nazi rule, censorship, and, especially after , war-related shortages and disrupted distribution channels curtailed the availability of print media. Her later reintroduction of the figure may, in part, be explained by the renewed availability of color print media in postwar Germany. During the s, women, much as they had in the s, sought greater economic opportunities yet, unlike their predecessors, they now gained a significant measure of sexual independence through contraceptive drugs.
These combined developments inspired a 44 Heinz Ohff, ed. Her mother Rosa, born Sachs, was interested in music, literature, and painting, which, in the late nineteenth-century, was not uncommon among women of her class. She was forced to return to Gotha and work for the Red Cross. In she resumed her education and in began working as a graphic artist in Berlin for the Ullstein Press. In late or early , a portion of the School had been transformed into a makeshift military clinic and, as a result, the war was always present.
The emergency shelter unit at the hospital was managed by Richard Cassirer, the brother of the Berlin gallery owner Paul Cassirer. See also, Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, While the neue Frau New Woman informed and inspired countless young German females, their hopes were often dashed by the harsh realities of surviving in urban Weimar where they earned much less than their male counterparts.
Made from a combination of cloth and other materials, these figures also reflect a revived contemporary interest in puppets and dolls. Von Ankum claims that the economic disadvantages woman faced were largely responsible for a reactionary trend in late Weimar to idealize more traditional, and ergo, financially more secure, female roles of marriage and motherhood.
Koss locates the historical sources of the early twentieth-century fascination with the doll among the artistic avant-garde, and their frequent substitution of the human with the puppet, in the German Romantic literary imagination. As she claims, works of E. Made from paper embroidery pattern scraps, the humble materials and irreverent title of Sketch suggest the mocking tone of the Dadaists. Mann, , After the Hausmann family relocated, Victor no longer forced his unruly fourteen year-old son to attend school. Shortly 65 Schweitzer, Schrankenlose Freiheit, Herwarth Walden [born Georg Levin] ?
These consisted of a publishing house and journal, founded in , to which Walden added a gallery two years later. In August , during a vacation in Heidebrink, a fishing village on the island of Wollin, they report inventing photomontage.
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The use of photographic fragments marked a watershed-semantically, aesthetically, politically. Johnny Heartfield and I invented photomontage in my studio. Suffice it to say that, broadly speaking, photomontage undermines the concept of empirical truth. The Nazis were instrumental in the systematic Aryanization of the German language, i. Donald N. Stredisko 4, no. Translated from Czech into English by Jitka Salaguarda. The peculiar characteristics and its approaches have opened up a new and immensely creative field for a creative human being: a new magical territory, for which freedom is the first prerequisite; but not a lack of discipline, however.
Even these newly discovered possibilities remain subjects to the laws of form and color. The image was published on two occasions. While the version appears on a neutral blank background, in , the plant is surrounded by text. This commentary implies that by , the public had grown accustomed to images enhanced through photomontage. In addition, it also suggests that they could appreciate the increased veracity of unadulterated photographic and filmic reportage made newly possible through technical advances.
Bakels and his wife Miek lived in Berlin until political developments forced them to leave in the late s. Dada represented and provided a voice of opposition when the leftist revolution was suppressed by the Weimar government. As will be discussed below, these 88 Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, McBride, Richard W. Yet the intensity of the filial or sexual intimacy that this image suggests is relativized by the two hemispheres of a globe pictured nearby.
In the early decades of the twentieth-century, the globe was a symbol of expansion, and, among Western European colonial powers, a visual cipher for spaces and lands to be conquered. Here, the dual hemispheres, pasted over with meaningless letters snipped from a cheap newspaper, suggest the rootless emotional state of the orphaned emigrant artist, Raoul Hausmann. In addition to a dual-gendered figure, in the lower right corner of the image, the body of a fat baby is capped by the tiny face of an old man, another provocative composite.
His version of Dada, Schwitters one-man-movement Merz was named after a fragment of the German Kommerzbank Commerce-bank. He was excluded from the group because Huelsenbeck and especially Grosz were not convinced of his political commitment. See, Heinz Ohff, ed. While these images often convey meaning, they are on occasion unintelligible. Nonetheless, the primacy of letters and textual fragments in these images emphasize the aesthetics of typography: an indication that a number of the Dadaists were formally trained and professionally active in the graphic arts.
Ivan Puni was a Russian Constructivist who moved to Germany during the s to escape Soviet oppression. His watercolor La Fuite des Formes is pictured in Gale As feminist scholars maintain, early twentieth-century European modernism was clearly gendered masculine. The inherent paternalism of language was thematized by Jacques Lacan. According to Lacan, the pre-oedipal child is not yet formed as subject and identifies with the mother as one.
The interruption of this unity comes in the form of speech from the father. Sheridan London: Tavistock, Garrard, eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, , vol. I, The War of the Words, As will be seen in a later chapter, images of bearded women were deployed in the Weimar media as an intimidating and powerful anti-feminist tool. If they should ever achieve anything beyond being a dilettante, they would mutate into men. Otto Burchard. The exhibition ran from June 30 through August 25, The initiative and organization of the Dada-Fair largely reflected the efforts of George Grosz who convinced Burchard, a dealer who specialized in Chinese porcelain, to support the project and provide an exhibition venue.
While both photomontages include textual elements and human figures, a closer comparison of the two works reveals key differences based on content, iconography, and technique. In Sonniges Land dozens of textual references in the form of political headlines dominate the image.
Words and phrases randomly affixed to the montage appear to have been cut from Dada-generated rather than mainstream print materials. This suggests that, in some ways, she considered her fellow Dadaists as not unlike the horn-blowing politicians they themselves so vehemently disdained. Barr, Jr. It began with Dada. However, unlike Ernst, who often utilized entire catalogue pages for his collages, as in Jean Hatchet and Charles the Bold fig. Emphasis Taylor. When the paper is unfolded, surprising visual configurations are revealed. Generally the genus and scale of the figures generated rarely find semiotic resolution.
However, while the unconventional manner in which these images are generated suggests that the game was an extension of Dada-like practices, cadavre exquis requires a high degree of procedural rationality such as symmetrical folding and strict linear demarcation of heads, torsos, and legs. The grotesque typically characterizes a class of imagery that does not fit comfortably within the boundaries traditionally set by aesthetics or art history.
Peter Fuss argues that although the grotesque is generally regarded with trepidation, it is an indicator of, and an active agent of cultural change. Nelson and Richard Shiff, eds. Comic and horrific, the cobbled figures in these works satirize beauty standards, disrupt social order, and perennially confound the modern mania to impose classification.
The Dadaists generally re- photographed their photomontages to create a smooth and seamless surface. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, , A boxer, the largest of the figures surrounding the seated Father, is the only figure that actively engages with the infant. A symbol of heroic masculinity in Weimar, the boxer in The Father punches the baby on the cheek. This aggressive act, coupled with the feminized and helplessly immobile Father, suggests anger and frustration.
It also connotes an inability or a reluctance to assume a paternal role. The image, as Lavin observes, suggests violence, alienation, and anger, yet also aligns the modern woman with signs of physical pleasure signaled by a gymnast and a dancer. In the background of Dada-Ernst, two boxers closely engage in physical struggle. Both iconographic elements are common in Northern Renaissance Nativity and Annunciation images and suggest the interrelated themes of childbirth and conception.
The similarity of this mysterious oversized object with Lavin, Cut with the Kitchen Knife, 8, n The publication regularly featured cartoons by George Grosz. Langenscheidt, , A photograph of these instruments is prominently pictured in Wulfflen as a double-page spread. The image was later replicated as a slightly altered drawing in, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, vol. This letter appealed for more revolutionary aims: for commitment to a radical aesthetic and social changes and closer alignment of the artist with the average worker.
The theme of sexuality in Dada-Ernst is most strongly suggested by a prominent eye placed between the two legs near the center of the image. Not featured the work of a number of prominent international male and female artists. Pietz, eds.
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Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press , Yet, in Dada-Ernst, the eye functions much like a talisman and suggests the vaginal imagery of the mysterious Sheela-na-gig figures found throughout Northern Europe Fig. Lawlor claims that the etymological basis of the term Sheela-na-gig cannot be traced. Soldiers—and especially ranking superiors--are generally depicted wearing monocles.
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But, perhaps unsurprisingly, the monocle became a recognized sexual fetish in Wilhelmine Germany and, by the s, was a popular lesbian accoutrement. Even more so than Da-Dandy, Ohff, ed. While Hirschfeld does not discuss this, I have observed several pictures of homosexuals [both male and female] wearing monocles in his publications.
The fashionable and expensive accessories pictured in it include turban-like hats, pearls, fancy shoes, a ring and gold bracelets. The visual repetition of the figures in Da-Dandy, and the close-ups of their accessories clearly reflect a way of seeing inspired by the new medium of film. Held in Stuttgart, the May Fifo brought together the work of international photographers, photomontage artists, and filmmakers.
Two works are listed as Portraits, and another as a Fotomonage. The work celebrates popular representations of women and features three scantily clad figures engaged in dance. Like them, other girls pictured in the photomontage are not fully dressed, rather, they are shown in sports attire or bathing costumes. The ultimate contemporary symbol of personal mobility, the car became a cipher for freedom and independence and a requisite accessory of liberated and wealthy Weimar New Women. The image, later a cover illustration for the leading German fashion magazine Die Dame July 1, , depicts an elegant woman at the wheel of a car.
Mann, This letter is also cited in Burmeister, et al. Sauer, and Diane Watt, eds. Brugman reluctantly agreed, and, in April , she traveled to Holland for a week. Brugman did not accept the situation passively and attempted to win Hannah back; she was, however, unsuccessful, and in May , Brugman moved out. While this infraction was slight and carried a one Mark penalty and a maximum two day jail sentence, bureaucratic pursuit of this matter revealed that a German-wide search warrant for Matthies had been issued the previous month by the Munich police.
He had been arrested and jailed for similar incidents earlier in and in During his incarceration, Matthies was subjected to extensive medical and psychological evaluations. Under the Erbgesundheitgesetze Hereditary Health Laws , eugenically motivated laws instituted to curtail the transmission of hereditary weaknesses and diseases, castrations Schweitzer, Schrankenlose Freiheit, As Schwetzer claims, Matthies used a false name for a reason; he knew the police were looking for him.
In October , the police issued a nationwide warrant for him. Matthies was a pedophile and was arrested for indecent exposure for the first time in Berlin in and again in While this was Schweitzer, Schrankenlose Freiheit, Matthies would remain on parole for three years until July 30, The honeymoon did not last very long.
Beginning April 26, , the net value of Jewish-owned businesses could not exceed Reichsmark. However, his castration rendered him, at least to those with whom he was physically intimate, sexually ambiguous. The artist noted these impressions in her datebook. Both depict over-sized heads perched on tiny legs against empty backgrounds. Due to their similarity, the two are often discussed in tandem. The various signs of shadowing or doubling suggest an intimate and interactive practice in which two women mirror and change one another. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, , Europe, , New York: Harper Collins, , Written in large font, the advertisement for Quell emphasizes that the scandalous book was publically burned.
In , the Weimar sexologist Dr. Philadelphia: F. Davis and Company Publishers, , Similar remarks were also made by Edward Carpenter. The history of Weimar lesbian subculture can be most effectively reconstructed and investigated through print media. Not only did lesbian magazines and lesbian-themed books leave a tangible trace that can still be accessed today, but they were a key means by which the subculture was expressed. Weimar lesbian media served to interrupt representational conventions in which the lesbian was invisible, the object of male fantasy, or a sidebar within homosexual subculture.
This problematized lesbian expression yet, as history has proven, it was a surmountable challenge. As the following discussion confirms, Weimar lesbian media newly lent the lesbian subject a visible contour and was ultimately effective in extricating it from a heterosexist cultural matrix. While images of women are a staple of Western art, they are often produced by men and geared to the Carolyn J.
Dean, Sexuality and Modern Western Culture. New York: Twayne Publishers, , A similar, yet hyperbolized because it involves two female subjects spectatorial logic informs the representation and reception of lesbianism. A culture of hetero- patriarchy empowers masculinist viewing practices and, in effect, weakens or negates lesbian agency. In part, this dynamic explains the subordination of the lesbian figure to the masculine imagination. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, , ; Toklas, to convert to and effortlessy embrace Catholicism.
A double-edged sword, the epistemological non-status of lesbians protected them from persecution, but also rendered them culturally invisible. Scheda regarded lesbianism as a pleasure pursued by overly-stimulated and bored women and as an inferior ersatz for heterosexuality. Michael A. Dean, Sexuality and Modern Western Culture, Due to the hegemony of phallocentric culture, before the advent of Weimar lesbian media, lesbians were compelled to transgressive readings of texts and imagery; this strategy enabled them to participate, albeit clandestinely, in an otherwise inaccessible culture.
Nevertheless, lesbian materials, much like those who consumed them, circulated in a subcultural milieu. Although, as Richard W. To separate political struggles is a mistake. I believe that this form of grammatical-rhetorical deviation figures not merely the experimental or avant-garde, but the Sapphic. In , Froelich was named president of the Reichsfilmkammer Nazi Film Department , a highly influential position which would have been impossible for him to achieve had he not adhered closely to stringent Nazi directives.
November in the Gloria-Palast Theater. Built in by the Berlin film company UFA, the Baroque- inspired Gloria Palast boasted seven staircases, two elevators, and a telephone free of use to customers making calls within the city. Arguably, the Palast Palace venue, at the time, an epithet often reserved for luxurious hotels, did not conjure associations of political activism or sexual subculture, but instead was intended to attract an affluent and respectable bourgeois movie-goer.
Nonetheless, the obscure discussion of the topic in the Weimar lesbian press is rather curious. Even a favorable review in Die Freundin The Girlfriend relies primarily on innuendo. Lesbian Books and Magazines and Popular Weimar Culture In contrast to their near invisibility prior to World War I, and later cultural erasure due to Nazi prohibitions, lesbians enjoyed unprecedented freedom and public presence in Weimar. The last issue of the lesbian magazine Die Freundin appeared on March 8, For women there were no public meeting places or an established sexual underground.
In Germany and Austria, a self-defined lesbian identity did not emerge until the s. These periodicals were instrumental in establishing a lesbian cultural network and offered new possibilities for social identification. It was serially published as three separate volumes in , , and See also Faderman and Eriksson, Lesbians in Germany, xx-xxi. A cursory examination of Weimar materials reveals that lesbian print media borrowed from the mainstream; the cover photographs of lesbian journals often reflect popular discourses.
Indeed, when one disregards their titles, Weimar lesbian magazines are often indistinguishable from mainstream publications. Weimar Lesbian Representations of Female Nudity An untitled magazine cover image depicting three nude women fig. While public lesbian culture ended with the Nazis, sanctions had begun earlier. In , an unsuccessful attempt was launched in the German parliament to criminalize lesbians and include them under Paragraph which outlawed male homosexuality.
Finally on February 23, , under the new pornography laws, all public homosexual activities and related publications, including lesbian periodicals, were declared criminal and prohibited by law. Pictured from behind, two of the three women pictured, somewhat coquettishly, render their breasts visible in profile, underscoring their status as accessible sexual objects.
Their heads turned, the eyes of the subjects do not meet those of the viewer; their lack of scopic agency emphasizes their passivity. All three are pictured, somewhat artificially, with their arms raised. Printed on the cover of a lesbian magazine, the photograph obviously represents Weimar lesbian subculture. The three nude women in the photograph easily suggest the Three Graces, or the Judgment of Paris.
Similar to the Judgment of Paris, the women symbolically invite the viewer to mentally offer a golden apple to his or her favorite; a narrative which perpetuates the myth that women compete amongst themselves to garner male attention and favors. Along with Paris was asked by Zeus to decide who was the most beautiful of the three Olympian goddesses, Aphrodite, Athena, and Hera. His prize to the most beautiful goddess was a golden apple. The contest, however, inspired strife and later led to war. Contemporary movements with a focus on achieving a healthy body included nudism, vegetarianism, temperance, and all manner of sexual and familial reform.
Moll discussed the cultural processes that eventually led to the naturalization of nudity in Germany during the s. Many scenes take place outdoors in natural surroundings. From the magazine: Beauty. In addition to its popular currency, the caption also ties the photo to a fashion magazine, which links it further to consumerism and advertising culture. For a typical FKK publication, see Hans Suren, Der Mensch und die Sonne Stuttgart, , which contains a number of photographs depicting nude people romping outdoors.
An English edition Man and Sunlight, trans. David Arthur Jones was published in London in As Toepfer claims, Der Mensch und die Sonne, was so popular in Germany that it ran through sixty eight printings , copies in its first year of publication. The BfM had a Damenabteilung Ladies Section which represented the specific concerns of both the prewar feminist generation and a younger lesbian public. Gay and lesbian leaders in Weimar continually emphasized the centrality of the Gemeinschaft Group over the individual in their efforts to establish and strengthen gay culture and rights.
The lifting of the Tanzverbot, combined with the optimism and cultural momentum following the war, unleashed a collective dance craze Massenwahn in Germany which continued throughout the following decade. Tanzen wird zur Massenwahn. Aldershot: Scolar Press, , Alone, Dalcroze launched schools in Hellerau, St. Moreover, it also attests to his active support of sexual subculture.
Lea Manti performed in both clubs wearing a tuxedo and monocle. Adele Meyer Berlin: Edition Lit. Magnus Hirschfeld, Reprint in Meyer, The anonymous image depicts a slender woman in a tuxedo jacket on a shallow stage. She is holding a cane and surveys her public like a haughty ringmaster. While the sexually aggressive monocle-sporting vamp, a figure often pictured alone, was frequently featured in lesbian publications fig.
Images such as these used the female couple as enticing and, on occasion, erotically suggestive visual decoration, which, to a degree, degraded and negated lesbian agency. One could argue that the proliferation of popular imagery in Weimar depicting female couples weakened lesbian expression. Berlin lesbian periodicals deployed images depicting female couples to delight and lure the lesbian reader.
These images, however, did not delight all lesbian readers. Indeed, this issue, which has retained much of its volatility into the present-day, enhances our appreciation of Weimar lesbian cultural agency and the fragility of its production. In contrast, Roellig praised male homosexual publications for their quality content and professional appearance. Nude female couples, however, were also a major motif in contemporary pornography.
For obvious reasons, the visual intersection of heterosexist pornographic materials with feminist-informed lesbian self- representation constituted an awkward juncture for Weimar lesbians. Due to an overwhelming visual tradition based on phallocentric hegemony, Weimar lesbians clearly faced significant challenges in establishing their own visual vernacular independent from the hegemonic parameters of patriarchal culture. Their appropriation and redeployment of erotically-charged female-female imagery is nothing less than remarkable, and compels brief consideration.
As stated, before the advent of Weimar lesbian print media, lesbians were largely represented by male-authored, and often pornographic, materials. The following discussion will explore lingering discursive associations which, at the time, continued to conflate lesbianism, sexual depravity, and pornography. This discursive link is also evident in sexological materials. They were determined largely by earlier medical and moralizing discourses that privileged biological determinism before sexual pleasure. Accordingly, male sexuality was regarded as a powerful independent force that built within the body until it was released through ejaculation.
From this, many doctors concluded that female sexual desire was intrinsically unnatural, and hence, established a sharp distinction between respectable i. In , Oosterhuis, Stepchildren of Nature, Rentsch Verlag, , Its international advisory board also included the German-native and naturalized American Harry Benjamin , and the Russian Socialist, Alexandra Kollontai The League met in London in , in Vienna in , and in Brno in Due to the combined historical influences of the Great Depression and the rise of fascism, the League dissolved during in the s.
The myth of the vagina dentata is only one locus of this fear. Ecstasy fig. White sightseers from downtown would check out her show as well. They even lived together as lovers, a disreputable act at the time. Ethel Waters got her start on the vaudeville circuit. There were also drag performers in cabarets, but that was very much the exception. Alberta Hunter was hush-hush about her lesbian lifestyle. Via JazzAgeMusic. The blues itself was condemned by black preachers. After the turn of the century, smokey blues cabarets proliferated in urban areas with large African American populations, which would draw almost exclusively black audiences, who made Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith stars.
The Cotton Club in Harlem, which only allowed white audience members to watch black performers, was a notable exception. Around the same time, urban industrialization, the development of the electrical grid, and the introduction of cars gave young women more personal money, free time, and options than they ever had before. These women went out dancing and drinking at clubs, and embraced promiscuity. Alberta Hunter, far right, performs vaudeville. Courtesy of Chris Albertson. At these popular Victorian touring shows, white actors in blackface played racist caricatures of African Americans as simple, lazy buffoons with insatiable appetites for food, alcohol, and sex.
By the late s, all-black minstrel troupes were taking off, and while they were upholding stereotypes, they often worked to slyly subvert the racist jokes and make subtle jabs at white supremacy. Ma Rainey, who was bisexual, got her stage name when she married vaudeville performer Pa Rainey.
Via NotesOnTheRoad. In fact, Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Ethel Waters all got their start singing and dancing on the turn-of-the-century vaudeville circuit. My man is such a handy man! To Philipson, the dirty blues stands in contrast to the upright, ambitious lifestyle promoted by the leadership class of African Americans that W. Ma Rainey, pictured in , and other blues divas of the era usually performed with a backing band. Post-Victorian morals were that you have no premarital sex, you get married, you raise a family, you stay together all of your life, you go to church, and you raise proper Christian children who take their place in society and reproduce.
Clearly, these lesbian-leaning blues singers were forging their own paths in a shifting cultural landscape. For more information on Robert Philipson and his documentaries, visit the Shoga Films site. Why is there no mention of Lucille Bogan?