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  2. Langues à Madagascar — Wikipédia
  3. Gudrun Ledegen
  4. Gudrun Ledegen

A la banque quelle langue utilisez-vous? Est-ce important que vos enfants pratiquent bien le :. La pratique religieuse est-elle importante pour vos enfants? A quelle caste d'origine appartenez-vous?

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Comme :. Lesquelles et pourquoi? L'Inde est-elle quelque chose d'important pour vous? Bardonnet D, La Haye, Paris, p. Bemananjara Z, Chaudenson R, Ferguson Ch. Word, 15, pp. Hutton J. Les castes de l'Inde. Paris, Payot. Manessy G. Nemo J. Raison J. Plan 0. Introduction [link] 0. Madagascar, indications sociolinguistiques [link] 0. Liste des informateurs et tableau des variables [link] 0. Le gujarati [link] 1. Le malgache [link] 1. La lecture [link] 1.

Les langues dans le contexte familial et communautaire [link] 1. Langues et situations de communication extra-communautaires [link] a Avec un ou des inconnus [link] b Avec des amis [link] 1. Conclusions [link] 2. La pratique religieuse [link] 2. Les interdits alimentaires [link] 2. L'endogamie [link] 2. L'Inde [link] 2. Madagascar [link] 2. La France [link] 2. Le sentiment communautaire [link] 2.

Conclusions [link] 3. Le rapport aux autres [link] 3. Hindous et musulmans [link] 3. Conclusions [link] 4. One is tempted to ask: if, on the one hand, learners cannot participate in local communities of practice and, on the other, formalised teaching contexts inhibit true acquisition, in what way if at all can SAL such as French make a claim to promoting multilingualism? Could it be that the instrumental motivations articulated by learners for learning French are unrealistic? Or do they rather point to an illusory form of linguistic and cultural desire for otherness?

Plurilingual and pluricultural competence. In a world characterised increasingly by multilingual and multicultural environments of which South Africa is a prime example , a body of research around plurilingual pedagogy has opened up new ways of thinking about multilingualism in the classroom.

Plurilingual competence, outlined by Coste, Moore and Zarate ; English translation, , is defined as a range of partial and differentiated competence, which fulfil different roles according to language use and communicative function. This new paradigm is to a large degree replacing an additive notion of language competence associated with the communicative approach and based on the unrealistic model of the monolingual native speaker.

Cours de malgache gratuit (vidéo)

This hitherto dominant position is seen as disempowering and unreflective of learners' linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds. Plurilingual competence, on the other hand, is defined as the strategic manner in which individuals manage and draw on unbalanced language repertoires, a skill which remains key to building diverse forms of plurilingualism.

Within this framework, the notion of translingual and transcultural competence, that is, the ability to operate between languages and cultures, has gained traction MLA ; Kramsch The educational and scientific community in the Southern Africa and Indian Ocean region possesses no recent data on the management of multilingualism in schools, which is what propelled the four-year Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie AUF -funded project entitled Curriculum, contextualisation et formation des enseignants.

The project is devoted to the analysis of the training of language teachers in particular teachers of French in multilingual contexts in the participating countries South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion France , Mozambique and the Seychelles. It has the following main research hypothesis: multilingual and multicultural contextualisation 13 is relevant and appropriate only when it mobilises learning to better manage the language contact situation in which the learner lives in the case of South Africa, this refers to the contact between plurilingual learners in and outside the classroom.

The results of the preliminary research literature review and pilot testing undertaken between September and June were presented at a regional workshop in September A preliminary report on the project's first years of implementation as well as the workshop has been drafted Ranaivo, V. The preliminary results, in the form of questionnaires responses from decision-makers, teacher trainers, teachers - an example of this can be found in Annexure 2 - and learners and a focus group with teachers provide a sense of participants' views and opinions on multilingualism.

All teachers and trainers of teachers recognise that multilingualism is a government priority, as reflected in school curricula and official policy documents. However, one teacher notes that this policy "only applies to official languages and Mandarin", pointing to the exclusion of SAL within this framework. A second teacher trainer states that multilingualism "is a hugely underused resource in South Africa [as it develops] cognitive benefits; empathy; work opportunities and social cohesion". This view is further reflected by a decision-maker who signals the de facto use of English as the language of instruction, business and parliamentary interactions, and the disjuncture between "the priorities on paper and what gets prioritised through resources in reality".

According to this respondent, "the greatest challenge is the lack of political will on the part of the government to enforce and resource multilingualism". This respondent points to the training of teachers in African languages and the lack of resource materials for effective teacher education as one of the major challenges in the implementation of multilingualism.

This view stands somewhat in opposition to that of the French teacher working on the ground cited above , who feels that African languages are being prioritised at the expense of SAL. The minor status of the French language within the schools system in South Africa is reflected by responses to the question "Is the development of Francophonie a priority of the educative system?

One respondent states that "most decision-makers don't even know that French exists at certain schools". At the opposite end of the spectrum, a single respondent states that "French is a hugely important language in Africa and key for the African Union as well".

Langues à Madagascar — Wikipédia

Most teachers of French have a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Higher Diploma in Education, which is a general teacher training course offered across the board, for all subjects. Certain teachers have had the opportunity to update their skills through short courses, some of which are offered and sponsored or at least partially subsidised by the French Embassy in South Africa It is unclear whether these short courses propose approaches to multilingualism and multiculturalism.

Teachers describe their approaches as communicative and learner-centred and signal that they attempt to instil awareness in learners of the differences and similarities between languages and cultures. One teacher states that she draws parallels between English and Latin and, to a lesser degree, Italian and Portuguese in order to demonstrate similarities and differences between these languages and the target language, French.

This was echoed in the focus group where participants emphasised a comparative approach to introducing new vocabulary, involving strategies such as translation to develop an inter-language awareness. To be noted here is the lack of African languages within this comparative approach the main language of recourse being English , as well as the formal, structural and ad hoc use of inter-language comparison.

The research results show that, in general, learners have a positive view of multilingualism. They see it as something that fosters a dialogue between languages and cultures. While there is clearly an understanding of the need for multilingualism and plurilingualism to be actively fostered in the classroom together with multi- and pluriculturalism, even though this article does not focus on these aspects , one can question whether the informal comparative and ad hoc methods used by participants count as a functional and authentic way towards promoting these priorities.

It seems as though while learners are immersed in multilingual contexts in informal settings, these are hardly drawn upon, if at all, in the classroom as valuable linguistic and cultural skills and assets. This could be partially ascribed to the fact that language subject teaching has traditionally banished other languages from the classroom, in an attempt to maximise contact time with the target language and avoid any supposed "interference" from the first language, an idea that has since been challenged: today, it is widely acknowledged that language learning reposes on the construction of metalinguistic hypotheses and comparisons with the first language Bouchard The question which then begs to be answered is the following: how can this situation be remedied?

What can be done to equip teacher trainers and teachers with the necessary skills to ensure a pedagogical approach that can include and develop multi- and plurilingual competence 16? What kinds of approaches can interact with learners' existing knowledge and competencies? Ideally, multilingual education should promote an awareness of why and how one learns the languages one has chosen, an awareness of and the ability to use transferable skills in language learning, a respect for the language use of others, including non-normative varieties, irrespective of their perceived status in society.

This goes hand in hand with increased respect for the cultures embodied in languages and the cultural identities of others. In order for this to exist in reality, teachers need to gain the ability to perceive and mediate the relationships that exist among languages and cultures, and adopt a global, integrated approach to language education in the curriculum. In order to ensure that learners come out of the educational system with multi- and plurilingual competence to better face the professional and personal world in which they interact, a modified pedagogical "approach" is necessary.

It has to be combined with a shift in attitude that moves away from the ideal of the "native monolingual" speaker, upheld for decades in foreign language pedagogy and its corresponding endolingual competence as the ultimate aim.

Language teaching pedagogy should, on the contrary, move towards a model of exolingual competence that is, communication between first language speakers and foreign language speakers or among foreign language speakers only. Within this perspective, and in line with translingual and cultural competence cited above, meaning is never evident, static and shared, but shaped by the multicultural and linguistic makeup of the speakers, who rely heavily on negotiation and cooperation for meaning.

In this regard, teachers need to encourage an attitude of cooperation between learners and encourage the use of more than one language to facilitate metalinguistic conceptualisation and the execution of communicative tasks. This can only be done if teachers are trained to better understand their learners' multilingual background, as the preliminary results of the AUF-funded project suggest.

It is thus clear that the required change of attitude and building of multi- and plurilingual competence cannot be acquired without an appropriate teaching method and approach. Written, audio and video correspondence, reflexive journals, auto biographies of language learners, socioconstructivist portfolios 17 and "reflexive" drawings with subsequent verbal commentaries can be used to elicit awareness on plurilingual realities and have learners work on various linguistic and cultural repertoires and learning stages.

When they listen to and gather language-life stories that can be used as sources of knowledge for cultural integration and as starting points for pedagogical intervention, teachers and teacher trainers comprehend the intrinsic link between pedagogy and teaching contexts, the fact that learners are a source of knowledge in and by themselves, and that comparing languages and cultures can take place without devaluing one of them. The end result of this comparing and accepting of the "other" would go far to undoing the "constructed" tensions between language groups since each language will be valued within the learner's enhanced linguistic repertoire as occupying different, but valuable roles.

One of the objectives of this article was to briefly describe the situation of the teaching and learning of French in South Africa at school level, from the particular point of view of multilingualism. The preliminary results of the AUF-funded research project entitled Curriculum, contextualisation et formation des enseignants show that, while most stakeholders government, teacher trainers, teachers, learners and their parents understand and value the concept of multilingualism, there is still little to rejoice about when it comes to its actual implementation in the language classroom.

This is, among other factors, due to a hiatus in the teacher training curriculum, which could possibly be filled through the introduction in teacher trainer programmes of appropriate methodologies that provide for multilingual contextualisation. There should also be recommendations for better inclusion of such contexts in language policy and language education policy development. As stipulated in the various charters and governmental policy documents, multilingualism is a vital tool for promoting democratic citizenship.

Linguistic and cultural diversity and understanding are inseparable from this notion as multilingual skills underlie mutual comprehension. Language diversity ensures plurality and richness of representations. In our opinion, any educational system must offer the possibility of learning various languages from an early age and develop the skills required for independent learning in order to enable people to engage in lifelong language learning.

This task should never be designed to promote the use of a single foreign language as a minimal channel of communication, having an essentially commercial objective synonymous with a narrow, instrumentalist attitude to language learning. The preliminary findings of our research project show that many of the desired characteristics, attitudes and abilities regarding comprehension and implementation of a plurilingual approach to the teaching of the French language in South Africa are not yet in place nor activated.

The lack of the latter shows that teacher training programmes need to be infused with new skill-gaining and skill-transmission teaching approaches. At the core of plurilingual teaching and learning lies a combination of scientific, academic, general, but also expert and social knowledge Council of Europe Finally, this requires a reflexiveness of one's linguistic and cultural environment. Balladon, F. Bange, P. Bouchard, R. Alao, M. Derivry-Plard, E.

Guimard, P. Paia, M. Paia dir. Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, Paia, M. Vernaudon, J. Bibliographie Berchoud, M. James, C. Joulia, D. Leylavergne, A. Zona proxima. Migeot, F. Proscolli, A. Puren, C. Perspectives actionnelles et perspectives culturelles en didactique des lan- gues-cultures : vers une perspective co-actionnelle co-culturelle.

Tetahiotupa, E. Il a obte- Contact : denis. Allerton, C. Children: Ethnographic Encounters. Bloomsbury Publi- shing. Kirkpatrick, J. The Marquesan Notion of the Person. Lancy, D. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Anthropology of Learning in Childhood. Levinson, B. A Companion to the Anthropology of Edu- cation.

Gudrun Ledegen

Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Levy, R. Tahitians: Mind and Experience in the Society Islands. Essential contrasts: Differences in parental ideas about learners and teaching in Tahiti and Nepal. Super Eds. Martini, M. Peer interactions in Polynesia: A view from the Marquesas. Roopnarine, J. Hooper Eds. Early interactions in the Marquesas Islands. In Field, A.

Sostek, P. Leiderman Eds. Culture and Early Interactions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Parenting in Polynesia: A view from the Marquesas. Carter Eds. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Maynard, A. Oliver, D. Ritchie, J. Growing Up in Polynesia. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin. Politix 4 , Les objectifs de cet enseigne- 1 Lecteurs mp3, mp4, tablettes iPad, robots Thymio, robots Bluebot. Le second temps sera une phase de questions. Contact : vahi. Chevallard, Y. Paris, France: A. Lahire, B. Paris, France : Perrin.

Gudrun Ledegen

Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes. Ses recherches dans le pro- gramme ANR Legs colonial et outre-mer autochtones. Avec E. Bourdieu, P. Cizeron, M. Delay, C. Herrera, J. Hoggart, R. La culture du pauvre. Lewis, O. Les enfants de Sanchez. Poirine, B.

Politix, 4 , Scott, J. Serra Mallol, C. Docteur en science Contact : bruno. Levy, Robert Tahitians. Mind and experience in the Society Islands. Chicago, Chicago University Press, p. Mead, Margaret Galimard, Folio Es- sais , p. Paris, Pockett, p. Contacts : zsmyrnaiou ppp. The past 10 years her work has focused a on the teaching of science using new information technologies b on Abstract the educational design of digi- Nowadays, science education is considered as a key investment to meet global tal media and accompanying challenges and improve human life UNESCO Report.

It is therefore impera- pedagogical scenarios c on implementing research in real tive that the public is engaged in science issues that affect individual and societal classroom settings conside- progress Marincola, However, one of the major issues facing science, en- ring different factors d on gineering and technology today is the decline of women enrolling in these subjects supporting teachers and stu- and entering careers in these fields. This alarming trend may have serious repercus- dents during the implementa- sions on capacity in science as well as in social and economic development Hill, tion of innovative educational Corbett and Rose, She is member ring and Math important deficits and wide disparities still prevent full involvement of the committee of Science of all students and talents Science Education for Responsible Citizens, European Curriculum Reform in Gree- Committee.

There are still many challenges for girls in STEM, including unsuppor- ce, chairman of the Scienti- tive classrooms, outdated pedagogy and lack of role models. Making connections fic Supervisory Board of 1st between STEM and other disciplines such as Art, allows to embrace the creative Experimental High School potential of linking arts, scientific inquiry and innovation and overcome traditional of Athens and president at gender bias by breaking through practices.

She has been involved in pro- The main aim of this research project is to examine stereotypes, expectations and jects funded by E. More specifically the Intensive Programme Inno- study aims to: vative practices for teaching science. Eleni Giannakopoulou - Offer pre service and in service teachers as well as relevant stakeholders quality was born in London in information regarding gender based didactics in STEM subject teaching ; and lives in Athens. She has - Add valuable information in an international level as regards combating stereotypes graduated from University of and prompting broader participation to STEM among schoolgirls ; Athens, Department of Phi- - Stimulate the implementation of innovative approaches as STEAM- by incorpora- losophy, Pedagogy and Psy- chology with a major in Psy- ting Art to STEM and fostering gender balanced environments.

She holds two master degrees: MA in Contemporary Because of the complexity of the research field, a mixed approach of both qualitative History, University of Bris- and quantitative research methodologies will ensure that the limitations of one type tol and MSc in Public Policy, of data will be balanced by the strengths of the other e. She has participated as societies can no longer afford to let schools sideline girls and discourage their in various projects and publi- achievements.

Her main academic interests are minorities and Hill C. Kenway J. Konstantina Kotsa- ri, Primary School Teacher 3. Kerkhoven A. Marincola E. Her main academic interests are STEM education and didactics in pri- mary and secondary school. She speaks English, French, Norwegian and Greek. Contact : sandra. Hamers et M. Dans des situations de F. Questions de sociologie. Paris : Editions de Minuit. Boyer, H. Paris : Dunod. Contact ou conflit de langues? Candelier, M. Conscience du plurilinguisme. Rennes : Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Corne, C. Cuq, J. Grenoble : Presses Universitaires de Gre- noble.

Autour du multilinguisme. Lidil, 6 , Grenoble : Presses Universitaires de Grenoble. Son univers langagier. Paris : Maisonneuve-Larose. Francard, M. Hamers, J. Paris : Mardaga Editeur. Holtzer, G. Berchoud, J. Mangiante coord. Comptes rendus. Corne, J. Valdman dir. Paris: Champion. Leroi-Gourhan, A. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. Apprendre plusieurs langues, plusieurs langues pour apprendre. Perini, A. Prudent, L. Berne : Peter Lang. Rey, A. Usages, jugements et prescriptions linguistiques. Robillard, D. Paris : Champion. Valdman, A.

Verdelhan-Bourgade, M. Vitse V. Or, comme le - Corpus lexical des langues rappelle Claude Vargas , p. Grammaires et didactique des langues. Les Langues Mo- dernes, 3, Davies, J. Papeete : Haere po. Haspelmath, M. Comparative concepts and descriptive categories in crosslinguistic studies. Language, 86 3 , Launey, M. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes.


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