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  1. Crossing Over Boundaries by Debra Jean Collins
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  3. Boundary Crossings and Violations in Clinical Settings
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Trees protected by Tree Preservation Orders or covered by Conservation Areas or planning conditions need permission from the Council before you can exercise Common Law rights. Carrying out unauthorised tree works can lead to enforcement action, which can include monetary fines and a criminal prosecution. Trees not protected by any restrictions can be pruned in line with Common Law rights. Common Law rights permit property owners to remove branches that cross over onto their property from an adjacent property or piece of land, without the permission of the tree owner. The Council always recommends that where possible the two parties involved communicate with each other to prevent unnecessary confrontation or misunderstandings before any pruning works.

All branches and arisings cut wood that cross over a boundary line are still the property of the tree owner and should be offered back to them. The tree owner is not obliged to accept the branches or arisings from the person who has removed them. If the tree owner does not accept them then they must be disposed of in a responsible way not throwing them back over the fence. Roots are also covered under Common Law rights and can be legally removed back to the boundary.

However, you should do this carefully because excessive pruning of branches or roots could lead to the decline, death or destabilisation of a tree. When I had to select the quotes I was going to use for my analysis I had to make sure that they matched up with the specific code and theme that was being analyzed and discussed. It was imperative that they selected appropriately so that they Representationofthe Data Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 17 Urban Nightlife often provides many consumers the opportunity to unwind after a long week and the chance to add some fun into their lives.

Within my research I have been exploring the reasons as to why some consumers choose one place over another and what the motives and meanings are behind their decision. Over the course of eight months I have gathered my data through the use of observations and in-depth interviews, which I hope, would answer the questions I have.

Field of Study The majority of my field observations took place in the downtown and uptown Denver Metro Area where a lot of the nightlife establishments were located. I chose these fields because they were most densely populated areas in terms of bars and nightclubs. It was easy to observe the popularity of the bars from how long the lines were and how crowded the establishment was once you entered. I want to first describe the spaces that studied that were deemed heterosexual. These establishments were all located within the vicinity of one another.

The walk from one place to the next was a simple stroll or stumble, which was convenient to the patrons. We stand around waiting deciding what to do. A man in a black button-up shirt asking how many One of the women replies that there are four girls and one guy. The guy leaves and comes back telling us to follow him.

He unfastens the rope blocking the other patrons from getting in and allows us to slide past. We are greeted with the pounding thump of music and drowning ear chatter from the other customers. It is packed, and hard to hear anything from the person next to me. Someone from the group signals to head up the second floor and we squeeze passed everyone. We make it to the top outside deck of the bar and admire the view. We stop to take a few pictures and I notice that there are others doing the same—mostly women with other women.

There are people packed up against the bar hoping to get their next drink served by the very attractive bartenders consisted of both males and females. The music is playing through the speakers and people are both standing around and talking or there are some people dancing. I try to listen intently but only manage to make out that my friend asked how the guards night was going and that he replied with a cheerful demeanor.

We walk upstairs to the patio area where we find where most the other patrons have congregated. There are people huddled up against the bar and the music is playing so loudly that it is difficult to talk normally with those around me. There are people gathered in front of the DJ and speakers dancing with each other, most of them have a drink in their hand… I was pleased with the consistency across the establishments that were deemed heterosexual in terms of atmosphere and so I took to observing the gay spaces I had chosen for my project.

One of the nights I that went out was on a total whim and very spontaneous. I attended the nightclub "Rage" after spending the day with a few friends downtown during the month of October. We had spent the day downtown at the annual zombie crawl, which accounted Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 19 for our attire that night: "We entered the club, after giving the guard our IDs and paying the cover fee, to a giant open dance floor that was blasting circuit music1 surrounded by a sprawling bar that wrapped around the edge of the room.

We all walked in and some headed to the bar to get a drink and others headed to the dance floor The room was dimly lit with the exception of the strobe and dance lights hanging from the ceiling and the music downed out everything else that distracted from it. The scene was provocative and lustrous which meant it was going to fit in nicely with my project. The main reason I decided to do this project was to delve deeper into the minds of the patrons who inhabited these spaces in order find out why they were there.

Throughout the span of my data collection I came across a lot of interesting and valuable subjects who contributed nicely to my study. My subjects could be broken up into two different classifications; the people I observed and the people I interviewed. I define a group of friends as cluster of bodies with three or more people. Those with two persons were described as either a couple or coupled pair2. I recruited subjects of all backgrounds to participate in an interview process, detailing the aspects of nightlife they witnessed on a weekly basis.

I wanted to encompass the opinions from people of different experiences and it allowed me have a lot more leniency for my sample. Every weekend, thousands of people flock to the streets of Denver searching for their next club or bar adventure. They are there to consume not just the alcohol that comes with but also the societal demands of what is requested of them when they enter one of these establishments. You put a bunch of people in one room with a mind-altering substance and there is bound to be stories; if not stories, then phenomena that needed to be explained.

Through my Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 21 surveillance and research, it was understood that interactions through masculinity and sexuality and was a major component within these nightlife establishments. Analysis Once I had gathered all my data from my interviews and observational experiences, I sent out my interviews to be transcribed verbatim from a third party resource. Over the weeks I listened to my interviews several times in order to pick up on any themes that were repetitive and consistent across the respondents.


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I found that listening to my interviews not allowed me to pick up on any useful information I was searching for but also gave me the chance to find any additional components that would be useful to my study. From analyzing the interview data, I was able to pick up on multiple themes that seemed to be reoccurring in these respondents experiences within the defined spaces of interest. From what was gathered the themes that continually occurred were: there is a certain sexual identity and presentation when it comes to gender, both women and men experienced gendered and sexualized interaction, and both spaces of observation offered the idea that they are both deemed masculine sexualized space.

Sexual Identity and Presentation When speaking with the interview participants I wanted to get full detail of what they were wearing, how they conducted themselves in public and how they personally thought of themselves when they ventured out. I felt that knowing this would be vital to understanding the person when it comes to there sexual identity and presentation in respect to their gender.

From my interviews and even from my observations I noticed that the clothing that straight women wore at these spaces and even the gay men were dressing for a provocative night The clothing women donned ranged anywhere from tight dresses to leggings that revealed every curve to her body. The gay men that were interviewed offered descriptions depicting themselves in situations where they either dressed up or down depending on the occasion or event. Those that were interviewed expressed in the data the way they would conduct themselves in public depending on the space they were in and if alcohol was involved.

There were many situations that were described explaining how alcohol had an effect on the persona of the individual as well as those around them. They either seem cool and collected or they ended up intoxicated beyond their limits of functioning. Like vodka, I will fall straight to sleep. Like you will think I got roofied. Like I will just fall on the ground. It will make me super sick. And so, I just found like a happy medium with Patrone. Like I can drink enough but it wears away really fast. When alcohol comes into play, you notice a shift in the way a person behaves in a public setting.

Even with men we see that alcohol is used as a form of anti-anxiety method to deal with their presentation. I do enjoy the attention. It's nice. But then sometimes it's too much attention. And then there's a lot of unwanted advances. Move on. No thank you, obviously. I have a boyfriend. I really do sound like an alcoholic but after one drink, I'm fine. Just calm the nerves a little bit.

These comments highlights the fact of how alcohol could be used for a catalyst for deviant mannerisms in situations where drinking is encouraged. In regards to both men and Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 23 women there was a difference in the way that they handled themselves and how alcohol affected them personally.

On multiple nights of observations I was greeted with a plethora of sober and intoxicated men and women who had clearly defined who they were and how they wanted to present themselves to others. I posed the question to all my respondents asking them how they felt about hooking up with someone they just met and more often than not I connected that women were less likely to commit to going home with someone or to want to hook up than their gay male counterparts. It seemed that the women had convictions as to how they wanted to present themselves based on their morals and justifications of hooking up.

Gendered and Sexualized Interactions When the time comes for a person to interact with another human outside of their social bubble they are faced with the aggressors that male masculinity presents. My subjects often gave me an in-depth recollection of how sexual interest played out in the form of aggression in my establishments.

Reviewing my transcripts I realized that they had an understanding of what these sexual aggressions of sexual interest looked like and the narrative to back it up. Here she was assimilating being disrespected with aggressive interaction felt from others. She went on to describe in her interview how she and girlfriend are both treated I like to go to gay bars mostly because like people just mind their business, if that makes sense? Like what the fuck?

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Crossing Over Boundaries by Debra Jean Collins

No, thanks. And so it just makes it really uncomfortable. What I wanted to exemplify was how women perceived aggressive expressions from men in clubs and the descriptions they give based on the interactions they deal with on the nights they go out. It was interesting to see this theme played out amongst the women but was more interesting to hear the stories of how gay men dealt with these expressions similarly within establishments coded as homosexual.

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Amongst my five male respondents I wanted to analyze how these theme played out for them on their nightly adventures. Greg, 26, who sees himself as a gay male, enlightened me saying "for most of my straight girlfriends, they like going for the same reason I like going to straight bars in a lot of ways. There's not people there trying to pick upon people, on them. It's more than just being hit on, people are reaching down my pants last night.

Boundary Crossings and Violations in Clinical Settings

They'll grab your butt. They'll grab your crotch. They'll kiss you. Being one of my most talkative respondents, he was able to show that the way he described experiencing sexual aggressive interest supported his perception of it. It was interesting to notice from my respondents how each was attempting to escape the male sexual aggressive interest they were confronted with within the spaces they occupied.


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The females took towards the gay establishments for safety while gay men would counteract this by escaping into spaces that were coded as heterosexual. If we look at the way my subjects tended to avoid being sexualized by men in these places we see that at a macro level, they crossed from one establishment to another. However, Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 25 when we bring in to a more personal perspective of these individuals, there were several similarities when it came to strategies to dealing with these sexual interactions.

What I found from my respondents was that gay men often utilized the same aversion tactics that women did when it came to dealing with persistent men. When both genders were dealing with escaping the confines of the masculine hold they implemented the use of fellow friends to rescue them from their predicament. There's a guy was trying to dance on me and this really big teddy bear. He was a very, obviously gay guy. He was like, "Do you know this guy? I was like, "No, I don't know him. This scenario was interesting in the fact that it happened at a gay club to a respondent who identifies as straight.

Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 26 The same situation was correlated with many of my respondents who identified as being gay. They were experiencing a lot of what females were having to experience with other males inside their own niche bar community. But we certainly watch each other.

Crossing Over Boundaries

So if someone is out dancing and all of a sudden someone is up doing funky things behind them we just kind of pop up there behind them and push them back. You can tell by their facial expressions or body language. Some guy was hitting on one of my friends and I went up and I put my arm around him, he was like, oh, this is my boyfriend. This brings up the second tactic I found to be repeated amongst my respondents and that was the falsification of relationships as a means to escape their persistent creeper.

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I found from my data that women and men both used this excuse as a means to dissipate any tension amongst individuals. The following excerpt was taken from an observation at a gay club: People in our group start to express the fact that they are creeped out by this guy who seems to be very persistent. The guy is jumping from person to person dancing on them. I protect the guy by dancing with him and turning him away from the other guy as he gets closer.

The guy comes up behind me and attempts to dance behind me. The guy that I am dancing with sneaks away back to his friends when the creeper guy follows him. This observation was interesting to me seeing as the guy who was dancing with everyone was initially interested in the female from the group and slowly made his way around the group to the males.

Finally, within the tactics utilized by the respondents I discovered that there was the use of the bathroom as a way to escape their aggressors. The respondents found it useful to simply tell the guy they were dancing with that they needed to go to the bathroom and they simply left, while others had to struggle to elude the person who was so persistent.

From these three aforementioned maneuvers, we can see that they all have one thing in common and that is the male creeper whom the subject is trying to avoid. What was interesting from the observations and interviews was that none of the respondents talked about how a guy would recognize his behavior. The males opposite my respondents did not acknowledge the uneasiness that they were causing even if there was a well-meaning attitude behind it all.

Masculine Sexualized Space A major aspect of my research was looking how consumers used space in order to give it meaning. There were gay spaces and straight spaces, but they were viewed differently, used differently and abused differently. Each space has its own set of rules grounded in masculinity norms that people can choose to conform to or ignore. These norms created a foundation for which the consumers built their beliefs around and allowed them to decide how they wanted to consume a certain space.

Based on the data that was collected, I had built up from what I had seen and heard that consumers often found themselves conforming to, resisting and reconfiguring a space based on This was a way for them to navigate through these spaces based on public interpretation of the masculine characteristics it presented.

My respondents often gave me the idea that they had certain opinions about a certain bar or nightclub that influenced their decision to go there. They often described the place based on how much fun they were going to have without having to worry about those around them intruding on their plans.

Conforming When a person conforms to any particular subject they are unknowingly complying with the rules that have been set. Whether they are doing it to fit in or just to act in a socially acceptable manner, they allow themselves to take on the properties of the atmosphere around them. Within my data, I had those who already occupied the spaces and those that chose to cross over in a space that was unknown to them.

These two sets of groups created the basis of how an individual would conform to the space around them. I interviewed a number of gay men who described their experiences with attending a bar or club that was deemed straight and found that they often had to restructure their behaviors because they were in an unfamiliar space. One man described his experience of going into a country bar on ladies night We were there, and it was ladies' night. Guys drink out of glass, and girls drink out of plastic. I had a drink. My friend, she gone to the bar, and she was like, "Oh, they poured us an extra one, here you go.

I picked it up. They came over, and they said, "You can't have that. I said, "I didn't realize it was ladies' night. Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 29 It was interesting that he went on ladies night, seeing as nights like those often lure women into bars with the promise of free alcohol. Usually these places set a time cap at which the free drinks stop flowing and that is where the men take over.

I attended a ladies night at the very same establishment that my respondent described and I often saw men buying women drinks even if the women got them for free. There is the opinion that a man should buy a lady a drink at any bar and a lot of spaces that have been defined as straight have garnered a reputation that women are often treated better in certain establishment. When I say treated better, I simply mean they get more out of the experience than the man does. They get free drinks, they get free entry in certain bars and clubs and often are allowed to get away with a lot more than any guy would.

For my respondent, he wanted a drink and knew that the only way to get one was like all the other men in the straight bars, and purchase one. Resisting During my observations it was difficult to observe women being taken advantage of, but comforting to hear that when I talked to them one on one they were fully aware of the situation and attempted to escape as much as they could. In one of my observations I witnessed a young woman being man handled in such a way that would lead to question the whole situation.

He proceeds to bend her over multiple times. It was clear that the young woman was not enjoying herself. It is examples like this that brings me to the reason why women often resist a certain space based on the expectations, perceptions and reputations that it holds. Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 30 The female respondents often implemented ways of resisting that was were either subtle or drastic depending on how far they were willing to go to break the norms. I mentioned earlier that women would use aversion tactics as a way to escape men and that is exactly where their resisting comes into play.

Through the use of telling them they have to go to the bathroom, or that they have a boyfriend, or even asking a friend to come save them they are defying the norms that are expected of women in certain spaces that are coded as straight. It makes you feel more attractive and wanted.

The act of crossing from a straight bar into a gay bar often meant that these women were searching for a means of evading the normative expectations that these men have created for them. Her experience of having a guy sexually objectify her created an internalized need for to seek refuge in a space that is not normally marketed towards her. She sought out a place where she could go out for the night without having to deal with the heternormative male dominance that is so prominent in straight spaces. This theme also showed up when I was interviewing my homosexual male respondents in regards to crossing boundaries within nightlife establishments.

It seemed that gay men like Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 31 straight females would express many of the same attitudes towards gay nightlife establishments and the male inhabitants. Tyler, 21, described his experience one night at a club …we were like dancing on the dance floor, whatever, and then we started making out. And then he started to unbutton my pants. And tried to stick his hand down my pants. And then I had to just walk away because he was just like not getting it Its clear here that Tyler, although inebriated, was conscious enough to be aware of the situation that he had fallen in and was able to navigate around the heteronormative displays of masculinity that were being exerted onto him.

His act of walking away proved to be a resistance against what the people expected of him and what the perception and reputation of the space offered. In the case of most of the males I interviewed their act of resisting remained confined to the space where the masculine sexualized interactions took place. It became clear on several occasions when I was out at a gay club or bar that some men did not assimilate well into the crowd.

At first they gave off the impression of a loitering attendee who did not know anyone there, but as I continued to watch it became apparent that these men did not come to the gay bars for the other men but for the women. I took the following excerpt from one of my observations as a gay club where I had gone with a group of people who all identified as straight: Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 32 One of the guys from our group, an older gentleman, who seems very intoxicated also seems very uncomfortable in the club.

We all start attempting to talk to each other and I over hear the conversation between him and another guy in our group about how has seen a few cute girls here. He refers to them as girls rather than women, which I thought was interesting for a grown man to be calling women, girls. The other guy he was talking to asks if he was sure they were girls?

When he walked through that door he restructured the way people view Rage without even meaning to. As a straight male in a gay space his presence within the space took away the expectations, perception, and reputation that the straight female and homosexual male had built up. That time that that guy pushed him off, the guy who was trying to dance on me, I think, anyway.

I didn't know him but he seemed like he was straight because he was trying to dance only with the girls. He was foreign. He seemed like he wasn't completely sure that he was at a gay bar. He didn't realize it. I think he was and he was trying to dance with me and a lot of other girls that were there, that's it. The view points of these two samples allows for the fact that both gay males and straight women inside a gay space did not realize that as straight men began occupying these spaces all the expectations of their refuge were annulled by the mere presence of the heterosexual male.

Discussionand Conclusion Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 33 The whole idea of wanting to find out the meaning behind why people chose place over another and how heteronormative behavior was a key factor in their decision was fueled by a personal desire to understand how people used space as mean to display their sexuality. I know women who enjoy going to gay clubs and bars and it interested me to understand why.

As the project developed, more and more components began to unfold within this relationship of masculinity and space. Warshaw and Parrot wrote that girls learn that they are "supposed to be friendly and to yield to others' needs and wants even if it means sacrificing their own They learn to defer to men, to rely on men to provide them with social status, protection, and ultimately, a secure future" p.

Men have seen this as a way to claim women as their own personal means of sexual pleasure and that sex plays an important roll in a man life Gross, They argue that this hunt is inhibited solely at the discretion of the woman and her capability to repel those unwanted advances Grazian, ; Snow, Robinson and McAll While women often navigate through these advances by crossing over into gay bars, they find solace in these places where they are free to express themselves freely Goldstein, But what happens when a gay man experiences the same hegemonic masculine behavior within his own space of nightlife?

A lot of research focused on the feminine view of being targeted by males and so I wanted to piece together how masculinity would affect a gay male consumer in a bar or nightclub. There is a lack of literature depicting the male experience with in gay spaces and how men work to navigate these spaces. From my data of twelve participants and multiple Not a Part of the Club: Consumers Crossing Over Marketing Niche Boundaries 34 ethnographic observations I was able develop and build ideas based on the feminine getaway that is so widely used throughout the heterosexual community.

It was from my data that was able to determine that gay men and women use the same techniques in order to evade being sexualized by the male. For both males and females, space is a means of display. They consume space as a means of conforming to the societal norms and work to obey the rules set within its boundaries. When a gay man crosses over into a heterosexual space we see that they work to achieve that masculinity expectations set forth those around them. When a man or woman resists the norms of a space, they implement aversion tactics into order to hinder the advancements given off by the heterosexual male counterparts.

Lastly, we see that straight males crossing over into spaces that are coded as homosexual unknowingly reconfigure these sites for the consumers who occupy them and those who seek refuge. This work in no way means to define a group or theory based on what was collected but solely to bring to light the limitations of our current literature on gay masculinities in relation to feminine victimization. Future Implication Throughout my project, I often thought about what I could do to better the assignment as a whole for the future.

I do believe that with better training and redefined skills in regards to my field notes, interviews and write-up there is a future for my project within the sociological community. Brooks, Oona. Stop doing it! Cansdale, S. Connell, Robert W. Goldstein, B. Graham, Kathryn, et al. Grazian D. Gross, A. Journal of Social Issues, 87— Johnson, Corey W. Murnen, Sarah K. A meta-analytic review of the research that relates masculine ideology to sexual aggression. Quinn, Beth A. Snow, David. Tan, Qian Hui.