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  4. Ingredient Interactions: Effects on Food Quality, Second Edition - CRC Press Book

It discusses rheological concepts and the application of microscopic techniques to study ingredient interactions. The book also describes the transformations mediated by water and the structure-function relationship of starches with different chemical classes of ingredients, as well as interactions involving sweeteners, proteins, enzymes, lipids, emulsifiers, and flavor components. Ingredient Interactions: Effects on Food Quality, Second Edition is a comprehensive single-source guide that explains how major food ingredients such as water, starches, sweeteners, lipids, proteins, and enzymes interact with other constituents and affect food quality.

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If you would like to replace it with a different purchasing option please remove the current eBook option from your cart. Edited by Anilkumar G. For Instructors Request Inspection Copy. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, and otherwise being unhealthful.

Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can eventually be eaten. This category includes ingredients that are produced by ancient processes such as drying , threshing , winnowing , and milling grain, shelling nuts , and butchering animals for meat. Contamination and spoilage problems in primary food processing can lead to significant public health threats, as the resulting foods are used so widely. Secondary food processing is the everyday process of creating food from ingredients that are ready to use.

Baking bread , regardless of whether it is made at home, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing.

Food processing

Tertiary food processing is the commercial production of what is commonly called processed food. Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt , and various types of cooking such as roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven baking , Such basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay.

Salt-preservation was especially common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods. Evidence for the existence of these methods can be found in the writings of the ancient Greek , Chaldean , Egyptian and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe, North and South America and Asia. These tried and tested processing techniques remained essentially the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals also date back to before the preindustrial revolution, and include dishes such as Cornish pasty and Haggis.

Both during ancient times and today in modern society these are considered processed foods. Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs.

Effects on Food Quality, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

In Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which ultimately contributed to the development of tinning, and subsequently canning by Peter Durand in Although initially expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would later become a staple around the world. Pasteurization , discovered by Louis Pasteur in , improved the quality and safety of preserved foods and introduced the wine, beer, and milk preservation.

In the 20th century, World War II , the space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray drying , evaporation , juice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, and such preservatives as sodium benzoate. In the late 20th century, products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, and self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed.

By the 20th century, automatic appliances like microwave oven , blender , and rotimatic paved way for convenience cooking. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience.

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Food processing companies marketed their products especially towards middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods often credited to Clarence Birdseye found their success in sales of juice concentrates and " TV dinners ". Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easing marketing and distribution tasks, and increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques, and long voyages would not be possible. Processed foods are usually less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long-distance transportation from the source to the consumer. Processing can also reduce the incidence of food-borne disease. Fresh materials, such as fresh produce and raw meats, are more likely to harbour pathogenic micro-organisms e.

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Salmonella capable of causing serious illnesses. The extremely varied modern diet is only truly possible on a wide scale because of food processing.

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  7. Transportation of more exotic foods, as well as the elimination of much hard labor gives the modern eater easy access to a wide variety of food unimaginable to their ancestors. The act of processing can often improve the taste of food significantly. Mass production of food is much cheaper overall than individual production of meals from raw ingredients. Therefore, a large profit potential exists for the manufacturers and suppliers of processed food products.

    Individuals may see a benefit in convenience , but rarely see any direct financial cost benefit in using processed food as compared to home preparation. Processed food freed people from the large amount of time involved in preparing and cooking "natural" unprocessed foods. In many families the adults are working away from home and therefore there is little time for the preparation of food based on fresh ingredients.

    The food industry offers products that fulfill many different needs: e.

    Modern food processing also improves the quality of life for people with allergies, diabetics , and other people who cannot consume some common food elements. Food processing can also add extra nutrients such as vitamins. Processing of food can decrease its nutritional density. The amount of nutrients lost depends on the food and processing method.

    For example, heat destroys vitamin C. Therefore, canned fruits possess less vitamin C than their fresh alternatives. The USDA conducted a study of nutrient retention in , creating a table of foods, levels of preparation, and nutrition. New research highlighting the importance to human health of a rich microbial environment in the intestine indicates that abundant food processing not fermentation of foods endangers that environment.

    Using some food additives represents another safety concern.

    Ingredient Interactions: Effects on Food Quality, Second Edition - CRC Press Book

    The health risks of any given additive vary greatly from person to person; for example using sugar as an additive endangers diabetics. Approved additives receive an E number E for Europe , simplifying communication about food additives included in the ingredients' list for all the different languages spoken in the EU. As effects of chemical additives are learned, changes to laws and regulatory practices are made to make such processed foods more safe. Food processing is typically a mechanical process that utilizes extrusion, large mixing, grinding, chopping and emulsifying equipment in the production process.

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    These processes introduce a number of contamination risks. Such contaminates are left over material from a previous operation, animal or human bodily fluids, microorganisms, nonmetallic and metallic fragments. Further processing of these contaminates will result in downstream equipment failure and the risk of ingestion by the consumer.

    Example: A mixing bowl or grinder is used over time, metal parts in contact with food will tend to fail and fracture. This type of failure will introduce into the product stream small to large metal contaminants.