Guide Six Sigma Made Easy

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What Is Six Sigma?

  1. A Brief Introduction To Lean, Six Sigma And Lean Six Sigma
  2. Services As Well As Products
  3. Six Sigma- definitions, history overview
  4. six sigma definitions
  5. Lean Six Sigma Green Belt with Minitab Made Easy | ExcelR S. | Skillshare

Waste in the work is also known as extra-processing waste, and waste in operations is also known as motion waste. Rejected parts waste, or defects waste, is when certain pieces should be thrown out or reworked because they are not within tolerance. Lastly, we have non-utilized talent waste which is when a person that is untrained for a position is put there to try and complete work. In the early s Six Sigma principles expanded into other sectors of the economy, such as Healthcare , Finance , Supply Chain , etc. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects errors and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.

Synergistically, Lean aims to achieve continuous flow by tightening the linkages between process steps while Six Sigma focuses on reducing process variation in all its forms for the process steps thereby enabling a tightening of those linkages. In short, Lean exposes sources of process variation and Six Sigma aims to reduce that variation enabling a virtuous cycle of iterative improvements towards the goal of continuous flow. Lean Six Sigma projects comprise aspects of Lean's waste elimination and the Six Sigma focus on reducing defects, based on critical to quality characteristics.

The training for Lean Six Sigma is provided through the belt based training system similar to that of Six Sigma. The belt personnel is designated as white belts, yellow belts, green belts, black belts and master black belts, similar to judo. For each of this belt, levels skill sets are available that describe which of the overall Lean Six Sigma tools are expected to be part at a certain Belt level.

This means a six sigma process produces in 3.

Monthly Management Tips

Six Sigma is a structured problem-solving methodology. There are five stages in this framework. They are.

  • Nates Favorite Thing To Do Book 3-4: Book 3-4;
  • Statistics for Six SIGMA Made Easy by Warren Brussee.
  • Sur la plage de Chesil (Folio) (French Edition).

In this stage, project objectives are outlined. A project charter is an important component of this phase.

A Brief Introduction To Lean, Six Sigma And Lean Six Sigma

A project charter is a blueprint document for a six sigma project. A typical charter contains the following information:. This charter gives an overview of a six sigma project and is approved by top management to give a go-ahead to six sigma project. Process variables are measured at this stage.

Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methodology

Process data is collected. The baseline is obtained and metrics are compared with final performance metrics. Process capability is obtained. Root cause analysis is done at this stage. Complex analysis tools are utilized to identify the root causes of a defect. Tools like histograms, Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams are used to identify the root causes. Once final root causes are identified, solutions need to be formed to improve the process. Steps to identify, test and implement the solutions to eliminate root causes are part of this stage.

Services As Well As Products

Simulation studies, Design of experiments, Prototyping are some of the techniques used here to improve and maximize process performance. After implementing the solutions, the performance of the solutions must be recorded. A control system must be in place to monitor the performance post improvement. And a response plan is developed to handle solution failure. Control charts show the process performance. Project benefits are discussed and verified against estimated one. The main purpose of this phase is to ensure holding the gains. It drives customer satisfaction and bottom-line results by reducing variation, waste, and cycle time, while promoting the use of work standardization and flow, thereby creating a competitive advantage.

It applies anywhere variation and waste exist, and every employee should be involved. Lean principles help to reduce or eliminate process wastes. Six Sigma focuses on variation - reduction in process. Thereby, the principles of Lean Six Sigma help to improve the efficiency and quality of the process.

Source: www. Lean or six sigma approach in this dynamic environment cannot bring full potential to improvements if applied in isolation. In this management approach, traditionally the lean methodology is used first to remove the waste in a process. Later, the Six Sigma tools are used to improve process variations.

The ultimate objective is to improve processes by reducing variation and eliminating waste. The extent of approaches may differ depending upon process complexities or improvement sought. It improves bottom-line profits and helps meeting business goals. The integrated Lean Six Sigma management approach is being used across sectors and industries. It promotes to exceptional changes in organization's performance.

Six Sigma- definitions, history overview

Lean Six Sigma leads to enjoying competitive advantages in various companies in the world. They can be a product or service-oriented companies. The LSS methodology improves processes and makes them efficient. Motorola has since developed its own accredited, certified services and training for Six Sigma, within what is called the 'Motorola University'. Many other organizations and consultancies of all sizes also develop and deliver Six Sigma training, and this activity seems not to be subject to particular mandatory control or accreditation although Motorola certainly do have established structures and competencies.

Seemingly anyone can start up as a Six Sigma consultant, just like anyone can start up as a quality management consultant, or a performance management consultant. Six Sigma grew quickly from a statistical process for reducing defects in production, to become a 'branded' and yet generic management methodology, whose elements extend far beyond the meaning of the original Six Sigma expression.

Motorola, and as a rule other advocates of Six Sigma, say that as a management system, Six Sigma is a top-down method ie. While Six Sigma's attention to process quality variation is arguably greater than most other performance improvement methodologies, the basic principles of establishing and measuring critical processes are not earth-shatteringly new. What is new is arguably Six Sigma's focus some would say obsessive focus on detailed analysis. In this respect Six Sigma's emphasis on detail will logically appeal to organizations with a 'detail culture' and, organizations that have a high proportion of managers who enjoy focusing on accuracy, for example corporations in industries such as engineering, technology, manufacturing, finance, etc.

I'd be interested to know of any great successes of applying Six Sigma in fields where the organizational culture, service and managerial profiles lean more towards people, communications, relationships, creativity, etc. Theoretically, Six Sigma is unlikely to prove hugely successful in environments where people are not good at or inclined to a lot of detailed measurement, processing and checking, but I'm open to evidence to the contrary Incidentally, the above paragraph has featured on this webpage since The page is visited several thousand times each month.

I draw your attention to some of the significant aspects of Six Sigma, which have some implications for organizational culture, and for the decision whether to adopt Six Sigma in the first place:. Six Sigma, while involving and relying on teams is a top-down methodology. This implies quite strongly centralised operating structures and behaviours.

Many organizations thrive and depend on such dynamics, but some don't. Words like 'mobilize' and 'accelerate' and 'high-impact projects' imply that people need mobilizing, that improvement needs accelerating, and that people are not already engaged on high-impact projects. If your organization already has lots of highly mobilised people, is successfully achieving fast-moving improvements, and people engaged on high-impact projects, then probably Six Sigma is not for you. Six Sigma is likely to produce far greater returns in organizations that need to achieve these things compared to organizations that are already doing them.

I would like to say at this point that there are thousands of people out there who know a great deal about Six Sigma. Many of these terms are very specifically related to Six Sigma. Others are used in a general 'quality management' context and also in Six Sigma. As already explained, Six Sigma tends to embrace many other methodologies. A few of these terms are quite technical since they occur in the statistical, engineering and mathematical aspects of Six Sigma. The more complex mathematical terms and acronyms are included in this glossary not to provide detailed explanations, but instead to enable initial recognition and a basis for further investigation, if you are so inclined.

This small glossary is not exhaustive because it would take about ten years to compile an exhaustive Six Sigma and Quality Management glossary. This is just a few highlights, some points of clarification, words of warning, items of mild amusement, and terms of special note. Despite being completely fascinating of course, Six Sigma is possibly is one of the driest subjects I've ever encountered and so will benefit from as much light relief as you can suggest.

Firstly, acceptance relating to quality is the quality expectation of the customer, internal or external. Acceptable Quality Level ACL means the same basically, in more formal Six Sigma-speak, and which will frequently be expressed in terms of percentage defects. Various analysis perspectives are adopted, for example:. ANOVA is an acronym for analysis of variance, a specialised variation calculation method concerned with comparing means and testing hypotheses, best left to engineers and mathematicians.

Unless you are an engineer or a mathematician you will almost certainly have better things to do than get to grips with this level of statistical capability. Terms such as these illustrate why we need to work in multi-disciplined teams. The ' balanced scorecard ' identifies, correlates, 'balances', measures and drives improvement across a wide variety of factors that are deemed responsible for overall organisational effectiveness, and for meeting customer expectations. The tool essentially translates strategy into operational metrics, and according to Motorola ie.

Six Sigma's strategic first phase is designed to develop management's commitment to Six Sigma, and also management's active participation in the Six Sigma process which suggests why a powerful brand name for the initiative, ie. This amounts to identifying the key processes within the organisation that determine effectively meeting customer expectations; then measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of the processes notably measuring variation in quality and analysing the causes , and then initiating improvements in the weakest processes, which should logically yield the greatest results and return on effort.

six sigma definitions

Used especially in Six Sigma as a team brainstorming analysis tool. Called a fishbone diagram because the diagram plots contributing factors along parallel diagonal lines which each join a central horizontal time-line like the back-bone which culminates at one end with the main issue or question. Thus, if Six Sigma capability is built into new organizational systems and products when they are designed, so performance will be better, and the need for Six Sigma remedial effort will be reduced.

Identifying frequency of variation in processes is central to Six Sigma, since customers are particularly sensitive to variation, arguably even more than isolated failures. Frequency distribution analysis is an excellent antidote for any temptation to respond to an isolated failure with a knee-jerk quick fix, such as shooting the messenger or bollocking the workers when something deeper in the process is awry. Just In Time is actually a capability arising from improvements within a business operation, rather than a cause of improvement itself. Introducing Just In Time methods without improving efficiency and reliability necessary to support it is not viable.

Since Just In Time methods entail reducing stock levels to absolute minimum or even zero, JIT allows no room for error. Timing and predictibility are cruicial.

JIT requires total commitment to quality and efficiency or the supply chain and related operations break down, the costs and implications of which can easily exceed any savings from JIT stock reductions. The term and methodology were developed by the Japanese during their post-war industrial revival second half of the s as a logical progression from 'materials requirements planning' MRP.

The Japanese original terminology is 'kanban', and is important within 'lean production' methodology. The aim of kanban is actually zero inventory. JIT features in highly efficient manufacturing corporations, and has more recently been significantly enabled by computerization, especially to analyse and manage timings rather than stock levels. Pareto first made his discovery while analysing wealth distribution among the British, in More Pareto explanation and examples in use. You see what I mean It is both the subject and the object. People easily get confused by terminology at the best of times, so it's worth taking extra care when using words like process which have at least two distinctly different meanings.

For example avoid phrases such as "Six Sigma is a process that uses processes to improve processes. So, when using the word process, check that people know what process you are actually referring to, and then you will have a fighting chance of not disappearing up your own backside. Production planning therefore includes:. Production planning is typically highly modularized and computerized since process reliability is crucial and is systematically repeated, although production planning must also allow for variation in response to sales or other changing demands and product specifications.

Production planning is generally a weekly and monthly requirement, as well as incorporating longer-term commitments and considerations. The particular sales environment and predictability of the market and business have major impacts on production planning. Volatile markets and unpredictable sales obviously make production planning more difficult. Costs and budgets, health and safety, environmental, and other indirect considerations or compliances are of course relevant to production, but not directly, and so are not included as integral parts of the process.

E represents the excellence of the results, although why it should be E and not R rather defeats me. Whatever, the idea is a sound one, in that A is a multiplier and should along with Q should be assessed in simple terms at the early phase of a Six Sigma project. Eckes suggests scoring each of Q and A out of 10, and that if E equals anything less than 60 then the project is unlikely to succeed, with the implication to return to improving technical quality and stakeholder buy-in.

Six Sigma is an organizational philosophy. A potential area of vulnerability in many Six Sigma implementations, because of the predominance of Six Sigma team leaders with strong process skills and attention to detail, which can sometimes be at odds with the abilities of intuition, empathy, rapport-building, relationship-building, and other 'soft' people-skills.

A mapping technique that promotes creative thinking towards detailed causes and effects and accountabilities. Helps to avoid tendencies for activities and accountabilities to be left too vague.

Lean Six Sigma Green Belt with Minitab Made Easy | ExcelR S. | Skillshare

There are thousands more all over the world. Send me your own thoughts and comments about Six Sigma. Occasionally I receive interesting helpful comments and observations about Six Sigma, quality management, and performance management, etc. The best examples are published here, with grateful acknowledgement to the contributors. Send your own comments. Whilst your article is extremely informative I am surprised that it makes no mention of Robert Galvin who was the CEO of Motorola at the time that Six Sigma was being developed in the company and who as a consequence was awarded the Juran Prize by the ASQ.

Also that you make no mention of the fact that Six Sigma was spawned from the widespread use in Motorola of the Juran Managerial Breakthrough process using Dr Juran's widely acclaimed 16 video tape series of training materials for project by project improvement. Six Sigma came about as a consequence of an internal observation that those using these materials could be placed in two categories. Those who used a factual approach to make the journey from Symptom through Theories of Causes to true Cause or causes and those who made assumptions and implemented solutions based on these assumptions.

Motorola observed that there was an order of magnitude difference between the results of the two categories of persons in favour of those who used the factual approach. In order to persuade everyone to do this, the concept of Six Sigma was born. How do I know all of this? He also acknowledged the impact of Japanese competition by saying, "If the Japanese had not existed we would have to have invented them It has been around in principle for several centuries, e.

If one is to use Six Sigma within a project environment then one has to assume that those environments fit within the 'normal distribution'. I don't think so. People are making today's money out of old statistical methods. But maybe the problem is that humans are not widgets? I was told that the Japanese did the very same thing and queried why a company would actually order so many defective parts per batch From John Mangold, 23 Jul , in response to my request on this page for a Six Sigma 'elevator speech' to summarise what in essence Six Sigma means, here's a very effective and amusing example:.

A company advertised its new Six Sigma approach. A customer placed an order for a thousand parts saying, "We don't want more than two bad parts per thousand. Along with the container came a small parcel. The customer called and asked the supplier, "What is in the parcel? For the uninitiated , the term 'Six Sigma' derived originally from a reliability standard equating to no more than 3. I am just starting in the Six Sigma training.

In doing some additional research I ran across your page of the history of Six Sigma. I greatly appreciated your history and commentary on Six Sigma. It helped put several things in perspective. I thought you might find some anecdotal observations of interest. In the early s, I was a product engineer of the Z80 line of microprocessors at Mostek. We were having problems with yield and speed with the NMOS processor and some of its auxiliary devices.

In an effort to determine what was happening, I discovered that standard statistical modeling did not work. Instead I started developing graphic methods based on historical layer process metrics and yield and speed results. When my management wanted to know how I accomplished the yield improvements, they found that I had abandoned their 'tried and true' statistical methodologies.