- Теор. фонетика - Стр 14
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Southern Netherlands . Flemish Brabant . Northern Netherlands . West Flanders . Cape Flats . Northumbrian dialect . More often a fricative. See English phonology. Sierra Leonean . French . See French phonology. Standard . In free variation with a voiced uvular fricative and approximant. See Standard German phonology. May also be a fricative or approximant.
See Modern Hebrew phonology. Italian .
Теор. фонетика - Стр 14
Some speakers . Standard . Older speakers . See Occitan phonology. Southern Auvergnat. European . Alternates with other uvular forms and the older alveolar trill. See Portuguese phonology. Fluminense . Tendency to be replaced by fricative pronunciations.
Sulista . Alternates with the alveolar trill and [ h ] depending on the region. Never used in coda. Lakota  . Imported from French missionaries. See Sesotho phonology. Standard . Danish . See Danish phonology. Belgian . Only when following a vowel, otherwise it is voiceless. Maastrichtian . Weert dialect . Lisbon . Bruges dialect . Dialectology is inseparably connected with sociolinguistics, the latter deals with language variation caused by social difference and differing social needs; it studies the.
An accent is a unified entity of pronunciation patterns used for communicative interaction by the members of the same speech community. Speakers of the same accent typically:. Thus sociolinguistics explains language phenomena in connection with factors outside the language faculty itself in terms of large-scale social structure and in terms of how people use language to communicate with one another. Language is indissolubly linked with the society; in it we can see a faithful reflection of the society in which people live.
For example, the subject matter of ethnolinguistics gradually merges into that of anthropological linguistics and that into sociological linguistics and that into stylistics, and the subject matter of social psychology. Some scholars consider functional stylistics to be a branch of sociolinguistics since it studies the distinctive linguistic characteristics of smaller social groupings.
English, German, Spanish, etc. In a polyethnic language there can exist a great variety in terms of pronunciation. English is the mother tongue of several na - tions, thus it has the following national variants of pronunciation: British English, American English, Australian English, New Zealand English. Now speaking about the nations we refer to the national variants of the language. In their treatment we. In other words national language is the. A "standard" may be defined as "a socially accepted variety of a language established by a codified norm of correctness" [Macanalay 68].
One of the accents in the country or more! The term 'standard' is to be interpreted to mean ' implicitly considered to represent correct and socially acceptable usage for educated purposes'. The use of the other pronunciation types is applied to certain regions, smaller lo-. Thus varieties in pronunciation within a country can include a national standard of pronunciation and territorial or area accents. Accents always mark the geographical. Though every national variant of English has considerable differences in pronunciation, lexics and grammar, they all have much in common which gives us ground to speak of one and the same language — the English language.
National standards undergo constant changes due to various internal and external factors. Pronunciation, above all, is subject to all kinds of innovations. Therefore the national variants of English differ primarily in sound, stress, and intonation. For this Canada. In this case scholars speak about bilingualism in contrast to monolingualism typical of a country with one national language.
Here arises the problem. When we refer to varieties in pronunciation only, we use the word "accent". In Britain, for example, Yorkshire, Lanca-. It is, however, true that there is a great deal of overlap between these terms. For certain. This was the case of London dialect, whose accent became the.
It has been estimated that the standard pronunciation of a country is not homogeneous. The pressure of Standard English is so strong that many people are bilingual in a.
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In this occasion the term diglossia should. In recent years the effect of these forms of linguistic behaviour is studied by sociolinguists and psychologists. Every language community, ranging from a small group to a nation has its own social dialect, and consequently, its own social accent.
British sociolinguists divide the society into the following classes: upper class, upper middle class, middle middle class, lower middle class, upper working class, middle working class, lower working class. It is well worth to understand that classes are split into different major and minor social groups professional, educational, cultural, age, sex and so on. Correspondingly every social community has its own social dialect and social accent. Shakhbagova defines social dialects as "varieties spoken by a socially limited number of people" [Shakhbagova ].
It is evident that the language means are chosen consciously or subconsciously by a speaker according to his perception of the situation, in which he finds himself. Hence situational varieties of the language are called functional dialects or functional styles and situational pronunciation varieties — situational accents or phonostyles. It has also to be remembered that the language of its users; varies according to. Individual speech of members of the same language community is known as idiolect.
English was originally spoken in England and south-eastern Scotland. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was brought to North America mainly from the West of England. Later in the 18th and 19th centuries English was exported to Australia, New Zealand and South Af- rica owing to the colonial expansion.
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A flow of emigrants who went to invade, explore and inhabit those lands came mostly from the south-eastern parts of England. English became wide-spread in Wales at about the same time. Welsh English is very similar to southern English, although the influence of Welsh has played a role in its formation. Then in the 20th century American English began to spread in Canada, Latin America, on the Bermudas, and in other parts of the world. Thus nowadays two main types of English are spoken in the English-speaking world: English English and American English.
According to British dialectologists P.
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Trudgill, J. Hannah, A. Hughes and others [Hughes, Trudgill ; Trudgill, Hannah ] the following variants of English are. Scottish English and Irish English fall somewhere between the two being somewhat by themselves. Northern and Midland accents. Middle West and on to the Pacific coast. Southern American includes accents of lowland south: Virginia, North and South. The opinions as to the US national standard of pronunciation vary. But it is an actual fact that GenAm is widely used by the US media and. In New Zealand, RP is used as pronunciation model for educated speakers.
In Australia, there is no or little geographical variation in pronunciation [The. Cambridge Encyclopedia ], but a great deal of variation can be classified according to social criteria. Three groups of accents are distinguished with no sharp boundary between them:. Cultivated Australian used by about 10 percent of the population on which RP continues to exert a considerable pressure; its opposite extreme, Broad Australian which is used by about 30 percent of the speakers and which appears to be most localized, most clearly identified with the notion of "an Australian twang", most viv - idly displaying Cockney influence;.
General Australian, which is spoken by the mainstream of educated Australian speak-. The type of educated English pronunciation used in Canada has many similar fea-. These accents exhibit differences. The following two accents of English have been under extensive investigation due to their importance, prestige and social advantage in certain geographical areas:. Thus, the roots of RP are in London, more particularly the pronunciation of the London region and the Home counties lying around London within 60 miles: Middlesex,.
By the 18th century a prestigious pronunciation model was characterized as the speech " received by the polite circles of society " [Gimson ]. By the 19th century London English had increasingly acquired social prestige losing some of its local characteristics. It was finally fixed as the pronunciation of the. In the mid 19th century there was an increase in education, in particular, there occurred the rise of public schools since Public School Act. These schools became important agencies in the transmission of Southern English as the form with highest prestige.
What was Southern Educated English at the beginning of the 20th century? It was a social, regionally-defined variety of more or less clearly definable social basis -rather a small group of people who had had public school education Oxford, Cambridge [Leitner l]. The major motifs of this were: 1 the need for a clearly defined and recognized norm for public and other purposes; 2 the desire to provide adequate descriptions for teaching English both as the mother tongue and a foreign language. Professor Daniel Jones described this variety as a hoped-for standard pronuncia- tion in the first editions of his books "The Pronunciation of English"  and "Outline of English Phonetics" .
By , however, any intention of setting up a standard of Spoken English was disclaimed by many phoneticians.
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The term "Standard Pronunciation" was replaced by "Received Pronunciation", which had been introduced for Southern. Educated English by phonetician Ida Ward who defined it as pronunciation which " had lost all easily noticeable local differences" [Leitner ]. Thus, in the early 20th century the consolidation of Educated Southern English RP as a model took place, though variations according to style, age and idiolect were observable in it.
The country's population, for more than half a century, had been exposed through broadcasting to RP. Until the early 70s of the last century it was the only accent demanded in the BBC's announcers [Wells ]. Only over the last 30 years, both the BBC and other British national radio and TV channels have been increasingly tolerant of the.
Before World War 2, RP had a regional base but its occurrence was socially deter-. The second half of the 20th century witnessed the radical changes in RP's social base:. Since post-war years this pronunciation norm has no? This vast extension of RP's social base has resulted in a dilution of the original concept of RP in the last quarter of the 20th century as compared with its consolidation in the first part of the century [Gimson ].
This dilution of RP's concept manifests itself in the admittance of variant pronunciations as of common and acceptable usage. It is fair to mention, however, that only per cent of the population of England speak RP. British phoneticians [Barber ; Gimson ; Hughes and P. Trudgill ] estimate that nowadays RP is not homogeneous.
Gimson suggest that it is convenient to distinguish three main types within it: "the conservative RP forms, used by the older generation, and traditionally, by certain profession or social groups; the general RP forms, most commonly in use and typified by the pronunciation adopted by the BBC, and the advanced RP forms, mainly used by young people of exclusive social groups — mostly of the upper classes, but also for prestige value, in certain professional circles" [Gimson This last type of RP reflects the tendencies typical of change in pronunciation.
It is the most "effected and exaggerated variety" of the accent. Some of its features may be results of temporary fashion, some are adopted as a norm and described in the latest textbooks. Many native speakers, especially teachers of English and professors of colleges and universities particularly from the South and South-East of England have accents closely resembling RP but not identical to it.
Trudgill and J. Hannah call it Near-RP southern.