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The Evolution of the Media

  1. U. S. Army and the Media in the 20th Century - Robert T. Davis - Google книги
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  3. The Enemy in Your Pants
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  5. Le magazine qui analyse les mutations des médias

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U. S. Army and the Media in the 20th Century - Robert T. Davis - Google книги

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What makes Kevlar fabric so effective is that it's impregnated with resin to produce a shell, which is lighter and tougher than steel. It provided greater coverage, down to the nape of the neck and had far better ballistic performance. It also featured a removable sweatband. Kevlar gave a marked improvement in protection. Not only could it stop. This is made from a combination of Kevlar and a modern ballistic fiber called Twaron.

The Enemy in Your Pants

Other improvements included a shock-absorbing liner to provide better protection against violent impacts, like when a vehicle is struck by an IED. Part of the aim of the new design was to improve the field of vision and hearing. Unlike previous helmets, the ACH was designed to be worn in conjunction with other items of modern military equipment. The front opening can accommodate sunglasses or goggles for eye protection in desert conditions.

A clip at the front allows devices like night-vision goggles and cameras to be attached, and the shape has been modified to be compatible with communications headsets. Rather than being a standalone item like previous helmets, the ACH had become part of an integrated ensemble. While the ACH is only supposed to be proof against handgun bullets, it proved surprisingly tough.

Tom Alberts was on patrol in Afghanistan in when something hit his helmet and knocked him down. Alberts was right: Army analysts later determined his ACH had been struck by an AK bullet, which the helmet stopped completely. Then in , the Enhanced Combat Helmet arrived. Externally, it closely resembles the ACH. William Cole told a media briefing. The ECH is somewhat thicker, though lighter, but there is a huge difference in the protection it provides. This is a special form of the same plastic used to make drink bottles, sandwich wrap, and plastic grocery bags.

However, the helmet itself is made from much larger molecules with chains of atoms a hundred times longer than regular plastic. And the ECH doesn't just stop pistol rounds, as demonstrated during an insider ambush at Camp Maiwand in eastern Afghanistan in During the ambush, Staff Sergeant Steven McQueen was hit in the head by a truck-mounted machine-gun bullet from twenty feet away. This is a considerably more powerful round than the AK that hit Alberts.

McQueen was knocked flat, but was up seconds later, the bullet was stopped by his Enhanced Combat Helmet. The ECH also provides outstanding protection against shell fragments. But one thing was certain—the ECH was superior to anything in the army helmet's 4,year history.

Ginger Whitehead, the U. These holes weaken the shell, so the boltless arrangement makes the IHPS substantially stronger. It also provides more coverage. The optional maxillo-facial protection module makes the helmet look a little like something out of Halo, covering the lower face while also adding a visor. Instead of the assembly of different brackets that had built up on previous helmets, the IHPS has two universal attachment points able to accommodate any device, such as night vision systems.

The media broadcast is created by various agencies and organizations. The Commando Solo aircraft currently is the only stand-off, high-altitude means available to PSYOP forces to disseminate information to large denied areas.

Thailand's media under pressure - The Listening Post (Feature)

Straightforward physics dictate the range, given the power installed and the antenna configuration and assuming clear channels. The enhanced altitude capability of the Commando Solo EC—J now funded is increasing transmitter range. While this is an improvement over E capability, it is a small step, since the increase in altitude is only 7, feet less than 50 percent and the range increase is governed by a square root function that is, a 14 percent increase in range.

Portraits d’auteurs

Department of State during peacetime and the early stages of war:. This program shall include all foreign information activities conducted by departments and agencies of the U. Government, and with related planning The employment and expansion, insofar as is feasible, of the activities and facilities which compose the national foreign information program in time of peace, in order to assure rapid transition to operations in time of national emergency or war.

Transmittal of approved psychological warfare plans and policies to theater commanders through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. After the OPC was consolidated into the CIA, [5] there has been a psychological operations staff, under various names, in what has variously been named the Deputy Directorate of Plans, the Directorate of Operations, or the National Clandestine Service. But in one or two cases that approval was not obtained, and in one unfortunate example a leaflet in Romanian committed the Allies and the United States to the union of all Romanians in Austria-Hungary with Romania.

Such geopolitics was emphatically not the job of AEF propaganda and had the potential to cause serious embarrassment. There was extensive use of psychological operations in World War II, from the strategic to the tactical. National-level white propaganda was the responsibility of the Office of War Information , while black propaganda was most often the responsibility of the Morale Operations branch of the Office of Strategic Services OSS. Psychological operations planning started before the U.

The OSS was created at the same time. PWE was a sister organization to the Special Operations Executive , which conducted guerrilla warfare. For the U. In general, its units worked on a theater-by-theater basis, without a great deal of central coordination. The OSS was responsible for strategic propaganda, while the military commanders had operational and tactical responsibility. Dwight Eisenhower was notably supportive of psychological operations, had psychological warfare organization in the staff of all his commands, and worked with OSS and OWI.

For the first time in U. Engineers of the 1st Radio Section of the 1st MRBC recorded POW interviews for front- line broadcasts, and reproduced the sound effects of vast numbers of tanks and other motor vehicles for Allied armored units in attempts to mislead German intelligence and lower enemy morale.

Leaflets were delivered principally from aircraft, but also with artillery shells. Psychological operations were used extensively during the Korean War. The first unit, the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company, was sent to Korea in fall Since the war was a United Nations mandated operation, political sensitivities were high. While rules limited mentioning the People's Republic of China or the Soviet Union , first due to fear it would increase their intervention, and later because it might demoralize ROK civilians, Stalin was depicted and Chinese troops were targeted in leafleting.

Various methods were used to deliver propaganda, with constraints imposed by exceptionally rugged terrain and that radios were relatively uncommon among DPRK and PRC troops. Loudspeaker teams often had to get dangerously close to enemy positions. Artillery and light aircraft delivered leaflets on the front lines, while heavy bombers dropped leaflets in the rear.

Over 2. Less direct and immediate correlation between tactical PSYOP efforts and target audience behavior may still be substantiated after the fact, especially by means of polling and interviews. For example, in the Korean War, approximately one-third of the total prisoner of war POW population polled by the United Nations UN forces claimed to have surrendered at least in part because of the propaganda leaflets. Fifty-eight percent of the prisoners interviewed claimed to have heard coalition radio broadcasts, and 46 percent believed that the coalition broadcasts were truthful despite coming from their enemy.

Le magazine qui analyse les mutations des médias

Again, some portion of the surrenders might have occurred even without PSYOP encouragement; but certainly, there would appear to be a correlation between PSYOP, which offered the enemy a way to escape the onslaught of U. One such operation, is Operation Moolah. The objective of the psychological operation was to target Communist pilots to defect to South Korea with a MiG , in order for the U.

The CIA's operation to overthrow the Government of Guatemala in marked an early zenith in the Agency's long record of covert action. Following closely on two successful operations, one of which was the installation of the Shah as ruler of Iran in August , the Guatemalan operation, known as PBSUCCESS , was both more ambitious and more thoroughly successful than either precedent. Rather than helping a prominent contender gain power with a few inducements, PBSUCCESS used an intensive paramilitary and psychological campaign to replace a popular, elected government with a political non-entity.

In method scale and conception it had no antecedent, and its triumph confirmed the belief of many in the Eisenhower Administration that covert operations offered a safe, inexpensive substitute for armed force in resisting what they declared was Communist inroad in the Third World. Psychological operations were extensively used in Vietnam, with white propaganda under the United States Information Agency and Military Assistance Command Vietnam , and grey and black propaganda under the Central Intelligence Agency and the Studies and Observation Group.

  • Psychological operations (United States) - Wikipedia.
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  • Psychological operations (United States).
  • Néo-Indiens (Les) (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition).
  • As early as August , almost one year before the activation of the Joint U. In sum, it is a myth that the United States, stubbornly fixated on a World War II-style conventional war, was unaware of the "other war. During the Vietnam era, the organization of the 4th Psychological Operations Group was very different. The four battalions of the group were divided by geographic region rather than area of expertise as they are now.

    Additionally, they generally had extensive printing facilities. The B companies consisted of the field teams that were stationed throughout their respective corps billeted with MACV teams and combat units. See also CIA activities in Nicaragua. Ola Tunander,a swedish author, claimed that U. It is claimed that U.

    See Strategy of tension and Operation Gladio.

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    It is also claimed that British submarines also participated in such secret operations. But the special operations community did notice. The lessons learned in Panama were incorporated into standard operating procedures. This led to improved production, performance, and effect in the next contingency, which took place within 6 months after the return of the last PSYOP elements from Panama. The broader scope of information operations in Panama included denying the Noriega regime use of their own broadcasting facilities.

    A direct action mission removed key parts of the transmitters. An unusual technique, developed in real time, was termed the "Ma Bell Mission", or, more formally, capitulation missions. There were a number of Panamian strongpoints that continued to have telephone access. By attaching Spanish-speaking Special Forces personnel to a combat unit that would otherwise take the strongpoint by force, the Spanish-speaking personnel would phone the Panamian commander, tell him to put away his weapons and assemble his men on the parade ground, or face lethal consequences.

    Because of the heavy reliance on telephones, these missions were nicknamed "Ma Bell" operations. Several high-ranking cronies of Manuel Noriega who were on the "most wanted" list were also captured in Ma Bell operations. Psychological operations sometimes are intimately linked to combat operations, with the use of force driving home the propaganda mission. During the Panamanian operation, it was necessary.

    In Ft. Amador, an installation shared by the U. There were U. Concern for U. When the PDF did not surrender after initial appeals, the message changed, with the tactical commander warning "that resistance was hopeless in the face of overwhelming firepower and a series of demonstrations took place, escalating from small arms to mm howitzer rounds. Subsequent broadcasts convinced the PDF to give up. The entire process allowed Ft.