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A family history of bowel cancer or polyps — having a first-degree relative father, mother, brother, sister or second-degree grandfather, grandmother, aunt, uncle relative with bowel cancer or polyps — is a risk factor for bowel cancer. The risk of developing the condition is also increased in people with an inflammatory bowel disease, primarily long term ulcerative colitis but also some instances of Crohn's disease. Diets high in fat are believed to be a factor in the development of bowel cancer — countries with high rates of bowel cancer have a higher consumption of fat than countries with low bowel cancer rates.
It is thought that digestion of fat in the colon results in the formation of cancer-causing chemicals carcinogens. Consuming less fat should help to reduce exposure to these fat-derived carcinogens. A diagnosis of colorectal cancer is made by a combination of tests including a digital rectal examination where your doctor will feel for suspicious lumps using a gloved finger , testing for blood in the stools faecal occult blood test , blood tests for iron-deficiency anaemia, and x-rays of the digestive tract. The definitive test for colorectal cancer is a colonoscopy. A colonoscopy is performed by a colorectal surgeon or gastroenterologist using a colonoscope a thin, flexible, tubular instrument with a video camera at one end to view the lining of the intestines and, if necessary, to take biopsy tissue samples for laboratory testing.
Staging of colorectal cancer When colorectal cancer is diagnosed, additional tests including MRI, Ct and PET scans are performed to determine the extent of the disease, which is a process called staging. The staging for colorectal cancer is as follows: Stage I least advanced cancer — cancer involving only the innermost layers of the colon or rectum wall. Stage III — cancer involving spread of the cancer to local lymph nodes metastasis. Stage IV most advanced cancer — cancer having spread to distant organs, usually the liver and lungs, or lymph nodes far from the original tumour.
Treatment The primary treatments for colorectal cancer are surgery to remove cancer cells, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. For most people with stage I and stage II colorectal cancer, surgery alone is the only treatment required. However, once the cancer has spread to local lymph nodes stage III , the risk of the cancer returning remains high even if all visible evidence of the cancer has been removed by the surgery.
In this case, chemotherapy is likely to be used to lower the risk of the cancer returning.forum2.quizizz.com/el-legado-de-la-rosa.php
Explore Brain Cancer Treatment Options & Advanced Therapies | CTCA
There are several different options for chemotherapy for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The simplest treatments involve a single type of chemotherapy drug, given either by pill or by injection into a vein, but sometimes a combination of chemotherapy drugs is recommended. Chemotherapy is typically given for a total of 6 months. Once colorectal cancer has spread to other parts of the body stage III and IV cancer , chemotherapy is the best treatment, and although not curative it can extend life expectancy and quality of life.
Biological drugs, known as monoclonal antibodies e. By binding to specific growth-stimulating proteins on the surface of the cancer cells monoclonal antibodies block the growth of the cancer cells. The commonest types of cancer affect the white blood cells, the skin and the breast. Behaviour, Getting a cat. Behaviour, Training and games. We provide free pet advice as every pet deserves to be well looked after.
We treated around 35, sick injured and homeless pets last year.
Coping with cancer in cats
Coping with cancer in cats. The vet says my cat has a tumour — is it cancer? The language surrounding cancer can be confusing and definitions are difficult. Tumours also called growths can be cancerous or non-cancerous, depending on what they do within the body. A tumour is the uncontrolled growth of microscopic body components known as cells.
This causes disease, often by forming a lump within the organs of the body and disrupting their normal layout so they cannot function properly. There are some factors that statistically make certain cancers more likely to occur.
White cats are more at risk of skin cancer from sunlight exposure. Infection with some viruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukaemia virus see F IV and FeLV may increase the chances of getting cancer. Spaying a female cat when she is young greatly reduces the chances of breast cancer. Cancer can occur in any part or system of the body, so its symptoms are very varied. Many of the symptoms are also common to a large range of diseases. A diagnosis of cancer cannot be made on symptoms alone. You should certainly take your cat to the vet if you have discovered a lump, but not all lumps are cancers.
Non-healing sores should also be investigated.
Other signs of tumours benign or cancerous affecting internal organs can include loss of appetite, weight loss, lethargy and weakness, difficulty in breathing, limping and recurrent digestive problems. However, these can be signs of many other illnesses as well. They are certainly signs that mean you need to visit the vet. Even though cancers may be slow growing, they can sometimes cause sudden signs of illness. Usually, the vet cannot tell whether an animal has cancer just by looking.
Blood tests to screen for cancer are still in their infancy. Further tests, such as blood samples and x-rays, are usually needed. Ultrasound or MRI scanning may be suggested. It may be useful to test whether the cat is infected with feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus.