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  3. The Eucharist as Presence and Sacrament

Ought not Eucharistic adoration before or after each Holy Mass support and surround Holy Communion and become the secret for growth in faith and zeal of the entire parish? When the Blessed Sacrament is exposed already before Mass in silence or with the praying of the Rosary , this opens the mind of those who come to Mass.

It challenges their heart and faith, and helps them to focus on the real center which is the LORD. All would start to practice the sacred silence and personal conversation with our beloved Jesus already before Holy Mass cf. John Paul II, as expected from a good pastor cf. These elements we find in the Holy Mass, so that the Rite of the Mass can be considered the best guide for Eucharistic adoration. Like in the Holy Mass, the adorer starts with a short examination of conscience and an act of contrition. Then he renews and deepens his faith in Jesus truly present through a biblical reading and meditation, preferably concentrating on the personal relationship between man and God cf.

Ex 3 and ff; 1 Kings ; Mt ff; ; ; Jn ; Rev 5. In this contemplation, he closes the book s , opens his heart and is drawn nearer to Jesus. Then, as he remains in silent love and spiritual communion, the Lord rewards this love of the adorer with His graces, especially with deeper faith, trust, and love. First, we ourselves have to nurture the solicitude that our own Holy Communions reach greater depths through the support of adoration.

Jn and to feel the infinite love present in His heart. How often, dear brothers and sisters, have I experienced this, and drawn from it strength, consolation and support! MnD 30; Letter on Holy Thursday Let us call upon the holy angels, especially the Seraphim and Cherubim, that they educate us in prayer, and help us to lead our sheep in it also. The theological basis for the adoration was prepared in the 11th century by Pope Gregory VII , who was instrumental in affirming the tenet that Christ is present in the Blessed Host. In , Gregory required of Berengar of Tours a confession of belief:.

I believe in my heart and openly profess that the bread and wine that are placed on the altar are, through the mystery of the sacred prayer and the words of the Redeemer, substantially changed into the true and proper and lifegiving flesh and blood of Jesus Christ our Lord, and that after the consecration they are the true body of Christ [20]. This profession of faith began a "Eucharistic Renaissance" in the churches of Europe. It then spread from Umbria to other parts of Italy. He asked the Dominican theologian Thomas Aquinas to write the texts for the Mass and Office of the feast.

As of the fourteenth century in the Western Church , devotions began to focus on the Eucharistic gifts as the objective presence of the risen Christ and the Host began to be elevated during the liturgy for the purpose of adoration, as well as to be seen by the congregation since the priest stood facing the same direction in front of the altar. In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation was challenging various issues with respect to the Eucharist and in response the Council of Trent greatly emphasized the presence of Christ in the Eucharist, the theological basis for Eucharistic adoration.

The Trent declaration was the most significant theological component of Eucharistic doctrine since the apostolic age. For before the apostles received the Eucharist from the hands of our Lord, He told them that it was His Body that He was giving them. The Council then declared Eucharistic adoration as a form of latria :.

The only-begotten Son of God is to be adored in the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist with the worship of "latria", including external worship. The Sacrament, therefore, is to be honored with extraordinary festive celebrations and solemnly carried from place to place in processions according to the praiseworthy universal rite and custom of the holy Church. The Sacrament is to be publicly exposed for the people's adoration.

As Eucharistic adoration and Benediction became more widespread during the 17th century, the altar came to be seen as the "home of the Blessed Sacrament" where it would be adored. A common early practice of adoration known as Quarantore literary forty hours started in the 16th century. It is an exercise of devotion in which continuous prayer is made for forty hours before the exposed Blessed Sacrament.

This practice started in Milan in the s and s by Capuchins such as Giuseppe da Fermo who promoted long periods of adoration. The practice of the perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament started in Naples in within the Order of the Clerics Regular Minor , founded by St. Francis Caracciolo , Fr. Augustine Adorno and Fr. Fabrizio Caracciolo. This practice was modified to continuous adoration during the day due to the few number of religious in the Order's Constitutions of with approval by Pope Clement VIII [31] At a later date, the Order would revert to its earlier rule of perpetual adoration, but only within houses of no less than twenty religious.

The houses with less religious were offered perpetual adoration as an option if it would not interfere with the execution of the house's ministries.

In the 18th century, large numbers of people were drawn to quiet adoration of the Eucharist and priests such as Alphonsus Liguori encouraged the practice. He wrote a book on Visits to the Blessed Sacrament and he explained that a visit to the Blessed Sacrament is the "practice of loving Jesus Christ", since friends who love each other visit regularly.

Benedict Joseph Labre , a homeless beggar and Franciscan tertiary , was a familiar figure in the city of Rome and known as the "saint of the Forty Hours" or Quarant' Ore for his dedication to Eucharistic adoration. The French Revolution hindered the practice of Eucharistic adoration, however, the beginning of the 19th century witnessed a strong emphasis on Eucharistic piety, devotions and adorations. By , the efforts of the Confraternity of Penitents-Gris brought Eucharistic adoration back in France. The adoration of the Eucharist within France grew in this period, and there were interactions between Catholic figures who were enthusiastic about spreading the practice, e.

Also in , Eymard, known as the Apostle of the Eucharist , and sister Marguerite Guillot formed the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament which now maintains houses on several continents where continuous Eucharistic adoration takes place. By Decree of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, dated 9 December , Saint Peter Julian Eymard, Priest, was added to the General Roman Calendar with the rank of optional memoria: Font and fullness of all evangelization and striking expression of the infinite love of our divine Redeemer for mankind, the Holy Eucharist clearly marked the life and pastoral activity of Peter Julian Eymard.

He truly deserves to be called an outstanding apostle of the Eucharist. In fact, his mission in the Church consisted in promoting the centrality of the Eucharistic Mystery in the whole life of the Christian community. The practice of prolonged Eucharistic adoration also spread to the United States in the 19th century and Saint John Neumann the Archbishop of Philadelphia started Forty Hours adorations there, where it continues to date. Early Anglicanism officially rejected Eucharistic adoration.

Article XXVIII — Of the Lord's Supper in Anglicanism's 39 Articles rejects transubstantiation , declaring that "Transubstantiation or the change of the substance of Bread and Wine in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions.

However, since the midth century, the Oxford Movement has broadened Anglican opinions on the matter. An early 20th century bishop, the Right Reverend Edgar Gibson , Bishop of Gloucester , wrote of Article 28 that "The statement in the Article is worded with the utmost care, and with studied moderation.

It cannot be said that any one of the practices is condemned or prohibited by it. It only amounts to this: that none of them can claim to be part of the original Divine institution. Today, opinions on the nature of the Eucharist and thus on the propriety of adoration and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament vary in the Anglican tradition see Anglican Eucharistic theology , but many Anglo-Catholics practice Eucharistic adoration.

Lutheran Eucharistic adoration is most commonly limited in duration to the Eucharistic service because Lutheran tradition typically does not include public reservation of the Sacrament. If the holy elements are not consumed at the altar or after the service, then they can be set aside and placed in an aumbry , which is normally located in the sacristy.

Primarily, the extra hosts are reserved for another Eucharist or for taking to the sick and those too feeble to attend a church service. However, in North America and Europe, some Lutherans may choose to reserve the Eucharist in a tabernacle near the altar. Historically in Lutheranism there have been two parties regarding Eucharistic adoration: Gnesio-Lutherans , who followed Martin Luther's view in favor of adoration, and Philippists who followed Philipp Melanchthon 's view against it.

Although Luther did not entirely approve of the Feast of Corpus Christi , [43] he wrote a treatise The Adoration of the Sacrament where he defended adoration but desired that the issue not be forced.

WikiZero - Eucharist in the Catholic Church

In his reform of the Roman Mass Luther placed the Sanctus after the Institution Narrative to serve as a solemn act of worship of the Real Presence just brought about by the latter. After the death of Martin Luther , further controversies developed including Crypto-Calvinism and the second Sacramentarian controversy, started by Gnesio-Lutheran Joachim Westphal. The Philippist understanding of the Real Presence without overt adoration through time became dominant in Lutheranism, although it is not in accordance with Luther's teaching.

The German theologian Andreas Musculus can be regarded as one of the warmest defenders of Eucharistic adoration in early Lutheranism. In Catholic teachings, at the moment of Consecration the elements or "gifts" as they are termed for liturgical purposes are changed in substance transubstantiation — as opposed to 'transformation' wherein a change in physical form occurs into the actual Body and Blood of Christ.

Catholic doctrine holds that the elements are not only spiritually changed, but rather their substances are actually substantially changed into the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Christ. In the doctrine of Real Presence , at the point of Consecration, the act that takes place is a double miracle: 1 that Christ is present in a physical form and 2 that the bread and wine have truly, substantially become Jesus' Body and Blood.

However, the Scholastic-philosophical meaning of "substance" and "transubstantiation" are not matter for Catholic dogma. Because Roman Catholics believe that Christ is truly present Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity in the Eucharist, the reserved sacrament serves as a focal point of adoration. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that: "The Eucharistic presence of Christ begins at the moment of the consecration and endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist. Faustina Kowalska stated that she was called to religious life while attending the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament at age seven.

Building on that theme, E. Clowney explained that three dimensions of Christian meditation are crucial, not for showing its distinctiveness, but for guiding its practice. The first is. Because the God of the Bible is a personal God who speaks in words of revelation, Christian meditation responds to this revelation and focuses on that aspect, in contrast to mystic meditations which use mantras; the second distinctive mark of Christian meditation is that it responds to the love of God, as in I John : "We love, for he first loved us".

The personal relationship based on the love of God that marks Christian communion is thus heightened in Christian meditation; the third dimension is that the revelations of the Bible and the love of God lead to the worship of God: making Christian meditation an exercise in praise. Thomas Merton characterized the goal of Christian meditation as follows: "The true end of Christian meditation is the same as the end of liturgical prayer and the reception of the sacraments : a deeper union by grace and charity with the Incarnate Word, the only Mediator between God and man, Jesus Christ.

Apostle Paul stated in Epistle to the Romans that salvation only comes from "God that hath mercy". The path to salvation in Christian meditation is not one of give and take, the aim of meditation is to bring joy to the heart of God; the Word of God directs meditations to show the two aspects of love that please God: obedience and adoration.

The initiative in Christian salvation is with God, one does not meditate or love God to gain his favor. In Western Christian teachings, meditation is believed to involve the inherent action of the Holy Spirit to help the meditating Christian understand the deeper meanings of the Word of God. In the 12th century, decades before Guigo II's the Ladder of the Monk , one of his predecessors, Guigo I , emphasized this belief by stating that when earnest meditation begins, the Holy Spirit enters the soul of the meditator, "turns water into wine" and shows the path towards contemplation and a better understanding of God.

In the 19th century, Charles Spurgeon affirmed this belief within the Protestant tradition and wrote: "The Spirit has taught us in meditation to ponder its message, to put aside, if we will, the responsibility of preparing the message we've got to give. Just trust God for that. How could we understand what is within God and is disclosed to us except through the Spirit of God, communicated to us?

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As a biblical basis for this teaching, von Balthasar referred to 1 Corinthians "these are the things God has revealed to us by his Spirit; the Spirit searches all things the deep things of God". While other types of meditation may suggest approaches to disengage the mind, Christian meditation aims to fill the mind with thoughts related to Biblical passages or Christian devotions. Although some mystics in both the Western and Eastern churches have associated feelings of ecstasy with meditation, St.

All his life Peter Julian had an intense devotion to the Mother of Jesus. Before his first communion on 16 March , he went on foot to the shrine of Notre-Dame du Laus, he came to know about the apparition of Notre-Dame de La Salette and enjoyed traveling to various Marian shrines throughout France. When his mother died in Julian resolved to enter the novitiate of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate and, despite his father's opposition, did so in June , his first attempt as a seminarian ended because of serious illness.

After his father's death in , he succeeded--with the help of his former superior--in gaining admission to the major seminary of the Grenoble diocese. On 20 July , he was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Grenoble. He was assigned as assistant pastor at the town of Chatte, three years appointed pastor of Mount Saint-Eynard. On his second assignment at Monteynard , the parish, which had a dilapidated church and poor rectory , consisted of a farming community with few people attending Mass.

There had not been a regular pastor there for some time; the bishop urged Father Eymard's two sisters to move with him to the rectory. In fact, they furnished the rectory, for the parish was poor. Although Eymard is known to have revitalized the place, he was dissatisfied with parish work, decided to join the Marists , his two sisters were quite devastated. On August 20, , he entered the Society of Mary seminary at Lyon and made his profession in February , he worked with lay organizations promoting devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to the Eucharist in the Forty Hours.

He rose to the position of Provincial of the Society at Lyon in , his new responsibilities included being in charge of the Third Order of Mary, a lay group dedicated to Marist spirituality and to the promotion of the Christian family. John Vianney was a member, his eucharistic spirituality did not spring full-grown from some mystical experience, but progressively. As visitor-general, Eymard travelled throughout France to inspect the various Marist communities, he became familiar with the practice of sustained eucharistic worship during a visit to Paris in , when he met with members of the Association of Nocturnal Adorers who had established exposition and perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament at the Basilica of Our Lady of Victories.

After praying at the shrine of Our Lady of Fourviere on 21 January , Eymard moved to establish a Marist community dedicated to eucharistic adoration. However, his desire to establish a separate fraternity promoting adoration of the Blessed Sacrament was not seen as part of the charism of the Marists, his superiors disapproved.

Eymard resolved to leave the Society of Mary to begin his new religious congregation with the diocesan priest Raymond de Cuers.

The Eucharist as Presence and Sacrament

The Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament began working with children in Paris to prepare them to receive their First Communion, it reached out to non-practicing Catholics, inviting them to repent and begin receiving Communion again. Father Eymard established a common rule for the members of the society and worked toward papal approval. A second community was established in Marseille in , a third in Angers in Eymard was a tireless proponent of frequent Holy Communion, an idea given more authoritative backing by Pope Pius X in Font and fullness of all evangelization and striking expression of the infinite love of our divine Redeemer for mankind, the Holy Eucharist marked the life and pastoral activity of Peter Julian Eymard, he deserves to be called an outstanding apostle of the Eucharist.

In fact, his mission in the Church consisted in promoting the centrality of the Eucharistic Mystery in the whole life of the Christian community; the French sculptor Auguste Rodin received counsel from Eymard when Rodin entered the Congregation as a lay brother in , having given up art after the death of his sister. Eymard advised him to return to his vocation. Rodin produced a bust of Eymard. In , together with Marguerite Guillot , he founded the. Monk A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.

A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation; the concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is in use for men; the word nun is used for female monastics.

Although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite , anchorite , hesychast , or solitary. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place: "Angels are a light for monks, monks are a light for laymen". Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world.

They do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis , or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, so not all monasteries are "cloistered"; the level of contact though will vary from community to community. Hermits, on the other hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, nor do they have Rules in the same sense as the Rule of St. Rather, Eastern monastics study and draw inspiration from the writings of the Desert Fathers as well as other Church Fathers.

Hesychasm is of primary importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Meals are taken in common in a sizable dining hall known as a trapeza , at elongated refectory tables. Food is simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the spiritual writings of the Holy Fathers; the monastic lifestyle takes a great deal of serious commitment.

Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a common way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the monastic comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal with them. For this same reason, bishops are always chosen from the ranks of monks. Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms: anchoritic and the "middle way" between the two, known as the skete. One enters a cenobitic community first, only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced, become a solitary anchorite.

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However, one is not expected to join a skete or become a solitary. In general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families. The purpose of the monastic life is union with God, the means is through leaving the world. After tonsure , Orthodox monks and nuns are never permitted to cut their hair; the hair of the head and the beard remain uncut as a symbol of the vows they have taken, reminiscent of the Nazarites from the Old Testament. The tonsure of monks is the token of a consecrated life, symbolizes the cutting off of their self-will; the process of becoming a monk is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a lifelong commitment to God, are not to be entered into lightly.

In Orthodox monasticism after completing the novitiate , there are three ranks of monasticism. There is only one monastic habit in the Eastern Church , it is the same for both monks and nuns; each successive grade is given a portion of the habit, the full habit being worn only by those in the highest grade, known for that reason as the " Great Schema ", or "Great Habit".

The various profession rites are performed by the Abbot, but if the abbot has not been ordained a priest, or if the monastic community is a convent, a hieromonk will perform the service. The abbot or hieromonk who performs a tonsure must be of at least the rank he is tonsuring into. In other words, only a hieromonk, tonsured into the Great Schema may himself tonsure a Schemamonk. A bishop, may tonsure into any rank, regardless of his own. Novice, lit. After coming to the monastery and living as a guest for not less than three days, the revered abbot or abbess may bless the candidate to become a novice.

There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice, he or she simply. According to all four Gospels after the Last Supper, Jesus took a walk to pray; each Gospel offers a different account regarding narrative details. The gospels of Matthew and Mark identify this place of prayer as Gethsemane. Jesus was accompanied by three Apostles : Peter and James, whom he asked to stay awake and pray, he moved "a stone's throw away" from them, where He felt overwhelming sadness and anguish, said "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass me by.

Let it be as you, not I, would have it. He said this prayer thrice, checking on the three apostles between each prayer and finding them asleep, he commented: " The spirit is willing , but the flesh is weak ". An angel came from heaven to strengthen him. During his agony as he prayed, "his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down upon the ground". At the conclusion of the narrative, Jesus accepts. Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as acts of reparation for the sufferings of Jesus during His Agony and Passion; these Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ do not involve a petition for a living or dead beneficiary, but aim to "repair the sins" against Jesus.

Some such prayers are provided in the Raccolta Catholic prayer book which includes prayers as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary. In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor on reparations, Pope Pius XI called Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ a duty for Catholics and referred to them as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus.

Catholic tradition holds. In the Catholic tradition, Matthew is the basis of the Holy Hour devotion for Eucharistic adoration. In the Gospel of Matthew : "Then he said to them,'My soul is sorrowful to death. Coming to the disciples, he found them sleeping and, in Matthew , asked Peter: "So, could you not watch with me one hour? There are a number of different depictions in art of the Agony in the Garden, including: Agony in the Garden — an early painting by the Italian Renaissance master Giovanni Bellini Agony in the Garden — a painting by romantic poet and artist William Blake , c.

An orchestral reprise is heard after the crucifixion in the form of "John Nineteen: Forty-One". A medical interpretative hypothesis of hematidrosis has been advanced in the scientific literature, according to which the great mental anguish that Jesus suffered to the point that his sweat became blood is described only by Luke the Evangelist because he was a physician.

Life of Jesus in the New Testament. Consecration Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify.

Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council ; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n.

The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church , Second Edition, , under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders ", uses " episcopal consecration " as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably.

The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.

The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism , an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist , are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands.

A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.

Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution.

In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches , the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy.

The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion. In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles ; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life.

Among some religious groups there is a service of " deconsecration ", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England , an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam , or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years. Eucharistic congress In the Catholic Church , a eucharistic congress is a gathering of clergy and laity to bear witness to the Real Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist , an important Roman Catholic doctrine. Congresses bring together people from a wide area, involve large open-air Masses, Eucharistic adoration, other devotional ceremonies held over several days.

Congresses may both refer to International Eucharistic Congresses. The initial inspiration behind the idea came from a laywoman, Emilie-Marie Tamisier Marie-Marthe-Baptistine Tamisier who spent a decade lobbying clergy; the sixth congress met in Paris in , the great memorial Church of the Sacred Heart on Montmartre was the center of the proceedings.

Antwerp hosted the next congress, from in , at which an immense altar of repose was erected in the Place de Meir, an estimated , persons gathered around it when Cardinal Goossens , Archbishop of Mechelen , gave the solemn Benediction. Of special importance was the eighth congress, held in Jerusalem in , as it was the first congress held outside Europe. In , the congress was held in Metz and the German government suspended the law of , in order that the usual solemn procession of the Blessed Sacrament might be held; each year the congress had become more and more international in nature, at the invitation of Archbishop Bourne of Westminster it was decided to hold the nineteenth congress in London , the first among English-speaking members of the Church.

After each congress this committee prepared and published a volume giving a report of all the papers read and the discussions on them in the various sections of the meeting, the sermons preached, the addresses made at the public meetings, the details of all that transpired. The Collected Works of G. Ignatius Press. ISBN The Liffey in Dublin. Dictionary of Sydney.

Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 5 October Fulton J. Sheen Fulton John Sheen was an American bishop of the Catholic Church known for his preaching and his work on television and radio. Ordained a priest of the Diocese of Peoria in , Sheen became a renowned theologian , earning the Cardinal Mercier Prize for International Philosophy in , he went on to teach theology and philosophy at the Catholic University of America as well as acting as a parish priest before being appointed Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of New York in He held this position until when he was made the Bishop of Rochester from October 21, , to October 6, , when he resigned and was made the Archbishop of the titular see of Newport, Wales.

Sheen's final presenting role was on the syndicated The Fulton Sheen Program with a format similar to that of the earlier Life is Worth Living show.