Manual The Evolution Of A Bishop

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Contents:


  1. Kenya bishop leads anti-evolution fight
  2. Evolution and the Church of England
  3. Mendel's Opposition to Evolution and to Darwin | Journal of Heredity | Oxford Academic
  4. Top Authors

Both of these men were statesmen and public administrators in addition to their role as Christian pastors, teachers and leaders. In the Eastern churches , latifundia entailed to a bishop's see were much less common, the state power did not collapse the way it did in the West, and thus the tendency of bishops acquiring secular power was much weaker than in the West.

However, the role of Western bishops as civil authorities, often called prince bishops , continued throughout much of the Middle Ages. As well as being archchancellors of the Holy Roman Empire after the 9th century, bishops generally served as chancellors to medieval monarchs, acting as head of the justiciary and chief chaplain. Similarly, the position of Kanclerz in the Polish kingdom was always held by a bishop until the 16th century.

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Kenya bishop leads anti-evolution fight

And today, the principality of Andorra is headed by two co-princes, one of whom is a Catholic bishop and the other, the President of France. In France before the French Revolution , representatives of the clergy — in practice, bishops and abbots of the largest monasteries — comprised the First Estate of the Estates-General , until their role was abolished during the French Revolution.

In the 21st century, the more senior bishops of the Church of England continue to sit in the House of Lords of the Parliament of the United Kingdom , as representatives of the established church , and are known as Lords Spiritual. In the past, the Bishop of Durham , known as a prince bishop, had extensive viceregal powers within his northern diocese — the power to mint money, collect taxes and raise an army to defend against the Scots.

Evolution and the Church of England

Eastern Orthodox bishops, along with all other members of the clergy, are canonically forbidden to hold political office. Occasional exceptions to this rule are tolerated when the alternative is political chaos. In the Ottoman Empire , the Patriarch of Constantinople , for example, had de facto administrative, fiscal, cultural and legal jurisdiction, as well as spiritual, over all the Christians of the empire. Although Hollingworth gave up his episcopal position to accept the appointment, it still attracted considerable opposition in a country which maintains a formal separation between Church and State.

During the period of the English Civil War , the role of bishops as wielders of political power and as upholders of the established church became a matter of heated political controversy. Indeed, Presbyterianism was the polity of most Reformed Churches in Europe, and had been favored by many in England since the English Reformation. Since in the primitive church the offices of presbyter and episkopos were identical, many Puritans held that this was the only form of government the church should have.

The Anglican divine, Richard Hooker , objected to this claim in his famous work Of the Laws of Ecclesiastic Polity while, at the same time, defending Presbyterian ordination as valid in particular Calvin's ordination of Beza. This was the official stance of the English Church until the Commonwealth, during which time, the views of Presbyterians and Independents Congregationalists were more freely expressed and practiced.

The traditional role of a bishop is as pastor of a diocese also called a bishopric, synod , eparchy or see , and so to serve as a "diocesan bishop," or "eparch" as it is called in many Eastern Christian churches.


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Dioceses vary considerably in size, geographically and population-wise. Some dioceses around the Mediterranean Sea which were Christianised early are rather compact, whereas dioceses in areas of rapid modern growth in Christian commitment—as in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa , South America and the Far East —are much larger and more populous. As well as traditional diocesan bishops, many churches have a well-developed structure of church leadership that involves a number of layers of authority and responsibility.

In Catholicism , Eastern Orthodoxy , Oriental Orthodoxy , and Anglicanism , only a bishop can ordain other bishops, priests, and deacons. In the Eastern liturgical tradition, a priest can celebrate the Divine Liturgy only with the blessing of a bishop. In Byzantine usage, an antimension signed by the bishop is kept on the altar partly as a reminder of whose altar it is and under whose omophorion the priest at a local parish is serving.

In Syriac Church usage, a consecrated wooden block called a thabilitho is kept for the same reasons. Each bishop within the Latin Rite is answerable directly to the Pope and not any other bishop except to metropolitans in certain oversight instances. The pope previously used the title Patriarch of the West , but this title was dropped from use in [21] a move which caused some concern within the Eastern Orthodox Communion as, to them, it implied wider papal jurisdiction.

In Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Anglican cathedrals there is a special chair set aside for the exclusive use of the bishop. This is the bishop's cathedra and is often called the throne. In some Christian denominations, for example, the Anglican Communion, parish churches may maintain a chair for the use of the bishop when he visits; this is to signify the parish's union with the bishop. The bishop is the ordinary minister of the sacrament of confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic Church, and in the Anglican and Old Catholic communion only a bishop may administer this sacrament.

However, in the Byzantine and other Eastern rites, whether Eastern or Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Catholic , chrismation is done immediately after baptism , and thus the priest is the one who confirms, using chrism blessed by a bishop. Bishops in all of these communions are ordained by other bishops through the laying on of hands. While traditional teaching maintains that any bishop with apostolic succession can validly perform the ordination of another bishop, some churches require two or three bishops participate, either to ensure sacramental validity or to conform with church law.

Catholic doctrine holds that one bishop can validly ordain another priest as a bishop. Though a minimum of three bishops participating is desirable there are usually several more in order to demonstrate collegiality, canonically only one bishop is necessary. The practice of only one bishop ordaining was normal in countries where the Church was persecuted under Communist rule. The title of archbishop or metropolitan may be granted to a senior bishop, usually one who is in charge of a large ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

He may, or may not, have provincial oversight of suffragan bishops and may possibly have auxiliary bishops assisting him. Ordination of a bishop, and thus continuation of apostolic succession, takes place through a ritual centred on the imposition of hands and prayer.

Mendel's Opposition to Evolution and to Darwin | Journal of Heredity | Oxford Academic

Apart from the ordination, which is always done by other bishops, there are different methods as to the actual selection of a candidate for ordination as bishop. In the Catholic Church the Congregation for Bishops generally oversees the selection of new bishops with the approval of the pope. The papal nuncio usually solicits names from the bishops of a country, consults with priests and leading members of a laity, and then selects three to be forwarded to the Holy See.

In Europe, some cathedral chapters have duties to elect bishops. The Eastern Catholic churches generally elect their own bishops. Most Eastern Orthodox churches allow varying amounts of formalised laity or lower clergy influence on the choice of bishops. This also applies in those Eastern churches which are in union with the pope, though it is required that he give assent. Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and some Lutheran bishops claim to be part of the continuous sequence of ordained bishops since the days of the apostles referred to as apostolic succession.

Since Pope Leo XIII issued the bull Apostolicae curae in , the Catholic Church has insisted that Anglican orders are invalid because of changes in the Anglican ordination rites of the 16th century and divergence in understanding of the theology of priesthood, episcopacy and Eucharist. However, since the s, Utrecht Old Catholic bishops recognised by the Holy See as validily ordained have sometimes taken part in the ordination of Anglican bishops. According to the writer Timothy Dufort, by , all Church of England bishops had acquired Old Catholic lines of apostolic succession recognised by the Holy See.

The Catholic Church does recognise as valid though illicit ordinations done by breakaway Catholic, Old Catholic or Oriental bishops, and groups descended from them; it also regards as both valid and licit those ordinations done by bishops of the Eastern churches, [d] so long as those receiving the ordination conform to other canonical requirements for example, is an adult male and an eastern orthodox rite of episcopal ordination, expressing the proper functions and sacramental status of a bishop, is used; this has given rise to the phenomenon of episcopi vagantes for example, clergy of the Independent Catholic groups which claim apostolic succession, though this claim is rejected by both Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.

The Eastern Orthodox Churches would not accept the validity of any ordinations performed by the Independent Catholic groups, as Eastern Orthodoxy considers to be spurious any consecration outside the Church as a whole. Eastern Orthodoxy considers apostolic succession to exist only within the Universal Church, and not through any authority held by individual bishops; thus, if a bishop ordains someone to serve outside the Eastern Orthodox Church, the ceremony is ineffectual, and no ordination has taken place regardless of the ritual used or the ordaining prelate's position within the Eastern Orthodox Churches.

The position of the Catholic Church is slightly different. Whilst it does recognise the validity of the orders of certain groups which separated from communion with Holy See. The Holy See accepts as valid the ordinations of the Old Catholics in communion with Utrecht, as well as the Polish National Catholic Church which received its orders directly from Utrecht, and was—until recently—part of that communion ; but Catholicism does not recognise the orders of any group whose teaching is at variance with what they consider the core tenets of Christianity; this is the case even though the clergy of the Independent Catholic groups may use the proper ordination ritual.

There are also other reasons why the Holy See does not recognise the validity of the orders of the Independent clergy:. Whilst members of the Independent Catholic movement take seriously the issue of valid orders, it is highly significant that the relevant Vatican Congregations tend not to respond to petitions from Independent Catholic bishops and clergy who seek to be received into communion with the Holy See, hoping to continue in some sacramental role.

In those instances where the pope does grant reconciliation, those deemed to be clerics within the Independent Old Catholic movement are invariably admitted as laity and not priests or bishops. The first woman to be consecrated a bishop within Anglicanism was Barbara Harris , who was ordained in the United States in Since going into ecumenical communion with their respective Anglican body, bishops in the ELCA or the ELCIC not only approve the "rostering" of all ordained pastors, diaconal ministers, and associates in ministry, but they serve as the principal celebrant of all pastoral ordination and installation ceremonies, diaconal consecration ceremonies, as well as serving as the "chief pastor" of the local synod, upholding the teachings of Martin Luther as well as the documentations of the Ninety-Five Theses and the Augsburg Confession.

The presiding bishop of the ELCA and the national bishop of the ELCIC, the national bishops of their respective bodies, are elected for a single 6-year term and may be elected to an additional term.

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Although ELCA agreed with the Episcopal Church to limit ordination to the bishop "ordinarily", ELCA pastor- ordinators are given permission to perform the rites in "extraordinary" circumstance. In practice, "extraordinary" circumstance have included disagreeing with Episcopalian views of the episcopate, and as a result, ELCA pastors ordained by other pastors are not permitted to be deployed to Episcopal Churches they can, however, serve in Presbyterian Church USA , United Methodist Church, Reformed Church in America , and Moravian Church congregations, as the ELCA is in full communion with these denominations.

The second largest of the three predecessor bodies of the ELCA, the American Lutheran Church , was a congregationalist body, with national and synod presidents before they were re-titled as bishops borrowing from the Lutheran churches in Germany in the s. With regard to ecclesial discipline and oversight, national and synod presidents typically function similarly to bishops in episcopal bodies.

They are elected for life by a majority vote of the General Conference which meets every four years. Among their duties, are responsibility for appointing clergy to serve local churches as pastor, for performing ordinations, and for safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the Church. The General Conference, a meeting every four years, has an equal number of clergy and lay delegates.

CME Church bishops may be male or female. In the United Methodist Church the largest branch of Methodism in the world bishops serve as administrative and pastoral superintendents of the church. They are elected for life from among the ordained elders presbyters by vote of the delegates in regional called jurisdictional conferences, and are consecrated by the other bishops present at the conference through the laying on of hands.

In the United Methodist Church bishops remain members of the "Order of Elders" while being consecrated to the " Office of the Episcopacy ". Within the United Methodist Church only bishops are empowered to consecrate bishops and ordain clergy. Among their most critical duties is the ordination and appointment of clergy to serve local churches as pastor, presiding at sessions of the Annual, Jurisdictional, and General Conferences, providing pastoral ministry for the clergy under their charge, and safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the Church. Furthermore, individual bishops, or the Council of Bishops as a whole, often serve a prophetic role, making statements on important social issues and setting forth a vision for the denomination, though they have no legislative authority of their own.

In all of these areas, bishops of the United Methodist Church function very much in the historic meaning of the term. According to the Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church , a bishop's responsibilities are. Presidential Duties. To form the districts after consultation with the district superintendents and after the number of the same has been determined by vote of the Annual Conference. To consecrate bishops, to ordain elders and deacons, to consecrate diaconal ministers, to commission deaconesses and home missionaries, and to see that the names of the persons commissioned and consecrated are entered on the journals of the conference and that proper credentials are funised to these persons.

Working with Ministers. To divide or to unite a circuit s , stations s , or mission s as judged necessary for missionary strategy and then to make appropriate appointments. To read the appointments of deaconesses, diaconal ministers, lay persons in service under the World Division of the General Board of Global Ministries, and home missionaries. To transfer, upon the request of the receiving bishop, ministerial member s of one Annual Conference to another, provided said member s agrees to transfer; and to send immediately to the secretaries of both conferences involved, to the conference Boards of Ordained Ministry, and to the clearing house of the General Board of Pensions written notices of the transfer of members and of their standing in the course of study if they are undergraduates.

In each Annual Conference, United Methodist bishops serve for four-year terms, and may serve up to three terms before either retirement or appointment to a new Conference. United Methodist bishops may be male or female, with Marjorie Matthews being the first woman to be consecrated a bishop in The collegial expression of episcopal leadership in the United Methodist Church is known as the Council of Bishops. The Council of Bishops speaks to the Church and through the Church into the world and gives leadership in the quest for Christian unity and interreligious relationships.

Coke soon returned to England, but Asbury was the primary builder of the new church. At first he did not call himself bishop, but eventually submitted to the usage by the denomination. Kelly , William B. As with most LDS priesthood holders, the bishop is a part-time lay minister and earns a living through other employment; in all cases, he is a married man. As such, it is his duty to preside at services, call local leaders, and judge the worthiness of members for service. The bishop does not deliver sermons at every service generally asking members to do so , but is expected to be a spiritual guide for his congregation.

It is therefore believed that he has both the right and ability to receive divine inspiration through the Holy Spirit for the ward under his direction. Because it is a part-time position, all able members are expected to assist in the management of the ward by holding delegated lay positions for example, women's and youth leaders, teachers referred to as 'callings.

The bishop is also responsible for the physical welfare of the ward, and thus collects tithing and fast offerings and distributes financial assistance where needed. A bishop is the president of the Aaronic priesthood in his ward and is thus a form of Mormon Kohen ; in fact, a literal descendant of Aaron has "legal right" to act as a bishop [31] after being found worthy and ordained by the First Presidency [32]. In the absence of a literal descendant of Aaron, a High priest in the Melchizedek priesthood is called to be a bishop. In special circumstances such as a ward consisting entirely of young university students , a bishop may be chosen from outside the ward.

A bishop is typically released after about five years and a new bishop is called to the position.


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  • Although the former bishop is released from his duties, he continues to hold the Aaronic priesthood office of bishop. Church members frequently refer to a former bishop as "Bishop" as a sign of respect and affection. Latter-day Saint bishops do not wear any special clothing or insignia the way clergy in many other churches do, but are expected to dress and groom themselves neatly and conservatively per their local culture, especially when performing official duties.

    Bishops as well as other members of the priesthood can trace their line of authority back to Joseph Smith , who, according to church doctrine, was ordained to lead the Church in modern times by the ancient apostles Peter, James , and John, who were ordained to lead the Church by Jesus Christ. At the global level, the presiding bishop oversees the temporal affairs buildings, properties, commercial corporations, and so on of the worldwide Church, including the Church's massive global humanitarian aid and social welfare programs.

    The presiding bishop has two counselors; the three together form the presiding bishopric. The Apostles , who are all included in the apostolate with the Chief Apostle as head, are the highest ministries. Of the several kinds of priest Nearly all bishops are set in line directly from the chief apostle. They support and help their superior apostle. They can either be made up of large geographical regions of churches or churches that are grouped and organized together as their own separate jurisdictions because of similar affiliations, regardless of geographical location or dispersion.

    Each state in the U. There are currently over jurisdictions in the United States, and over 30 jurisdictions in other countries. The bishops of each jurisdiction, according to the COGIC Manual, are considered to be the modern day equivalent in the church of the early apostles and overseers of the New Testament church, and as the highest ranking clergymen in the COGIC, they are tasked with the responsibilities of being the head overseers of all religious, civil, and economic ministries and protocol for the church denomination.

    Bishops in the Church of God in Christ usually wear black clergy suits which consist of a black suit blazer, black pants, a purple or scarlet clergy shirt and a white clerical collar, which is usually referred to as "Class B Civic attire. This is usually referred to as "Class A Ceremonial attire".

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    In the polity of the Church of God Cleveland, Tennessee , the international leader is the presiding bishop, and the members of the executive committee are executive bishops. Collectively, they supervise and appoint national and state leaders across the world. Leaders of individual states and regions are administrative bishops, who have jurisdiction over local churches in their respective states and are vested with appointment authority for local pastorates.

    All ministers are credentialed at one of three levels of licensure, the most senior of which is the rank of ordained bishop. To be eligible to serve in state, national, or international positions of authority, a minister must hold the rank of ordained bishop. In , the general convention of the Pentecostal Church of God came to a consensus to change the title of their overseer from general superintendent to bishop. The change was brought on because internationally, the term bishop is more commonly related to religious leaders than the previous title.

    The title bishop is used for both the general international leader and the district state leaders. The term elder means older one, implying dignity and respect. His position was similar to that of the one who had supervision of the synagogue. The term bishop means "overseer. Elder referred to the status or rank of the office, while bishop denoted the duty or responsibility of the office—"overseer. But both kinds of elder functioned as shepherds of the congregations. The above understanding is part of the basis of Adventist organizational structure.

    The world wide Seventh-day Adventist church is organized into local districts, conferences or missions, union conferences or union missions, divisions, and finally at the top is the general conference. At each level with exception to the local districts , there is an elder who is elected president and a group of elders who serve on the executive committee with the elected president.

    Some Baptists also have begun taking on the title of bishop. This usage is especially common in African-American churches in the US. In the Church of Scotland , which has a Presbyterian church structure, the word "bishop" refers to an ordained person, usually a normal parish minister, who has temporary oversight of a trainee minister. In the Presbyterian Church U.

    While not considered orthodox Christian, the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica uses roles and titles derived from Christianity for its clerical hierarchy, including bishops who have much the same authority and responsibilities as in Catholicism. The Salvation Army does not have bishops but has appointed leaders of geographical areas, known as Divisional Commanders.

    Larger geographical areas, called Territories, are led by a Territorial Commander, who is the highest-ranking officer in that Territory. At any one time there are seventy-two bishops. Caodai bishops wear robes and headgear of embroidered silk depicting the Divine Eye and the Eight Trigrams. The color varies according to branch. One essay question I like to pose to students in the Anglican History and Theology class is this: In the Anglican tradition, why are bishops seen as important?

    In other words, what are bishops good for? Alas, most students, perhaps wary of the essay ending up in the hands of an ordaining bishop, choose to write on another question. Bishops are central to the Anglican tradition. But we often forget that the nature of episcopal ministry has changed many times over the course of church history. If St. Peter was the first pope, his ministry was a far cry from that of the regal popes of the medieval period or even bishops of the Church of England who today sit in the House of Lords.

    Augustine of Hippo was a bishop, but he had a ministry that was deeply local and contextual and tied to a relatively narrow geographic area. Approaches to vestments have changed too.

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    It is only relatively recently, for instance, that Anglican bishops began to default to wearing mitres. Today, our expectations of episcopal ministry are such that we expect bishops to be supported by staffs, offices, and all manner of other accoutrements—but this is a relatively recent understanding of what it means to be a bishop. Indeed, some would argue quite compellingly that the outsize focus on bishops in the church today is a detriment to building a culture of lay leadership in ministry across the church.

    The occupants of the two new posts will also serve as incumbents of parishes. In one way, this makes sense: the Arctic is a large, sparsely-populated, and not terribly wealthy diocese. Combining parish ministry and episcopal ministry makes good financial sense.