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Structure and Composition:

  1. What are the layers of the Earth?
  2. Earths Interior - The core
  3. What is the Earth's Mantle Made Of? - Universe Today

In a test run, they discover the vehicle cannot be turned, and it burrows miles into the Earth's crust, emerging into the unknown interior world of Pellucidar. In Burroughs' concept, the Earth is a hollow shell with Pellucidar as the internal surface of that shell.

Pellucidar is inhabited by prehistoric creatures of all geological eras, and dominated by the Mahars, a species of flying reptile both intelligent and civilized, but which enslaves and preys on the local stone-age humans. Innes and Perry are captured by the Mahars' ape-like Sagoth servants and taken with other human captives to the chief Mahar city of Phutra.

David Innes, attracted to Dian the Beautiful, defends her against the unwanted attentions of Hooja the Sly One, but due to his ignorance of local customs she assumes he wants her as a slave, not a friend or lover, and subsequently snubs him. Only later, after Hooja slips their captors in a dark tunnel and forces Dian to leave with him, does David learn from Ghak the cause of the misunderstanding. In Phutra the captives become slaves, and the two surface worlders learn more of Pellucidar and Mahar society.

The Mahars are all female, reproducing parthogenetically by means of a closely guarded "Great Secret" contained in a Mahar book. David learns that they also feast on selected human captives in a secret ritual. In a disturbance, David manages to escape Phutra, becomes lost, and experiences a number of adventures before sneaking back into the city. Rejoining Abner, he finds the latter did not even realize he was gone, and the two discover that time in Pellucidar, in the absence of objective means to measure it, is a subjective thing, experienced by different people at different rates.

Obsessed with righting the wrong he has unwittingly done Dian, David Innes escapes again and eventually finds and wins her by defeating the malevolent Jubal the Ugly One, another unwanted suitor. David makes amends, and he and Dian wed. Later, along with Ghak and other allies, David Innes and Abner Perry lead a revolt of humankind against the cruel Mahars.

Their foes are hampered by the loss of the Great Secret, which David has stolen and hidden. To further the struggle David returns to the Iron Mole, in which he and Dian propose to travel back to the surface world to procure outer world technology. Only after it is underway does he discover that Hooja the Sly One has substituted a drugged Mahar for Dian the Beautiful. Back in the world we know David meets the author, who after hearing his tale and seeing his prehistoric captive, helps him resupply and prepare the mole for the return to Pellucidar. Galaxy reviewer Floyd C.

Gale , discussing the paperback edition, praised the novel; he said that "Burroughs's concepts are intriguing and his combat scenes gripping. The adaptation started out Korak, Son of Tarzan 46, then moved to Weird Worlds , where it ran from The movie Journey to Middle Earth also shares several similarities with the events and locations of the novel, although the film was intended as a loose adaptation of Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne.

The Maltusians would later relocate to Oa and style themselves the Guardians of the Universe. He was obsessed with observing the creation of the universe, despite an Oan legend that said attempting to uncover the secret would cause a great calamity. Krona created a machine that allowed him to witness the dawn of time. However, his machine interfered in the process, with terrible consequences—instead of a single universe, infinite universes were born in that moment.

From the perspective of the Earth-One Universe, the first transuniversal journey occurred when The Flash Barry Allen accidentally changed his vibrational frequency to match that of Earth-Two , where he met Jay Garrick , the Golden Age Flash and his childhood comic book hero. That meeting resulted in years of interaction between the original super-hero team, the Justice Society of America , and their younger Earth-One counterparts, the Justice League of America. As noted years later by the elder Superman , the JSA were too polite to mention that they were around first.

However the general populace of Earth-Three reflected a society based on laws and good values, despite the majority of their super powered beings having evil natures. The JSA and JLA would get together once a year when the temporal matrices of the two universes were at their closest point, using a dimensional transporter. When Krona accidentally created the Multiverse, an Antimatter Universe was formed at the same time. The Anti-Monitor caused a wave of antimatter to sweep across the Multiverse, in an effort to gain absolute power and remake existence to his liking.

He was opposed by his opposite, the Monitor. The Monitor's plans did not fully succeed in conquering the Anti-Monitor, ultimately costing the Monitor his life. In the end, only five universes remained. The heroes, at the Spectre 's urging, pooled their resources and traveled back to the Dawn of Time where they confronted the Anti-Monitor.

The villains, meanwhile 1,,, years later , traveled to Oa to try to stop Krona from peering back in time and creating the Multiverse and, by extension, the Antimatter Universe the Anti-Monitor came from. The Anti-Monitor revealed to the assembled heroes that he lured them to him to absorb their life forces. He explained:. Because of this battle at the dawn of time, the Multiverse was erased from existence. When Krona peered through the cosmic veil, he witnessed the birth of a single reality:.


What are the layers of the Earth?

As explained later by Harbinger, the new reality contained only a single universe, with one Earth, and a single history. Earth-One became the template for this new Earth, onto which elements of the remaining four were added. Below is a partial list of notable alternate worlds , and universes with known numerical designations.

Beyond these, many other alternate worlds have been visited or explored by denizens of the DC Universe. Some of the supposedly destroyed Earths were revealed to live on in Hypertime , and even Earths that were destroyed like Earth-Three or Earth-S were found to have Hypertime equivalents. In any case this set of infinite Earths was restored with the reconstruction of the Multiverse in the events of Convergence.

After the Crisis on Infinite Earths, it quickly became clear that Harbinger's claim that only a single Earth and history existed was untrue.


The Legion of Super-Heroes continued as if the Crisis never happened. This discrepancy was discovered by Cosmic Boy and it was explained that the past the Legion thought they knew was in reality a Pocket Universe created by the Time Trapper. However, this still left some discrepancies, notably the existence of Mon-El, and the Legion's numerous visits to the 20th century. Armageddon raised more questions as since post-Crisis Barry Allen had still faced Professor Zoom from the 25th century and Abra Kadabra from the 64th century the timeline of the DC universe should have been "set" well past , but there were still alternate timelines to that year which per Harbinger's claim shouldn't have existed.

Hal Jordan was driven mad with grief, driven over the edge by the callous behavior of the Guardians of the Universe , he destroyed both the Guardians, and the Green Lantern Corps. After absorbing their powers, he took on a new identity. Calling himself Parallax, Hal would later use his newfound powers to tighten the loop of time that Krona had created in the Post-Crisis history [17] to collapse reality, and rewrite it from the Big Bang forwards. This temporal collapse caused various alternate timelines to temporarily merge with the main reality, again raising the question of whether the first Crisis had indeed wiped out all alternate realities, or whether some remained.

At the end of Zero Hour, Waverider claimed that all alternate timelines had been retroactively erased. However, Armageddon still occurred in this new timeline, which would require the continued existence of alternate realities. Furthermore, Matrix Pocket Universe still existed after Zero Hour, despite having originated in an artificial timeline. Eventually it would be revealed these alternate timelines were part of Hypertime, as the Superboy who had briefly appeared in the main timeline during Zero Hour still remembered meeting the mainline Superboy.

Some of these realities appeared in the Hypertime montage at the end of The Kingdom effectively weaving the Pre-Crisis and Hypertime multiverses together. They intended to fabricate a machine that would recreate the multiverse and allow them to fuse and combine Earths until the perfect reality was created. A chain of events was set into motion, including the takeover of Batman's Brother Eye satellite , the unification of Earth's villains under the Secret Society of Super-Villains , the manipulation of the Spectre , and the movement of planets to spark war and unrest.

The magic destroyed and recreated by the Spectre would serve as fuel for the machine, Brother Eye would give the machine programming and directive, the villains united under the Society would gather those people who still contained the genetic code of Pre-Crisis realities i. Though their efforts failed, the consequences of their actions fundamentally altered New Earth, and gave birth to 51 additional identical universes, which were later altered by the malevolent Mister Mind to become entirely separate realities. Luthor's plan to use the Multiversal essences of natives of the original Universes to recreate Earth-Two also required:.

After activating his device and the program "Earth: Spawn", a multitude of Earths and their respective universes appeared. That proved a difficult task, as the sky was filled with visions of multiple Earths, some mirroring Pre-Crisis Earths, others representing visions of past and future timelines, some known, some unknown. This unstable collection of realities collapsed back into a single New Earth after the Infinite Crisis. Below is a partial list of alternate worlds created by Alexander Luthor in his attempt to create the perfect Earth.

After the events of Infinite Crisis, the remaining Earths created by Alexander Luthor collapsed back together, combining elements to form one New Earth.

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However, the single universe was too small to contain the energy inside it and via Hypertime it began replicating—into 52 identical Universes: a new Multiverse. As Rip Hunter revealed to Booster Gold aboard his Time Sphere , in the few seconds after the creation of this new Multiverse, the Earths and their corresponding Universes "will occupy the same space, each on a different vibrational plane". During their efforts to stop the vastly powerful Mr.

Mind from destroying every universe, Hunter described Mind's efforts as "eating years and events from this universe's history—altering the Earth with every flap of his wings". This resulted in the Earths changing, becoming different from New Earth in varying degrees. Hunter further states that "the notion that there's a Multiverse beyond the reality we know—that's too dangerous a secret to spread. Hunter also revealed that there is a coming Megaverse. How this related to Hypertime and the formation of the New 52 multiverse is unknown. The parallel dimensions were separated by an an inter-dimensional sub-reality barrier called The Bleed.

Knowledge and control of the Anti-Life Equation, the Speed Force , and quantum mechanics are needed to travel between universes. The Multiversal Nexus is the reality in between known parallel matter based universes. The Nexus was formerly occupied by the Monitors. From here, they observed and analyzed variances within the Multiverse; specifically citing instances wherein individuals migrated from one reality to another. According to the Guardians of the Universe :. The following is a list of the other Earths thus created, as seen for the first time.

Earths Interior - The core

Earths of unknown designation known to have existed in this Multiverse include an Earth similar to that of Justice League: The Nail , [55] a dimension home to a black President Superman that would be continued after Flashpoint in the form of Earth 23 , [56] a recreated Earth-Prime, [57] and the home universe of Hot Pursuit , as well as possibly the world of All-Star Superman. Following the company-wide reboot in see below , this multiverse was restructured with some worlds existing as before such as Earth-1 with others changed drastically.

However, DC still published stories set on Earth and Earth after the reboot, and the events of Convergence fully restored these worlds. Manhattan altered the timeline, such that the state of the multiverse was changed significantly—for the greater good according to Pandora, and for unkown reasons by Manhattan.

Though Wally West believes it may in fact have been to weaken it for an upcoming attack. The result was 10 years being taken from the main timeline, as well as a merger of three disparate universes; the DC Universe , the Wildstorm Universe , and the Vertigo Universe , the latter of which was comprised of those characters who began their existence within the mainstream DCU, but continued on under the Vertigo imprint beginning in April Other Vertigo properties remain disconnected from this multiverse.

This new model of creation involves multiple incarnations of the Multiverse suspended within a "Multi-Multiverse", [60] with individual Multiverses existing as 'bubble' sets of grouped universes such as the local 52, [61] with mention of a destroyed "Multiverse-2" by the Empty Hand. The 'local' Multiverse is constructed on a central axis of the House of Heroes, former headquarters of the Monitors rotating through the Fifth Dimension, now headquarters of the team Justice Incarnate , and the Rock of Eternity , connected to the cornerstone Earths 0 and 33, aka Prime Earth and Earth Prime.

The Orrery is structured that the position of universes within it relative to certain realms in the Sphere of the Gods denote aspects of their nature: those closer to New Genesis are often kinder and nobler, those close to Apokolips often far darker, while the proximity to the realms of Dream or Nightmare denote Order and Chaos, respectively.

Additionally, each Earth is parallel another Earth; in at least once instance with Earths 20 and 40, these parallel Earths have been seen to phase into a state of being capable of interaction. The universes are capable of communicating with each other through comic books, chronicles of the adventures of the heroes of the universes being published on various different worlds, similarly to the relationship displayed between the pre-Crisis Earth-Two and Earth-One, and Earth-One with Earth-Prime. Earths 14, 24, 25, 27, 28, 46 and 49 are unknown worlds, created by an Inner Chamber of 7 Monitor Magi for an as yet unknown purpose.

Earth 14 was later revealed as the home of The Justice Assassins. The current Multiverse is home to an infinite number of universes, including those of previous incarnations of the Multiverse, with the core 52 worlds of the "local Multiverse" being:. On the border of the Orrery of Worlds containing the universes the border itself composed of the Speed Force Wall are several other realms, at least half of which are currently unknown.

Those known include:. The metaphysical reality just outside the physical Orrery of Worlds. This reality is home to eight realms—six of which connect to Earths in the Orrery—that include:. Beyond either the Orrery or the Sphere of the Gods. Former home of the Monitors, abandoned in the wake of the Final Crisis. The Source Wall on the border of the Monitor Sphere is the border between the Multiverse and the massive cosmic consciousness known as the Overvoid.

An inconceivably massive cosmic consciousness, the infinite, timeless white void within which the Multiverse floats, also known as the Over-Monitor. Upon discovering the existence of Creation within itself, the Overvoid extended a probe into the Multiverse, which upon reporting back the concept of events, irreparably altered the Overvoid's awareness. The probe having been split in two withdrew, and left behind as a result of the contact was a titanic entity in the shape of one of the inhabitants of the Orrery ; the Overvoid itself remains implacable, though the presence of the giant would infect its mind with perpetual questions, and thereby the concept of 'story'.

Brainiac observed and pulled cities from various Earths many of which belonged to the Pre-Crisis multiverse. Brainiac sends Superman , Supergirl , the Flash , and Parallax back with the promise that if they prevent the collapse of the original multiverse " everything will reset and return to what it was before I brought you all here" sic.

They succeed but Brainiac comments that "each world has evolved but they all still exist. The only way any of this makes any degree of sense is if Brainiac reached into hypertime as we know there were hypertime versions of Earth-Three and Earth-S for the Earths he got his cities from. The idea that Brainiac used hypertime is supported by the fact several of the cities were taken from hypertime realities.

In the infinite Earths known to exist beyond the borders of the local 52 universes, including the 'defunct' infinite pre-Crisis Earths, the 52 post-Crisis Earths, and the far-flung realms of Hypertime, those additionally indicated as being included in the scope of the "Multi-Multiverse":. The Dark Multiverse is thought to be composed of dark energy and dark matter which is neither matter nor anti-matter.

What is the Earth's Mantle Made Of? - Universe Today

It is believed to be far vaster and older then the 52 multiverse which Prime Earth Barry Allen believed was all there was, somehow enclosing it in its mass [76] and made up of the fantasties and fears of its inhabitants. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Contents [ show ].

Main article: Pre-Crisis. I vibrated so fast—I tore a gap in the vibratory shields separating our worlds! As you know—two objects can occupy the same space and time—if they vibrate at different speeds! My theory is, both Earths were created at the same time in two quite similar universes! They vibrate differently—which keeps them apart! Life, customs—even languages—evolved on your earth almost exactly as they did on my Earth!

Destiny must have decreed there'd be a Flash—on each Earth! The idea is that Earth-Two is about twenty years behind because of some time flux. Main article: Crisis on Infinite Earths. Main article: Post-Crisis. Only here, before creation can the future be changed! When Krona taps the cosmic forces, opening the door between matter and antimatter My hand which shall destroy the positive matter multiverse for now and forever! My hand which shall make the antimatter universe supreme! The Multiverse will no longer exist!

In the beginning there were many. A Multiversal infinitude For in that instant a Universe was born. A Universe with mighty worlds orbiting burning suns. A Universe reborn at the Dawn of Time. What had been many became one. Partial Pre-Crisis Earth list:. Main article: Zero Hour. Main article: Hypertime. Main article: Infinite Crisis. I need thousands and thousands of worlds. Worlds I can sift through like sand, one grain at a time, combining and mixing until I find it.

Until I find the perfect Earth. The Superman of Earth-Two is the key to the return of the rest of the Multiverse. For some reason I can't explain or understand, and probably never will