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Thomas Holmes received a commission from the Army Medical Corps to embalm the corpses of dead Union officers to return to their families. Military authorities also permitted private embalmers to work in military-controlled areas. The passage of Abraham Lincoln 's body home for burial was made possible by embalming, and it brought the possibilities and potential of embalming to wider public notice.
Until the early 20th century, arsenic was frequently used as an embalming fluid, until it was supplanted by other more effective and less toxic chemicals. There was concern about the possibility of arsenic from embalmed bodies contaminating ground water supplies. There were also legal concerns because people suspected of murder by arsenic poisoning could claim that the levels of poison in the deceased's body were a result of post-mortem embalming rather than evidence of homicide.
In , the German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann discovered formaldehyde , whose preservative properties were soon discovered, and which became the foundation for modern methods of embalming, replacing previous methods. Frederic Ryusch was the first one to have used the arterial injection method for embalming. His work of embalming was so nearly perfect that people thought the dead body was actually alive; however, he only used it to prepare specimens for his anatomical work.
Modern embalming is most often performed to ensure a better presentation of the deceased for viewing by friends and relatives. A successful viewing of the body is considered to be helpful in the grieving process. This view has been challenged, however, by authors such as Jessica Mitford , who point out that there is no general consensus that viewing an embalmed corpse is somehow "therapeutic" to the bereaved, and that terms such as "memory picture" were invented by the undertakers themselves, who have a financial interest in selling the costly process of embalming to the public.
Mitford also points out that, in many countries, embalming is rare, and the populace of such countries are still able to grieve normally. Embalming is also a general legal requirement for international repatriation of human remains although exceptions do occur and is required by a variety of laws depending on locality, such as for extended time between death and final disposition or above-ground entombment.
In the United Kingdom, viewing the deceased prior to the funeral is a common practice and embalming is recommended to prevent any natural deterioration of the remains, which would cause further distress to family and friends. It is not uncommon for the remains to be returned home or to be received into a place of religious worship prior to burial or cremation. In such cases, the embalming process is always carried out.
A funeral director arranges for the final disposition of the deceased, and may or may not prepare including embalming the deceased for viewing or other legal requirements. An embalmer is someone who has been trained in the art and science of, and may or may not have any contact with the family, although many people fill both roles. The term mortician is becoming outdated, but may refer to a someone who is a funeral director, an embalmer, or in some cases, both.
Embalming - Wikipedia
Embalming training commonly involves formal study in anatomy , thanatology , chemistry , and specific embalming theory to widely varied levels depending on the region of the world one lives in combined with practical instruction in a mortuary with a resultant formal qualification granted after the passing of a final practical examination and acceptance into a recognized society of professional embalmers. Legal requirements over who can practice vary geographically; some regions or countries do not have specific requirements.
Additionally, in many places, embalming is not done by trained embalmers, but rather by doctors who, while they have the required anatomical knowledge, are not trained specialists in this field. Today, embalming is common practice in North America, Australia and New Zealand while it is somewhat less frequent in Europe. In some countries, permits or licenses are required; in others it is performed only by medical practitioners, and the costs can be relatively high. In the United States, the title of an embalmer is largely based on the state in which they are licensed.
In Virginia and Maryland, a funeral director is someone who is licensed only to make arrangements and handle the business side of the funeral home, while a mortician is licensed to do these things as well as to embalm. As recently as , Virginia has required that funeral directors also perform embalmings as well as arrangements during their apprenticeships as a requirement for their licensing, culminating in hours per apprenticeship.
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As practiced in the funeral homes of the Western World notably North America , embalming involves several distinct steps. Modern embalming techniques are not the result of a single practitioner, but rather the accumulation of many decades, even centuries, of research, trial and error, and invention. A standardized version follows below, but variation on techniques is very common. The first step in embalming is to verify the permissions and requests of the family followed by a careful plan for the deceased's preparation, including reviewing the medical certificate of death.
The deceased is placed on the mortuary table in the supine anatomical position with the head elevated by a head rest. Before commencing any preparation the embalmer will verify the identity of the body normally via wrist or leg tags. At this point, embalmers commonly perform an initial evaluation of the deceased's condition, noting things such as lividity , rigor mortis , skin condition, edema, swelling, intravenous injection sites, presence of fecal matter, tissue gas and numerous other factors which may affect the procedure and final outcome. The embalming procedure is a surgical one, albeit rather minimally invasive.
The process requires significant effort over the course of multiple hours, including intensive planning, evaluation, and chemical selection. Any clothing on the body is removed and set aside, and any personal effects such as jewelry are inventoried. A modesty cloth is sometimes placed over the genitalia. The body is washed in a germicidal soap. During this process the embalmer bends, flexes, and massages the arms and legs to relieve rigor mortis. The eyes are posed using an eye cap that keeps them shut and in the proper expression.
The mouth may be closed via suturing with a needle and ligature, using an adhesive, or by setting a wire into the maxilla and mandible with a needle injector, a specialized device most commonly used in North America and unique to mortuary practice. Care is taken to make the expression look as relaxed and natural as possible, and ideally a recent photograph of the deceased in good health is used as a reference. The process of closing the mouth and eyes, shaving, etc. Features may also be set after the completion of the arterial embalming process, which allows the embalmer to clean and remove any purge that occurs during the embalming process.
The duration of an embalming can vary greatly, but a common approximate time of between two and four hours to complete an embalming is typical. However an embalming case that presents excessive complications could require substantially longer. The treatment of someone who has undergone an autopsy, cases of extreme trauma, or the restoration of a long-bone donor are a few such examples, and embalmings which require multiple days to complete are known. Embalming is meant to temporarily preserve the body of a deceased person. Regardless of whether embalming is performed, the type of burial or entombment, and the materials used — such as wood or metal coffins and vaults — the body of the deceased will, under most circumstances, eventually decompose.
Modern embalming is done to delay decomposition so that funeral services may take place or for the purpose of shipping the remains to a distant place for disposition. After the body is rewashed and dried, a moisturizing cream is applied to the face, hands and arms. Ideally the deceased will usually sit for as long as possible for observation by the embalmer. After being dressed for visitation or funeral services. Cosmetics are commonly, but not universally, applied to make the body appear more lifelike and to create a "memory picture" for the deceased's friends and relatives.
For babies who have died, the embalmer may apply a light cosmetic massage cream after embalming to provide a natural appearance; massage cream is also used on the face to prevent it from dehydrating, and the infant's mouth is often kept slightly open for a more natural expression. If possible, the funeral director uses a light, translucent cosmetic; sometimes, heavier, opaque cosmetics are used to hide bruises, cuts, or discolored areas.
Makeup is applied to the lips to mimic their natural color. Sometimes a very pale or light pink lipstick is applied on males, while brighter colored lipstick is applied to females. Hair gel or baby oil is applied to style short hair; while hairspray is applied to style long hair. Powders especially baby powder are applied to the body to eliminate odors, and it is also applied to the face to achieve a matte and fresh effect to prevent oiliness of the corpse.
Mortuary cosmetizing is not done for the same reason as make-up for living people; rather, it is designed to add depth and dimension to a person's features that lack of blood circulation has removed. I typed furiously, in my personal shorthand, as my Mom began talking, seeming to fall into a trance of her personal and professional history. For several nonstop hours, the interview flowed on its own so freely, I didn't have to pause typing to ask more than a few questions. The Price of Black Diamonds 3. I Worked 4. Coal Dust in Their Hands 5.
Dark Diamond Twilight 6. The Last Lunch Box 7. The eighth Visceral History listed above is tentatively set for Kindle debut summer Respectfully Submitted, Linda G. Cafe Mojo wasn't a bad place to sit and watch people on Nanjing Lu pedestrian mall. They made a decent coffee Americano, too. But just being at a table didn't make one immune from the hawkers on Nanjing Lu. The "watch, bag, shoes" people left me alone, but there were always the beggars and hawkers selling more legitimate merchandise, such as laser spinning tops, self-lighting rollerskate attachments that clipped onto one's shoes, and LED-illuminated helicopters.
I was enjoying an Americano one night when the urchin approached me. He didn't come too close, but rather positioned himself within my line of sight, started waving his arms and calling out, "hallooooo! He'd move into my new line of sight and do something else to try to get a reaction from me.
It was hard not to laugh; he had a natural comic genius. I guess he was about 10 to 12, barefoot, with dirty bare feet and a quick smile. Yimou had warned me about beggars, saying that many of them worked for a syndicate and the money went to an organization, not the individual.
Still, the boy was really funny and it was hard not to laugh. It wasn't quite dark yet and I put on my sunglasses so he wouldn't be able to tell if I was watching or not. The next morning, I returned to Cafe Mojo for breakfast. An egg, bacon, sausage and a toasted cheese sandwich. I looked over and saw the urchin, sleepy, pulling himself out of some bushes in the middle of the pedestrian road. He looked around in the universal manner typical of someone who had just woken up, his gaze blank.
I put on my sunglasses before he saw me watching him. I was fascinated. He pulled a big plastic bag out of the bushes and folded it up as small as he could, putting it in his pocket. I assumed it was his "sleeping bag. Like the evening before, I didn't acknowledge his presence. He wasn't as persistent as the night before and soon he wandered up Nanjing Lu towards People's Square. Something about his whole manner made me think that maybe he was really on his own and not a monkey for some beggars' syndicate. The episode was aired on March 22, Kane was also featured in a Chef Boyardee commercial in which he attempts to eat while wearing his full face mask.
The Kane character was featured in the fourteen-issue Undertaker comic book produced by Chaos! Comics in The character only spoke once, in the Undertaker Halloween Special , which tied into the single issue Mankind comic book produced by the same company.
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The DVD consists of Kane's greatest feuds and rivalries during his first ten years. However, the website has since been relaunched with its first update appearing on July 1, Most recently, he appears in WWE 2K From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American professional wrestler, actor, businessman, and politician. For other uses, see Kane disambiguation. Crystal Goins m. Professional wrestling career. Dean Malenko  Ray Candy .
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