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  1. Shimada, Makoto
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Yamakoshi for useful discussion on the ecology of Bossou chimpanzees. We thank the editors and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. International Journal of Primatology. Int J Primatol. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Nicola Bryson-Morrison, Email: ku. Corresponding author. Received May 12; Accepted Dec 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Many primate populations inhabit anthropogenic landscapes.

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Keywords: Forest—agricultural mosaic, Habitat selection, Human—wildlife coexistence, Risk perception. Introduction Habitat loss due to deforestation and land conversion are major causes of the decline of nonhuman primate hereafter primate species Chapman and Peres ; Estrada Concentrated on the summit of one of the small hills, known as Gban.

Dense forest with little to no signs of human disturbance. Dominated by small, young regenerating tree species. Cultivars still present. Dominated by an invasive species, Chromolaena odorata. Tree saplings, lianas, and THV emerging. Characterized by dense tree saplings, lianas, and THV. Banana plants, oil palm, and cultivated fruit tree orchards often present.

Usually contains a mix of cultivars such as cassava, maize, okra, and rice. Open in a separate window. Data Analyses Habitat Use and Preferences To examine chimpanzee habitat selection, we summed the number of min scans in forest habitat, i. Ethical Note Our study adhered to all research requirements of Guinea, the ethical protocols for research set out by the University of Kent, UK and the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, Japan, the institution that manages the Bossou fieldsite.

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Habitat Preference for Foraging For the forest habitat types and given relative habitat availability, selection ratios revealed that the chimpanzees highly preferred mature forest for foraging during all time periods. Habitat Preference for Other Activities. Traveling Chimpanzees highly preferred mature forest for traveling, used secondary forest relative to availability, and avoided riverine and young secondary forest for traveling regardless of season.

Resting The chimpanzees highly preferred mature forest for resting during all time periods. Socializing Of the forest habitats, chimpanzees preferred only mature forest for socializing. Discussion Our study revealed that the chimpanzee community inhabiting the highly heterogeneous anthropogenic landscape of Bossou used different habitat types with varying frequency depending on season and behavioral activity. Habitat Preference for Foraging Our results support the prediction that chimpanzee patterns of habitat use for foraging reflect spatial and temporal food resource availability.

Shimada, Makoto

Habitat Preference for Other Activities Our results indicated that Bossou chimpanzees preferred to travel, rest, and socialize in habitat types with less human-induced pressure. Implications for Chimpanzee Conservation in Anthropogenic Landscapes Overall, our study clearly indicated that chimpanzees at Bossou show a high preference for mature forest. Electronic Supplementary Material Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. Acknowledgements We thank the Institut de Recherche Environmentale de Bossou and the Direction Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique for permission to conduct this study.

Forest regeneration in a chronosequence of tropical abandoned pastures: implications for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. American Journal of Primatology. Impacts of industrial agriculture on ape ecology. In: Foundation A, editor.

This Could Be First-Ever Observed Ritual Practice Among Chimpanzees

State of the apes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Ranging patterns of chimpanzees in a montane forest of kahuzi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural-matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin. PLoS Biology. Chimpanzee non-avoidance of hyper-proximity to humans. The Journal of Wildlife Management. African Journal of Ecology. Sierra Leone national chimpanzee census. Freetown: Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary; Large mammal diversity and their conservation in the human-dominated land-use mosaic of Sierra Leone.

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Biodiversity and Conservation, 24 , — Chimpanzees in an anthropogenic landscape: examining food resources across habitat types at Bossou, Guinea, West Africa. Clarification of a technique for analysis of utilization-availability data. Journal of Wildlife Management. Raiders of the lost bark: orangutan foraging strategies in a degraded landscape.

Forest restoration in abandoned agricultural land: a case study from East Africa. Conservation Biology. Estimators of fruit abundance of tropical trees. Primate conservation in the new millennium: the role of scientists. Evolutionary Anthropology. Trade-offs between foraging and predation risk determine habitat use in a desert baboon population. Animal Behaviour. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites of experimentally stressed captive and free-living starlings: implications for conservation research.

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Read The Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba Primatology Monographs PDF Online - video dailymotion

Landscape Ecology. Socioeconomic contexts of primate conservation: population, poverty, global economic demands, and sustainable land use. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Variation in vervet Chlorocebus aethiops hair cortisol concentrations reflects ecological disturbance by humans. Habitat use and activity patterns as an indication of fragment quality in a strepsirrhine primate. Spatial wildlife-vehicle collision models: a review of current work and its application to transportation mitigation projects.

Journal of Environmental Management. Agroecosystems and primate conservation: shade coffee as potential habitat for the conservation of Andean night monkeys in the Northern Andes. The use of disturbed and undisturbed forest by masked titi monkeys Callicebus personatus melanochir is proportional to food availability. Human proximity and habitat fragmentation are key drivers of the rangewide bonobo distribution.

Biodiversity and Conservation. Reactions of Bili-uele chimpanzees to humans in relation to their distance from roads and villages. Conflict of interest between people and baboons: crop raiding in Uganda. People, crops, and primates: A conflict of interests. Commensalism and conflict: The primate—human interface. Winnipeg: Higwell Printing; Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human—wildlife conflict scenarios. Nonhuman primate approaches to landscapes.

In: David B, Thomas J, editors. Handbook of landscape archaeology. New York: Routledge; Human-chimpanzee coexistence at Bossou , the Republic of Guinea: A chimpanzee perspective. Hockings KJ. Behavioral flexibility and division of roles in chimpanzee road-crossing. The chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba. London: Springer; Road-crossing in chimpanzees: a risky business. Current Biology. Use of wild and cultivated foods by chimpanzees at Bossou, Republic of Guinea: feeding dynamics in a human-influenced environment.

Socioecological adaptations by chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus , inhabiting an anthropogenically impacted habitat. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees—management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes. Apes in the anthropocene: flexibility and survival. Human—chimpanzee sympatry and interactions in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau: current research and future directions. Primate Conservation.

The spatial ecology of chacma baboons Papio ursinus in a human-modified environment. Location and ecology. Primate populations and their interactions with changing habitats. Predicting when animal populations are at risk from roads: an interactive model of road avoidance behavior. Ecological Modelling. Recent decline in suitable environmental conditions for African great apes. Diversity and Distributions. The use of stone tools by wild-living chimpanzees and earliest hominids. Journal of Human Evolution. Wild chimpanzees on the edge: nocturnal activities in croplands.

Fallback foods, optimal diets, and nutritional targets: primate responses to varying food availability and quality. Annual Review of Anthropology. The impact of hunting and habitat disturbance on the population dynamics and behavioral ecology of the crested black macaque Macaca nigra. Edge effects and their influence on lemur density and distribution in southeast Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Fission—fusion social systems as a strategy for coping with ecological constraints: a primate case.

Evolutionary Ecology. Modeling dietary selectivity by Bornean orangutans: evidence for integration of multiple criteria in fruit selection. The effect of forest clear-cutting on habitat use in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus roxellana in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Resource selection by animals: Statistical design and analysis for field studies.

Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic; The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins Cebus capucinus American Journal of Primatology. Diet and feeding ecology of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes in Bulindi, Uganda: foraging strategies at the forest—farm interface.

Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda. Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops. Scientific Reports. Protected apes, unprotected forest: composition, structure and diversity of riverine forest fragments and their conservation value in Uganda. Tropical Conservation Science. Effect of habitat quality on diet flexibility in Barbary macaques.

The impact of tourism on the behaviour of mountain gorillas. Gorilla Journal. Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. Journal of Applied Ecology. A technique for analyses of utilization-availability data. Behavior, diet, and movements of the Sulawesi crested black macaque.

Slash-and-burn agriculture: the search for alternatives. New York: Columbia University Press; Habitat selection and use of space by bald-faced sakis Pithecia irrorata in Southwestern Amazonia: Lessons from a multiyear, multigroup study. Eastern chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii : Status survey and conservation action plan — Habitat use and ranging behavior of Callimico goeldii.

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  • Bushmeat supply and consumption in a tropical logging concession in northern Congo. Resource use in a landscape matrix by an arboreal primate: evidence of supplementation in black howlers Alouatta pigra International Journal of Primatology. Diet, foraging, and use of space in wild golden-headed lion tamarins. Stress in Yucatan spider monkeys: effects of environmental conditions on fecal cortisol levels in wild and captive populations. Animal Conservation. The tropical rainforest. New York: Cambridge University Press; The human—macaque interface: conservation implications of current and future overlap and conflict in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    American Anthropologist. Wildlife harvest in logged tropical forests. Influence of human food consumption on the time budget of vervets. Factors affecting party size and composition of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus Bossou, Guinea. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews. Applying resource selection functions at multiple scales to prioritize habitat use by the endangered cross river gorilla. Town monkeys , country monkeys: A socioecological comparison of a human commensal and wild group of bonnet macaques Macaca radiata.

    Secondary forests in West Africa: A challenge and opportunity for management. Forests and society-responding to global drivers of change Behavioural responses of lion-tailed macaques Macaca silenus to a changing habitat in a tropical rain forest fragment in the Western Ghats, India. Folia Primatologica. Social structure and dynamics of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea.

    The flora of Bossou: its utilization by chimpanzees and humans. African Study Monographs. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees in Bossou , Guinea: Coping with the seasonal fluctuation of food supply and micrometeorology in the tropical forest. Takemoto H. Seasonal change in terrestriality of chimpanzees in relation to microclimate in the tropical forest. Habitat use of bonobos Pan paniscus at Wamba: selection of vegetation types for ranging, feeding, and night-sleeping. Patterns of crop raiding by primates around the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    Wildlife Biology. Chimpanzee diet and habitat selection in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. This compilation of research principally strives to uncover the complexity of the mind and behavioral flexibility of our closest living relatives. This work also reveals the necessity for ongoing efforts to conserve chimpanzees in the region. Chimpanzees have shed more light on our evolutionary origins than any other extant species in the world, yet their numbers in the wild are rapidly declining.

    In that sense, the Bossou chimpanzees and their neighbors clearly embody an invaluable cultural heritage for humanity as a whole. Readers can enjoy video clips illustrating unique behaviors of Bossou chimpanzees, in an exclusive DVD accompanying the hardcover or at a dedicated website described in the softcover. Have doubts regarding this product? Post your question. Safe and Secure Payments. Easy returns.