Skinner: a Life. American Humanist Association. Retrieved October 9, Horses by Skinner. Retrieved September 4, The Guardian. Papers of Yvonne Skinner, ca. Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 3, Retrieved October 23, Skinner, A Life. New York: Basic Books. Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Conditioned Reflexes. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Animal Intelligence: Experimental Studies. New York: Macmillan. Skinner Foundation.
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F July 31, Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original PDF on July 2, Retrieved August 14, Schedules of Reinforcement. Retrieved February 14, Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. Psychology second edition. The Atlantic , June Skinner, Burrhus Frederic - Gale, Credo Reference. Retrieved October 1, Retrieved May 29, Harvard Educational Review. College of Education, University of Houston.
Scientific American. American Psychologist.
Reprinted in: Skinner, B. Cumulative record 3rd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. The shaping of a behaviorist: Part two of an autobiography. New York: Knopf. Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved June 10, September 20, Free Inquiry Magazine. The project was also featured by "Top secret weapons revealed". Military Channel. August 14, Journal of Psychology. Skinner and the auditory inkblot: The rise and fall of the verbal summator as a projective technique, History of Psychology, ,4, Skinner, Verbal Behavior.
The account in the appendix is that he asked Skinner to explain why he said "No black scorpion, Carter is falling upon this table. Credo Reference, Gale. Skinner: A reappraisal. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. F Skinner. Skinner Sep. Skinner, New York: Macmillan, , pages Attempts to analyze Walden Two , Beyond Freedom and Dignity , and other Skinner works in the context of Skinner's life; lists over sources.
Living Walden Two: B. Skinner's Behaviorist Utopia and Experimental Communities. University of Illinois Press. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 2, J Exp Anal Behav. Chomsky, "The Case Against B. Burrhus F. Skinner: The shaping of behavior. Houndmills, Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Skinner and the auditory inkblot: The rise and fall of the verbal summator as a projective technique". History of Psychology. The Atlantic Monthly , Feb. Staddon, J. Social Philosophy and Policy , 16, Reprinted in Responsibility. Paul, F. Paul eds. Cambridge University Press, pp. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.
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Previous page. Kindle Edition. It has never been ascertained whether von Braun's error with regard to the year was deliberate or a simple mistake, although Neufeld stated that he might have lied on the affidavit. But he is seen in some photographs with the party's swastika pin in his lapel — it was politically useful to demonstrate his membership.
Von Braun's later attitude toward the National Socialist regime of the late s and early s was complex. He said that he had been so influenced by the early Nazi promise of release from the post—World War I economic effects , that his patriotic feelings had increased. He left the following year. War Department this explanation:. I told him I was so busy with my rocket work that I had no time to spare for any political activity. He then told me, that I would be awarded the rank of a[n] "Untersturmfuehrer" lieutenant and it were [ sic ] a very definite desire of Himmler that I attend his invitation to join.
Realizing that the matter was of highly political significance for the relation between the SS and the Army, I called immediately on my military superior, Dr. He informed me that the SS had for a long time been trying to get their "finger in the pie" of the rocket work.
I asked him what to do. He replied on the spot that if I wanted to continue our mutual work, I had no alternative but to join. Von Braun later claimed that these were simply technical promotions received each year regularly by mail. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger , arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, who then worked next to Dornberger's existing solid-fuel rocket test site at Kummersdorf.
Von Braun was awarded a doctorate in physics  aerospace engineering on July 27, , from the University of Berlin for a thesis entitled "About Combustion Tests" ; his doctoral supervisor was Erich Schumann. His actual full thesis, Construction, Theoretical, and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket dated April 16, was kept classified by the German army, and was not published until At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H.
Goddard 's research. Before , German scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Wernher von Braun used Goddard's plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat A series of rockets. The A-4 rocket would become well known as the V Goddard confirmed his work was used by von Braun in , shortly before the Nazis began firing V-2s at England.
A V-2 crashed in Sweden and some parts were sent to an Annapolis lab where Goddard was doing research for the Navy. Goddard is reported to have recognized components he had invented, and inferred that his brainchild had been turned into a weapon. A war is a war, and when my country is at war, my duty is to help win that war. In response to Goddard's claims, von Braun said "at no time in Germany did I or any of my associates ever see a Goddard patent".
This was independently confirmed. There were no German rocket societies after the collapse of the VfR , and civilian rocket tests were forbidden by the new Nazi regime. They also developed the long-range A-4 ballistic missile and the supersonic Wasserfall anti-aircraft missile. Following von Braun's July 7, presentation of a color movie showing an A-4 taking off, Hitler was so enthusiastic that he personally made von Braun a professor shortly thereafter. Von Braun's interest in rockets was specifically for the application of space travel , not for killing people.
During , von Braun's rocketry team working at Kummersdorf investigated installing liquid-fuelled rockets in aircraft. Ernst Heinkel enthusiastically supported their efforts, supplying a He and later two Hes for the experiments. Later in , Erich Warsitz was seconded by the RLM to Wernher von Braun and Ernst Heinkel, because he had been recognized as one of the most experienced test pilots of the time, and because he also had an extraordinary fund of technical knowledge.
Then, Warsitz, you will be a famous man. And later we will fly to the Moon — with you at the helm! Despite a wheels-up landing and the fuselage having been on fire, it proved to official circles that an aircraft could be flown satisfactorily with a back-thrust system through the rear. At the same time, Hellmuth Walter 's experiments into hydrogen peroxide based rockets were leading towards light and simple rockets that appeared well-suited for aircraft installation.
Also the firm of Hellmuth Walter at Kiel had been commissioned by the RLM to build a rocket engine for the He , so there were two different new rocket motor designs at Neuhardenberg: whereas von Braun's engines were powered by alcohol and liquid oxygen, Walter engines had hydrogen peroxide and calcium permanganate as a catalyst. Von Braun's engines used direct combustion and created fire, the Walter devices used hot vapors from a chemical reaction, but both created thrust and provided high speed.
SS General Hans Kammler , who as an engineer had constructed several concentration camps , including Auschwitz , had a reputation for brutality and had originated the idea of using concentration camp prisoners as slave laborers in the rocket program. More people died building the V-2 rockets than were killed by it as a weapon. Some prisoners claim von Braun engaged in brutal treatment or approved of it. Guy Morand, a French resistance fighter who was a prisoner in Dora, testified in that after an apparent sabotage attempt, von Braun ordered a prisoner to be flogged,  while Robert Cazabonne, another French prisoner, claimed von Braun stood by as prisoners were hanged by chains suspended by cranes.
Wernher von Braun were aware of everything daily. As they went along the corridors, they saw the exhaustion of the inmates, their arduous work and their pain. Not one single time did Prof. Wernher von Braun protest against this cruelty during his frequent stays at Dora.
Even the aspect of corpses did not touch him: On a small area near the ambulance shed, inmates tortured to death by slave labor and the terror of the overseers were piling up daily. But, Prof. Wernher von Braun passed them so close that he was almost touching the corpses.
Von Braun later claimed that he was aware of the treatment of prisoners, but felt helpless to change the situation. Von Braun claimed to have replied that the problems were merely technical and he was confident that they would be solved with Dornberger's assistance. Von Braun had been under SD surveillance since October A young female dentist who was an SS spy reported their comments. The unsuspecting von Braun was detained on March 14 or March 15 ,  , and was taken to a Gestapo cell in Stettin now Szczecin, Poland ,  : 38—40 where he was held for two weeks without knowing the charges against him.
Through the Abwehr in Berlin, Dornberger obtained von Braun's conditional release and Albert Speer , Reichsminister for Munitions and War Production, persuaded Hitler to reinstate von Braun so that the V-2 program could continue  : 38—40 or turn into a "V-4 program" which in their view would be impossible without von Braun's leadership.
Unwilling to go to the Soviets, von Braun and his staff decided to try to surrender to the Americans. Kammler had ordered relocation of his team to central Germany; however, a conflicting order from an army chief ordered them to join the army and fight.
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Deciding that Kammler's order was their best bet to defect to the Americans, von Braun fabricated documents and transported of his affiliates to the area around Mittelwerk, where they resumed their work. For fear of their documents being destroyed by the SS, von Braun ordered the blueprints to be hidden in an abandoned mine shaft in the Harz mountain range. While on an official trip in March, von Braun suffered a complicated fracture of his left arm and shoulder in a car accident after his driver fell asleep at the wheel. His injuries were serious, but he insisted that his arm be set in a cast so he could leave the hospital.
Due to this neglect of the injury he had to be hospitalized again a month later where his bones had to be re-broken and re-aligned. In April, as the Allied forces advanced deeper into Germany, Kammler ordered the engineering team to be moved by train into the town of Oberammergau in the Bavarian Alps , where they were closely guarded by the SS with orders to execute the team if they were about to fall into enemy hands. However, von Braun managed to convince SS Major Kummer to order the dispersal of the group into nearby villages so that they would not be an easy target for U.
Von Braun and a large number of the engineering team subsequently made it to Austria. My brother invented the V We want to surrender. We knew that we had created a new means of warfare, and the question as to what nation, to what victorious nation we were willing to entrust this brainchild of ours was a moral decision more than anything else.
We wanted to see the world spared another conflict such as Germany had just been through, and we felt that only by surrendering such a weapon to people who are guided by the Bible could such an assurance to the world be best secured. The American high command was well aware of how important their catch was: von Braun had been at the top of the Black List , the code name for the list of German scientists and engineers targeted for immediate interrogation by U.
On June 9, , two days before the scheduled handover of the Nordhausen area to the Soviets, U. Army Major Robert B. Von Braun was briefly detained at the "Dustbin" interrogation center at Kransberg Castle , where the elite of the Third Reich's economy, science and technology were debriefed by U. There is evidence, however, that British intelligence and scientists were the first to interview him in depth, eager to gain information that they knew U.
The team included the young L. Snell, then the leading British rocket engineer, later chief designer of Rolls-Royce Limited and inventor of the Concorde 's engines. The specific information the British gleaned remained top secret, both from the Americans and other allies. On June 20, , the U. Secretary of State approved the transfer of von Braun and his specialists to America; however, this was not announced to the public until October 1, Von Braun would later write he found it hard to develop a "genuine emotional attachment" to his new surroundings.
Every proposal for new rocket ideas was dismissed. While there, they trained military, industrial, and university personnel in the intricacies of rockets and guided missiles. As part of the Hermes project , they helped refurbish, assemble, and launch a number of V-2s that had been shipped from Germany to the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico.
They also continued to study the future potential of rockets for military and research applications. Since they were not permitted to leave Fort Bliss without military escort, von Braun and his colleagues began to refer to themselves only half-jokingly as "PoPs" — "Prisoners of Peace". In , at the start of the Korean War , von Braun and his team were transferred to Huntsville, Alabama , his home for the next 20 years.
Between and ,  von Braun led the Army's rocket development team at Redstone Arsenal , resulting in the Redstone rocket , which was used for the first live nuclear ballistic missile tests conducted by the United States. He personally witnessed this historic launch and detonation. This event signaled the birth of America's space program. Despite the work on the Redstone rocket, the 12 years from to were probably some of the most frustrating for von Braun and his colleagues. In the Soviet Union , Sergei Korolev and his team of scientists and engineers plowed ahead with several new rocket designs and the Sputnik program, while the American government was not very interested in von Braun's work or views and embarked only on a very modest rocket-building program.
In the meantime, the press tended to dwell on von Braun's past as a member of the SS and the slave labor used to build his V-2 rockets. Repeating the pattern he had established during his earlier career in Germany, von Braun — while directing military rocket development in the real world — continued to entertain his engineer-scientist's dream of a future in which rockets would be used for space exploration.
However, he was no longer at risk of being sacked — as American public opinion of Germans began to recover, von Braun found himself increasingly in a position to popularize his ideas. Von Braun's ideas rode a publicity wave that was created by science fiction movies and stories. In , von Braun first published his concept of a manned space station in a Collier's Weekly magazine series of articles titled " Man Will Conquer Space Soon!
These articles were illustrated by the space artist Chesley Bonestell and were influential in spreading his ideas. Frequently, von Braun worked with fellow German-born space advocate and science writer Willy Ley to publish his concepts, which, unsurprisingly, were heavy on the engineering side and anticipated many technical aspects of space flight that later became reality. The ultimate purpose of the space station would be to provide an assembly platform for manned lunar expeditions.
More than a decade later, the movie version of A Space Odyssey would draw heavily on the design concept in its visualization of an orbital space station. At this time, von Braun also worked out preliminary concepts for a manned mission to Mars that used the space station as a staging point. Gigantic as this mission plan was, its engineering and astronautical parameters were thoroughly calculated. A later project was much more modest, using only one purely orbital cargo ship and one crewed craft. In each case, the expedition would use minimum-energy Hohmann transfer orbits for its trips to Mars and back to Earth.
Before technically formalizing his thoughts on human spaceflight to Mars, von Braun had written a science fiction novel on the subject, set in the year In the hope that its involvement would bring about greater public interest in the future of the space program, von Braun also began working with Walt Disney and the Disney studios as a technical director, initially for three television films about space exploration.
The initial broadcast devoted to space exploration was Man in Space , which first went on air on March 9, , drawing 40 million viewers. Later in von Braun published a short booklet, condensed from episodes that had appeared in This Week Magazine before—describing his updated concept of the first manned lunar landing. The brute-force direct ascent flight schedule used a rocket design with five sequential stages, loosely based on the Nova designs that were under discussion at this time. After a night launch from a Pacific island, the first three stages would bring the spacecraft with the two remaining upper stages attached to terrestrial escape velocity , with each burn creating an acceleration of 8—9 times standard gravity.
Residual propellant in the third stage would be used for the deceleration intended to commence only a few hundred kilometers above the landing site in a crater near the lunar north pole. The fourth stage provided acceleration to lunar escape velocity, while the fifth stage would be responsible for a deceleration during return to the Earth to a residual speed that allows aerocapture of the spacecraft ending in a runway landing, much in the way of the Space Shuttle. One remarkable feature of this technical tale is that the engineer Wernher von Braun anticipated a medical phenomenon that would become apparent only years later: being a veteran astronaut with no history of serious adverse reactions to weightlessness offers no protection against becoming unexpectedly and violently spacesick.
In the first half of his life, von Braun was a nonpracticing, "perfunctory" Lutheran, whose affiliation was nominal and not taken seriously. Ordway III : "Throughout his younger years, von Braun did not show signs of religious devotion, or even an interest in things related to the church or to biblical teachings. In ,  : he attended church in El Paso , Texas, and underwent a religious conversion to evangelical Christianity. One day in Fort Bliss , a neighbor called and asked if I would like to go to church with him. I accepted, because I wanted to see if the American church was just a country club as I'd been led to expect.
Instead, I found a small, white frame building Together, these people make a live, vibrant community. This was the first time I really understood that religion was not a cathedral inherited from the past, or a quick prayer at the last minute. To be effective, a religion has to be backed up by discipline and effort. On the motives behind this conversion, Michael J. Neufeld is of the opinion that he turned to religion "to pacify his own conscience",  whereas University of Southampton scholar Kendrick Oliver said that von Braun was presumably moved "by a desire to find a new direction for his life after the moral chaos of his service for the Third Reich".
Later in life, he joined an Episcopal congregation,  and became increasingly religious. Through religion he seeks to know the Creator. Ward, as stating, "The farther we probe into space, the greater my faith. Von Braun developed and published his space station concept during the "coldest" time of the Cold War , when the U. The fact that his space station — if armed with missiles that could be easily adapted from those already available at this time — would give the United States space superiority in both orbital and orbit-to-ground warfare did not escape him.
In his popular writings, von Braun elaborated on them in several of his books and articles, but he took care to qualify such military applications as "particularly dreadful". This much less peaceful aspect of von Braun's "drive for space" has been reviewed by Michael J. The U. Navy had been tasked with building a rocket to lift satellites into orbit, but the resulting Vanguard rocket launch system was unreliable.
In , with the launch of Sputnik 1 , a growing belief within the United States existed that it was lagging behind the Soviet Union in the emerging Space Race. American authorities then chose to use von Braun and his German team's experience with missiles to create an orbital launch vehicle.
Wernher von Braun had such an idea originally proposed in , but it was denied at the time. NASA was established by law on July 29, One day later, the 50th Redstone rocket was successfully launched from Johnston Atoll in the south Pacific as part of Operation Hardtack I. Von Braun's early years at NASA included a failed " four-inch flight " during which the first unmanned Mercury-Redstone rocket only rose a few inches before settling back onto the launch pad.
The launch failure was later determined to be the result of a "power plug with one prong shorter than the other because a worker filed it to make it fit". Because of the difference in the length of one prong, the launch system detected the difference in the power disconnection as a "cut-off signal to the engine". The system stopped the launch, and the incident created a "nadir of morale in Project Mercury".
After the flight of Mercury-Redstone 2 in January experienced a string of problems, von Braun insisted on one more test before the Redstone could be deemed man-rated. His overly cautious nature brought about clashes with other people involved in the program, who argued that MR-2's technical issues were simple and had been resolved shortly after the flight. He overruled them, so a test mission involving a Redstone on a boilerplate capsule was flown successfully in March.
Von Braun's stubbornness was blamed for the inability of the U. The Marshall Center's first major program was the development of Saturn rockets to carry heavy payloads into and beyond Earth orbit. From this, the Apollo program for manned Moon flights was developed.
Wernher von Braun initially pushed for a flight engineering concept that called for an Earth orbit rendezvous technique the approach he had argued for building his space station , but in , he converted to the lunar orbit rendezvous concept that was subsequently realized. Debus , the first director of the Kennedy Space Center. His dream to help mankind set foot on the Moon became a reality on July 16, , when a Marshall-developed Saturn V rocket launched the crew of Apollo 11 on its historic eight-day mission. Over the course of the program, Saturn V rockets enabled six teams of astronauts to reach the surface of the Moon.
During the late s, von Braun was instrumental in the development of the U. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. The desk from which he guided America's entry in the space race remains on display there. He also was instrumental in the launching of the experimental Applications Technology Satellite. He traveled to India and hoped that the program would be helpful for bringing a massive educational television project to help the poorest people in that country.
During the local summer of —67, von Braun participated in a field trip to Antarctica , organized for him and several other members of top NASA management. Von Braun was mainly interested in management of the scientific effort on Antarctic research stations, logistics, habitation, and life support, and in using the barren Antarctic terrain like the glacial dry valleys to test the equipment that one day would be used to look for signs of life on Mars and other worlds. In an internal memo dated January 16, ,  von Braun had confirmed to his staff that he would stay on as a center director at Huntsville to head the Apollo Applications Program.
He referred to this time as a moment in his life when he felt the strong need to pray, stating "I certainly prayed a lot before and during the crucial Apollo flights". After a series of conflicts associated with the truncation of the Apollo program, and facing severe budget constraints, von Braun retired from NASA on May 26, Von Braun also developed the idea of a Space Camp that would train children in fields of science and space technologies, as well as help their mental development much the same way sports camps aim at improving physical development.
In , during a routine physical examination, von Braun was diagnosed with kidney cancer , which could not be controlled with the medical techniques available at the time. Von Braun helped establish and promote the National Space Institute , a precursor of the present-day National Space Society , in , and became its first president and chairman. However, his deteriorating health forced him to retire from Fairchild on December 31, When the National Medal of Science was awarded to him in early , he was hospitalized, and unable to attend the White House ceremony.
Von Braun's insistence on further tests after Mercury-Redstone 2 flew higher than planned has been identified as contributing to the Soviet Union's success in launching the first human in space. His Soviet counterpart Sergei Korolev insisted on two successful flights with dogs before risking Gagarin's life on a manned attempt.
The second test flight took place one day after the Mercury-Redstone BD mission. Von Braun took a very conservative approach to engineering, designing with ample safety factors and redundant structure. This became a point of contention with other engineers, who struggled to keep vehicle weight down so that payload could be maximized. As noted above, his excessive caution likely led to the U. Krafft Ehricke likened von Braun's approach to building the Brooklyn Bridge.
The C-4 design had a large crossbeam that could easily absorb the thrust of an additional engine. Von Braun had a charismatic personality and was known as a ladies' man. As a student in Berlin, he would often be seen in the evenings in the company of two girlfriends at once. However, the engagement was broken due to his mother's opposition. During his stay at Fort Bliss, von Braun proposed marriage to Maria Luise von Quistorp born June 10, , his maternal first cousin, in a letter to his father.
On March 1, , having received permission to go back to Germany and return with his bride, he married her in a Lutheran church in Landshut , Germany. Shortly after he converted to Evangelical Christianity , he and his bride, as well as his father and mother, returned to New York on March 26, On April 15, , von Braun became a naturalized citizen of the United States. On June 16, , Wernher von Braun died of pancreatic cancer in Alexandria , Virginia, at the age of Von Braun's gravestone mentions Psalm "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.
Film and television Von Braun has been featured in a number of movies and television shows or series:.