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She really put on a incredible show, she loved her fans!! Her story is inspirational. Kokoman Liquors, Pojoaque NM. Got snoring in stereo here The two loves of my life are healthy and sleeping soundly. Uma parte de mim foi arrancada, assim de repente, sem aviso e sem sinais.. Yesterday made 5 years.
It said breaking news I forget the Spanish translation and all I saw was a bunch of niggas that look like some of ma uncles I'm a quarter Mexican cryin like Jesus died again. Shit was hella sad. Ready for our jennirivera themed party tomorrow! I'm gonna miss this. Let's go out with a bang!
She was the glue to our bullshit lol we miss you even though we all acting like fools and not talking to one another Wanna wish a Happy B'Day to the greatest artist in History If she was still around, she would've turned 48 today. It's sad to see that she's no longer with us. Prima te extraiamos mucho! Epspero que stes mejor en el cielo,vuela tan alto como puedas!!!
Subida al Kolitza !! Throwback Thursday a mi concierto haha! He's doing well for just loosing his best friend ripjenni. Siempre Fui la Preferida, No pudieron Alcansarme!!!! I love the 3 of you so much! A beautiful soul gone to soon. I'll be drinking tonight in your honor. I am in total shock! The unexpected always happen to those who mean everything.
I love you Jenni! Thank you for always keeping contact after all these years and being such a beautiful soul and mentor! You WILL be missed. And the bridesmaids wore brown. Today i turn 29 and i sit and reflect on everything and I'm grateful for it all ups, down, trials and tribulations. This song was played at thejendoe memorial service - and I lost it.
Because so much of it rang true. We were a blossoming friendship. So this is for you. Thank you for being my friend. You truly were a handprint on my heart Jenni. I thought she did a great job. This day is the most hardest day for me. Every year it hits me down so hard that I can't breathe.
Still I'm going to face it with a smile, a smile that comes from all those memories that you gave me. I love you now and always. I'm not dancing for myself, I'm dancing for you. How the phrase u ziyan chac is to be related to the glyphic material on the Dresden pages is not clear. That is, the entry u ziyan chac occurs randomly throughout these two calendrical lists, and attempts to come up with an ordered sequence from these entries has so far not met with success.
Because of the uncertainty of the true meaning of the word ziyan in this context the phrase u ziyan chac is not translated in the following text. This number of lines is derived from the information given on pages 43bb of the Codex Dresden. On page 21 of P. These are the number of days to be counted forward the initial day coefficient 3 which begins each set of four dates. Thus, for the group which begins with the day 3 Cimi the count goes forward 19 days to the day 9 Chic Chan, then another 19 days to the day 2 Kan, then another 19 days to the day 8 akbal, and finally 21 days to the next group beginning with the day 3 Kan.
Quanta hedad tienes? Edad ygual con otro: et haabil. As a note of interest, on these lines it is stated that at the conclusion of the katun 10 Ahau the katun round begins again with the katun 8 Ahau. This is in contrast to the generally accept concept that the katun round begins with 11 Ahau Katun. Lines aa appear to be the real introductory remarks to this section. The writer brings up the question of what is really to be believed in. See lines xaxa in P. Here are the characters of the book called Analte.
I, don Joan Xiu. Thirteen katuns return again.
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Their faces are written on the katun wheel. It is called one fold of the katuns. When it has finished its mandate then it begins again.grupoavigase.com/includes/372/3393-calle-belle.php
Thus I began to write when the next katun was seated. When 8 Ahau Katun was finished then the katun round began again. Thus I began to write this in the book. Nothing can be confided in. Only that which is known. There will be the burden of the prophecies There are those which are also not true and therefore are not to be believed in.
Only our lord god alone is to be believed in a who is everywhere with his commandments. They call these one uinal. Then 5 nameless days are seated, the enchanted days of the year, the painful days. Then everything is dangerous: danger of sudden death, a danger of being bitten by jaguars, danger of being bitten by snakes, danger of splinters penetrating the body they say. That is the reason why this is called the enchanted days of the year, the painful days, the nameless days. Thus they say that they obey him during these four days. Not even in the least they say are they to be pleasurable.
They received it on the first day. The very good day is offered to god thus. The statue is not given form when it is first situated in its place. However on the third day it is situated in the center of the house. On the fourth day it is situated in the doorway of the house. When the fifth day dawns it is thrown out; they go and throw it out. But on the sixth day this then is the first day of the year bearer.
Then is seated the first day of the new year and the first day of the new month Poop. It is good to know how to equate the count of the days, the count of the months, the count of the years of the calendar. There are three methods of counting which I write here. They are given below, 12 months in the calendar which are the individual parts of the Spanish counting system. Thus are the count of the days which are in each month. There are dots followed by stripes. One dot they say represents one. Two dots they say is two.
Three dots they say is three. Four dots they say is four. One stripe they say represnts five. One dot over one stripe they say is six. Two dots over one stripe they say is seven. Three dots over one stripe they say is eight. Four dots over one stripe they say is nine. Two stripes they say represents ten. One dot over two stripes they say is eleven. Two dots over two stripes they say is twelve. Three dots over two stripes they say is thirteen. It should be mentioned that the number classifier is not what one would expect.
The number classifier ppel is for counting objects such as will be seen below beginning with line a whereas the number classifier piz is specific to such things as days. Thus their names are clearly created and copied [here] to be very well understood. Here they are: see them in a single year thus.
Thus it begins. Not all of it, just the account of the word of 8 Ahau Katun. There is one year to go with the burden of the year bearer, 4 Ahau Katun thus. Its burden runs for 8 years. There are 13 years to go and then 4 Ahau Katun ends thus. But on the 13 th I copied it thus. Not all of it. Only the calendar put together with the Roman calendar. The Christian calendar begins with the birth of our redeemer Jesus Christ. Thus falls whatever day within the days of the Christian count which is used by the holy mother church.
I separate the placement of the count of the year from the count of the month thus. My masters, my teachers will compare my work. They will add to that which I have done because my understanding is not much. Thus because I ask them that they should forgive my errors. Ma tulacali, chen bel u tzolol u than Uaxac Ahau. Heuac tu yoxlahunil tin hochah lae: ma tulacali.
Hayli u calendarioil tin paktecuntah yetel u calendarioil romanesoob. Cu ximbanzic cristianoile u ziyan c ah lohil Jesu Cristo lae. Lay licil u lubul hencen cu kinbezabal ichil kinobe tu xoc cristianoile yetel cilich nabil iglesia. Tin hun paycunah u lubul u xoc haab yetel u xoc yuiloob lae.
Bin u cetbezoob in yumoob, maestrosoob ca u zatezoob ten, ten u kazil u palaloob lae. Ua ma bay tzolaanile ua yan zipaanile. Bin u chucbezoob ten tumenel ma cetel in naati lay tumenel cin katic tiob ca u zatezoob in zipil. Tu kaba c yumil ti dios ichil u ma cetel in naat. The first paragraph is given on lines a a and was purportedly written in However, as noted in the footnote about Lorenzillo, there appears to be a problem with the year.
The second paragraph was purportedly written in and is given on lines aa It is principally an exercise in describing how the writer tries to correlate the Christian calendar with the Mayan calendar. De Graaf led a raid on Campeche on 6 July and remained there for about six weeks. Restall, An alternative possibility is the raid on Tihosuco in February of That my lords should forgive my errors, those who guard knowledge, teachers, astrologers, acentricals, concentricals, those who guard wisdom. They know the movements of the sun and the moon and the stars and everything which was created by our lord god here on earth.
Ca u zatezoob in zipil in yumoob, ah canaan naatoob, maestrosoob, astrologosoob, asentricosoob, consentricosoob, ah canaan miatzoob u yoheloob u ximbal kin yetel :U: yetel ekoob yetel tulacal baal u zihzahma c yumil ti dios uay yokol cabe. Furthermore, the year 9 Muluc fell in the following years, none of which is , , , There is thus no way to reconcile the date given on lines aa with a real Mayan day. The account of the Count of the Years U Xocaan u Bubukil Haaboob a a This is the story of the account of the years which falls to the four corners of the sky: Kan to the east, Muluc to the north, Hiix to the west, Cauac to the south.
That they say is how it goes. Thus right after the end of counting 13 Cauac, then begins to count 1 Kan again. Thus it returns as given above. The four groups are called one katun. That is the truth. Lay hah lae. U Buk Xoc Kin The count of the day calendar round U Buk Xoc Kin lines AA presents a table for finding the initial numerical coefficient of each uinal in any given numbered year.
The way this table functions is that if the first day of the year falls on a year bearer with the coefficient 1 i. The next year will begin with the coefficient 2 as shown and is 2 Muluc, 1 Poop. Now column 2 supplies the series of coefficients which apply to this year, so the first day of the uinal Uoo would be 9 Muluc, 1 Uoo, etc.
This table is useful for going in both directions. Not only does it make it easier to know what the coefficient for any day throughout the year should be, but the converse is true in that for any given day this table makes it easier to find out what year that day belongs to. Thus, for example, on line c the date 11 Chuen, 18 Zac is given. This would make the year bearer Hiix with the xoc kin coefficient for the next uinal, Ceh, being 1.
Going across the table 1 Hiix, 1 Ceh is seen to be in the year 2 Hiix July July which indeed is the Christian year given on line c Using this table it is also easier to determine if there is a problem with a date. For example, the day 6 Chic Chan, 20 Zec given on lines aa, which is said to belong to the year 9 Muluc, must be bogus because the xoc kin day which falls on 20 Zec in the year 9 Muluc is 4 Lamat.
Line Ca08 from the Prologue to the Cuceb presents a representative sequential list of these numbers. The count of the days u buk xoc kin a The count of the days and the Maya uinals, months thus. Here then are the count of the months, 18 in number thus, 20 days is the burden thus and the nameless days, 5 days is the burden. The number sequence for the day Ahau is the same as the second number sequence from the Prologue to the Cuceb see line Ca The first thirteen columns of numbers are all coefficients of Ahau.
The final column, to the right, gives the day coefficient and the uinal for the tun beginning. It is interesting to note that here the day coefficients for the uinals on the day Ahau are 16, 11, 6, and 1, which would imply that the year bearers are Chic Chan, Oc, Men, and Ahau. This appears to be in error because in a year 13 Kan the day 5 Ahau would fall on 17 Zec. See the table on lines aa, last column, to confirm this.
However, if the year bearer set used for figuring out what day the day Ahau would fall on in the uinal is Imix, Cimi, Chuen, Cib, then the coefficient 17 is correct. See pages of Ti Can Titzil Caan for a closer look at the significance of the day 1 Imix in relationship to initializing the Mayan calendar. There the reader will notice that there is an inconsistency in the number sequence of the coefficients which would fall on the day Ahau, with both the number sequence 17,12,7,2 and the sequence 16,11,6,1 being given, indicating that at the beginning the year bearer set is Kan, Muluc, Hiix, Cauac but that at the end the year bearer set is Chic Chan, Oc, Men, Ahau.
To further confuse things the sequence 16,11,7,2 is given for the middle years 9 Kan, 10 Muluc, 11 Hiix, 12 Cauac, implying that during these year the year bearer set was switching back and forth. It must be emphasized that the source texts are very inconsistent in giving the coefficients for the day Ahau. For the edited version of the table the number sequence 16,11,6,1 was chosen because it is the most prevalent sequence in the three sources.
However, given that the year bearer set in the colonial times was Kan, Muluc, Hiix, Cauac there is reason to think that in fact the sequence in the edited version of the table should be 17,12,7,2. At this time there is no reasonable explanation for this inconstitency. To shift the year bearers for the table of lines AA the uinal coefficients would have to be shifted to those shown above.
If the table of lines AA is correct, and Chic Chan, Oc, Men, Ahau are also a year bearer set, then it seems that all possible year bearer sets in fact do become year bearer sets. The question then is how was this done, and how often were year bearer sets changed if this was a standard procedure. Giving support to the idea that all possible year bearer sets were used is the contention that U Tzolaan Ah Cuch Haaboob lines BB , as the name implies, gives prognostications for the year bearers. Every day in the uinal is listed, seemingly indicating that every day is a possible year bearer.
See Proskouriakoff for a more complete discussion of the material presented on lines AA The meaning of the phrase Zac Patay Haabil is unclear and unfortunately unregistered in the vocabularies, nor is the phrase zac patay which appears to be an adjectival phrase. Zac means white but can also mean false or imperfect. Patay is unregistered, but is a nominative form of pat which can mean to declare, to even accounts, to invent and to form specifically from clay among other meanings. Haabil means year. There are four examples of this phrase in the Books of Chilam Balam.
Thus is to be understood the seating of the katun; Cauac on 1 Poop is the Year Bearer which dawns again as the day of the year. The Ahau Katun is seated the day after the day which is called Cauac is seated. This is not a lie. Twenty years is the burden of one Ahau Katun, but then there are four nameless years. The fifth year comes into play with the year Cauac, a even though the katun is seated on the day Kan. Thus there are five nameless days every year. Thus every time there is the end of the katuns five years come into play with the U Mol Box Katun. It is followed by the ancient Mayan count, the count of our ancestors.
Perhaps reference is being made to U Bubukil Haaboob, which does begin with the year 1 Kan. As shown in a table given in the introductory remarks to U Kinil Uinaloob, apparently at the end of the year 13 Cauac 13 nameless days ixma kaba kin are allowed to pass during which neither the xoc kin days nor the uinal days of Poop are part of the count. This is done in order to bring the Mayan calendar back into sync with the solar year. At the end of these 13 days the calendar begin again with the day 1 Kan, 1 Poop.
While this method is not as exact as our present calendar, it is as good as the Julian calendar which preceded our present mode of reckoning. Here is the second reckoning: a these are the year bearers to the four world directions. The Lamay Tun, the painful time of the year are to be understood. Then happen pestilences and dangers they say. It is the daily count of the days which are in the uinal. It is to be seen that it is to be known when to plant sustenance, plant corn, the time of the garden, plant beans, plant lima beans, plant chili, plant jicama, plant cotton, every thing of the garden.
It is my impression that the word lamay is derived from one of the meanings of the verb lamal: lost from sight. The meaning of lamay tun, based on this, would be the invisible tuns, meaning the four years which come at the end of the 20 years which make up the body of the Ahau Katun. Translating lamay as cuadrada is probably based on the word amay, which is given in the BMTV as angle. For another use of this term see line Ca27 in which the term is clearly explained in Spanish.
Corn also had the alternative name kauil which is also thought to be the name of the corn god. Today corn is referred to as cichcelem gracia when speaking of it in honorific terms, the implication being that this is a male entity, the word cichcelem being applied to male goodness and beauty. For this meaning see line c and its footnote. Here then is the sixth reckoning. No matter how many uinals are in it, they fall in the appointed places. But the other god loves and respects that which is written on the tribute textile.
Four Ahau Katuns are the burden of one section of the katuns Thus then it is said that it is 96 years with the nameless katun which comes every time the tun is erected. If the tun does not show itself then the fold of the katun has to pass. If it is not found by the end of the tun then it will be called a collection. De manta: yub nok. Compare with the expression yibnel cab "the cloth of the land" which is to be found on lines a, e and e Further, it is unclear as to which of the various tables or texts it might be referring to.
It is true, given that the writer is using the 24 Ahau Katun system, that 4 Ahau Katuns add up to a time period of 96 years. However, given that there are 13 Ahau Katuns within a Ahau Katun cycle, how that fact plays any role in the overall scheme of the year Ahau Katun cycle remains unclear. That which happened in the Year Bearer of 8 Ahau Katun a Today on the 10 th day of the month of May in the year in the year bearer 7 Cauac on the 19th day of Muan I begin to write down the years of the katuns however many days which have been set down in the writings of our ancestors.
They read it in the katun round of the katuns. In the beginning because of them thus I pursue whether because there is a small beginning in the writings. However, 11 Ahau Katun was in force when the Spanish entered here in our land a so that they introduce us to Christianity. This then was the beginning they say.
However then in the 8 Ahau Katun thus, before the coming of the Spanish, that is when the holy men entered into treachery. However it was then that they knew that the day would arrive when they would be enlightened a in the blindness of their lives.
Thus was the beginning of their entry into treachery. They knew that the day would arrive when thirteen plumeria flowers sprout because of Hunac Ceel, the governor inside the fortification at Mayapan. Lay tun u chunpahanil tu thanoob. Heuac lay tu chun u yoheltahoob ix u kuchul u kin u yahal cab tiob a tu ekmayil u cuxtaloob. Lay u chunpahanci u yocol u keban than tiob. U naatoob u kuchul u kinil u toppol oxlahun tzuc nicte tumenel Hunac Ceel, u halach uinicil ich paa Mayapan. Heklay Quetzal Coatl yetel Ah Buluc Am u kabaob While it is true that the year 7 Cauac began in the year , the month of Muan actually fell in the month of May, To be precise, in the year 7 Cauac the uinal Muan would have begun on May 7 and ended on May 26, which means that May 10 th fell on the day 4 Muan.
The full Mayan date for May 10 th would have been 4 Ik, 4 Muan. If, on the other hand, we take the day 19 Muan in the year 7 Cauac as being the correct day then the Christian date would be May 25 th, Finally, the day 19 Muan could never fall on May 10 th. See the footnote to lines aa which talks about a similar problem with the date given there.
CMM: Pan: vandera o pendon. See the Glossary for more discussion. See CMM: Nicte: rosa o flor, no denotando de que arbol, mata, o yerua. The book enlightens them when 13, 7 returns at dawn. Thus they understand that the day has arrived because they read about it in the book of the katun, a Ah Xupan Nauat and Ah Teppan Ciz. They will be gathered together says the great priest Chilam Balam. Thus then I memorize the count of the katuns because of them. That is what the master understood, the Spanish conqueror Cosme de Burgos.
It was in the 8 Ahau Katun when everything happened. Here is the beginning: years plus 80 years plus 4 years. Today I begin it: thus. Thus then it begins to run. Thus I took it out of that which is given below; I will follow it. Here are the aspects of the Ahau Katuns.
Javanese-English Dictionary, Horne, 1974, #1968 (Hlm. 356-389: M)
Look upon them as I expose them. In the year when the year bearer was 7 Cauac then 8 Ahau Katun was seated; such was the katun. Lay u naaticoob u kuchul u kinil tumenel lic u xocicoob tu picil huunil katun a Ah Xupan Nauat yetel Ah Teppan Ciz. He ix u chunpahanile holahun kal haab catac cankal haab caixtac canppel haab helelae licil in chunbezic lae. Lay tun licil u bin yalcab lae. Lay tin hokzah yan cabal lae, bin in thul pachte. Lay u uich ahauob lae; chaanteob tin hokzah tumen tu haabil cuchie Uucil Cauac ah cuch haab cuchi ca culhi Uaxac Ahau Katun lae tu katunil lae.
Buluc Am appears to be an alternative name for Moteuczoma. Moteuczoma is written as Montesuma and Montezuma in the Mayan colonial texts. His name is also written as Motecuzoma, Motecuzomatzin, Moteuczomatzin, Montezuma, Moctezuma, Moctezoma, Moteuhzoma and other variations in other cultures. This is the name of two different rulers of the Aztecs, Moteuczoma II being the one which abdicated to Cortez in According to line c, Buluc Am was an alternative name for Moteuczoma. Note that Tzontemoc is a near anagram to Moctezoma.
The expression u tunil cab could mean a stela set up as a historical marker. As for yibnel cab, most probably in this instance the word cab has the same meaning as that of u tunil cab, i. What cloth of the land could possibly be referring to is unknown, but perhaps it serves the same function as u tunil cab, i. This expression shows up again on lines e and e Four of them are named in this text.
For the office of chilam and how the chliam works as a prophetic priest see Section J, lines jj See CMM: Ahal cab ti: tener ya uso de razon, juizio y discrecion. Ti ma to ahac cab: antes de la creacion del mundo. The closest would be Sebastian de Burgos. Here is the word and the path of its rule.
Thus is the word which is in the year bearer a because of the prophets such as Chilam Balam. He u than yetel u bel tu yahaulil lae. Lay u than yan ichil u cuch haabil lae tumeneloob ah bobatoob Chilam Balam lae. Also called U Tzol Kin, the account of the days, and tonalpohualli in Nahuatl. The difference between the two u xoc kinoob may be significant as pointed out in the discussion of the second u xoc kin called U Tzolaan Ah Cuch Haaboob the account of the year bearers. The u xoc kinoob from the Kaua, the Nah, and the Tekax differ from the ones transcribed in the P.
L by being highly Christianized. They give the saint s name for each day of the Christian calendar and are limited in their presentation of Mayan calendrical material. In the colonial sources, the format of these u xoc kinoob is different from the presentation here. These u xoc kinoob begin on January 1 with 10 Oc and continue with the exception of the Ixil through December 31 with 10 Hiix.
The Christian day is given first, and then the Mayan day with its prognostications is given.
Since the U Xoc Kin is only days long, there are days of the U Xoc Kin which are repeated so that the total of days is reached. As is obvious from these entries, the original version of these u xoc kinoob came from a day calendar. The original copyist transcribed his day xoc kin along side the Christian calendar, and then copied the first days of the xoc kin he was working for a second time to fill out the Christian calendar. Because the day calendar is our concern, the process has been reversed in presenting the transcriptions here, and the sacred round is reformed.
In making this transcription the day 1 Kan has been arbitrarily chosen as the starting point because it is featured as the starting point elsewhere, e. The Quality of Good and Bad as applied to each day of the Uinal and how this might affect the fortune of the Year Bearers As shown in U Mutil Uinic Zanzamal, the prognostications for the quality of each day of the uinal, that is whether it is a good day or bad day, is not specified.
There are however two texts which are to be found in the Books of Chilam Balam which do supply these qualities. U Xoc Kin or the day sacred calendar round as it comes to us in the Books of Chilam Balam is laid out along the Christian year beginning with 10 Oc on January 1, This is especially strange considering the fact that from both its name and from the prognostication for a person born on this day that it would be seem that Cimi would be considered to be a bad day.
In order to see if the quality of a day of the uinal was affected by its numerical coefficient the following table was extracted from the information given in the U Xoc Kin. As can be seen, there seems to be no statistical edge one way or another for most of the coefficients with only the number 2 showing a specific tendency, in this case towards bad days.
Tabulation of Day Coefficients for Good and Bad in U Xoc Kin Day Coefficient utz lob utz, lob xan not given 1 6 12 2 2 4 16 3 6 12 2 4 8 10 2 5 7 12 1 6 7 13 7 5 14 1 8 6 13 1 9 7 9 2 2 10 5 12 3 11 8 8 2 2 12 7 10 3 13 10 8 2 It is difficult to see how the above information would in any way be related to the prognostications for the year bearers, which is our purpose here in looking at this question.
While there is no overt indication that the Maya were interested in this grouping of days, it is interesting to note that statistically at least 7 of these trecenas show a marked tendency towards being either good or bad, indicating that perhaps there is something of a unified prophetic nature at work for at least these trecenas. The trecenas in question are 1 Muluc and 1 Ahau, which show 10 or more good days, and the trecenas 1 Ik, 1 Men, 1 Ben, 1 Cimi and 1 Chuen which have 10 or more bad days. This seems to be a lunar calculation since they divided the movement of that planet into two sequences: the first from its rising after the sun to reaching opposition, 13 days; the second, an equal number of days from [in the manuscript a blank] to its appearing in the morning.
Eglino distingueano il moto Lunare in due tempi; il primo di vigilanza, dall Orto Heliaco, o nascimento Solare, sino all opposlzione, di In the U Xoc Kin there is yet another set of notations which can be related to hieroglyphic texts, namely pages bb of the Madrid Codex which are about bee keeping. The bee almanacs of U Xoc Kin and the Madrid Codex, pages bb The bee almanac given on pages bb of the Madrid Codex can be compared with the corresponding days from u xoc kin. While the Madrid is consistent in the opening statement for the prognostication for each set of days, giving the phrase u pakal u cab he populates his hive , U Xoc Kin only has three mentions of honey, in the seventh, eight and twelfth rounds or uazak pachoob, and of these prognostications only one states utz kin utial ah cabnaloob, licil u pakal cabi good day for the bee keepers, hives are populated , but unfortunately without stating who is doing the populating as is the case in the Madrid.
This may be an example of the number of incidences i. It appears that Landa also mentions ceremonies which are related to bee keeping which may be related to the U Xoc Kin rather than to the annual calendar as intimated by Landa. See the following page for a comment on Landa s entries. Fiestas Related to U Xoc Kin Given in Landa As pointed out in the introductory remarks to U Xoc Kin lines bb above, that calendar is based on a day calendar which was extended to include the entire day year. The extra days have for the most part to same prognostications as their counterparts in the days in the first group making it most probable that the original was just the U Xoc Kin and then it was laid out alongside the day calendar repeating the extra days.
The Landa calendar on the other hand was from all appearances originally a day calendar, but one which before being given by Landa began on 1 Poop, the first day of the Mayan calendar. The extra days which begin with 12 Kan and continues through 12 Lamat have notations which are not the same as those which are contained in the first days, a strong indication that these notations are related to activities related to the day calendar and not to the day U Xoc Kin. Thus, while Landa has various events and fiestas listed alongside his calendar, most appear to be related to the annual day calendar.
However, there are two fiestas which are definitely related to the day U Xoc Kin. The fiestas which are given here are definitely tied to the day calendar and not to the day calendar. Note that the purpose of this fiesta is not specified. However, for the third day of this fiesta as given on line b, day 9 Ik, there is the note u kukum tok which is translated as the mustering of soldiers. Perhaps this fiesta has something to do with a review of warriors in preparation for war. One would think that if there is such an elaborate ceremony held on the days of tup kak that there would be something similar held on the days that Ah Toc is proclaimed yal kaba , those being 4 Chic Chan, 4 Oc, 4 Men and 4 Ahau.
As pointed out in the introduction to Ah Toc lines aa the date of the first glyph from each scene in the Codex Dresden, pp. Landa makes no mention of such a ceremony. As mentioned above, a third event which could well be also related to U Xoc Kin and not to the annual calendar is a ceremony related to bee keeping. Venido el dia de la fiesta se juntauan en la casa en que se celebraua, y hazian todo lo q[ue] en las demas saluo que no derramauan sangre. Tenian por avogados a los Bacabes, y especialmente a Hobnil. Hazian ofrendas muchas y especial a los quatro chaces dauan 4 platos con sendas pelotas de encienso en medio de cada vno, y pintadas a la redonda vnas figuras de miel que por la abundancia della era esta fiesta.
For the month of Yax Kin: En este mes tornauan los colmeneros a hazer otra fiesta como la que hizieron en Tzec paraq[ue] los dioses proveiessen de flores a las auejas. However, the U Xoc Kin gives only three indications of this ceremony and Landa has mentioned this event only twice as noted above. See also lines c, d, e, e A secondary meaning is a variety of iguana. From the vocabulary entries it appears that in its various meanings ziyan and zian are spelling variations for the same word. The spelling ziyan is chosen here and in the following examples of this phrase because of its parallel nature to the phrase u ziyan chac which is explored in the introduction to the chapter U Ziyan Chac given in Section A, lines aa The second item is that, as pointed out in that introduction, there is little certainty as to which of the various meanings of ziyan is to be used here.
An alternative translation might be an offering of god. See line e where it appears that this latter translation is the right one in that instance. The translation for tzacul is based on the entry from the CMM: Tzacom: el anatema y descomulgado. The particle ul means a person who does the described action. The two parts of this name are given in the BMTV: Chacmitan: Grande cosa, como hambre, sed y trabajo: chacmitan vijh, vkah.
Grandes y recios son los tormentos del Infierno: chacmitan v numyail Mitnal. See also lines b, c Given the context it would seem that kukum tok was some sort of feathered dagger perhaps related to the practice of bleeding sick patients. However, the translation offered here is based on various vocabulary entries.
For this expression see also line j See Landa, facsimile, p. Cizin knocks rocks together. There is sudden pestilence. However, considering that the phrase u ziyan chac comes directly after u pec chac in line a it seems most probable that the beginning of rain is meant. Note that the numerical coefficient for the day Kan on line and Cimi on the line a are not corroborated in the text given on line aa This phrase occurs in only one of the 10 sources for this day s prognostication, namely in the Tizimin on page 22v.
Item: abogado, medianero, y tercero entre algunos. See also line b What is probably meant is the homeless who walk through the forest in search for food. Compare with line b It has the appearance of wanting to give all 13 of the uazak pachoob which make up the calendar round of days, but the source texts only give six distinct uazak pachoob.
Whether this is because the other 7 uazak pachoob are missing or because of some other factor can not be determined. The reason for saying the purpose of this text is rather obscure is that while the U Xoc Kin treats each day of the uinal as a day proper, the U Tzolaan Ah Cuch Haaboob treats some of the days of the uinal as if they are year bearers, even those which are not considered to be the year bearers at the time of Spanish contact. This is really very perplexing since in general the Mayan calendar as given in the Books of Chilam Balam gives only the four days, Kan, Muluc, Hiix and Cauac, as the year bearers.
Even the introductory remarks to U Tzolaan Ah Cuch Haaboob only talk about the standard year bearer set. How then are we to interpret the material presented in the rest of the section? The introduction to U Tzolaan Ah Cuch Haaboob states that this presumably the material which follows, namely the material found on lines bb is the account of the year bearers. The standard year bearer set of the colonial times is then given Kan, Muluc, Hiix, Cauac and then the introduction goes on to state that 20 is their burden and their omen, seemingly indicating that all 20 days of the uinal somehow become year bearers.
In contrast, in the U Xoc Kin the prognostications frequently give u kinil the day of whatever activity. This is in contrast to U Xoc Kin in which the ratio is decidedly in favor of bad days. For 12 Hiix the entry reads u kin balam haabil, which makes the meaning of balam haabil even less clear. That is, how can the day also be a year? In the year 4 Muluc in the Cuceb, line c, the term comes up again, this time in connection with death and destruction, both through war and through famine. See lines b, b, b, b, b, c, c, e, f, f See the introduction to U Kinil Uinaloob for more about the name Muan.
The numerical coefficients are virtually unimportant to the prognostication. In contrast, in U Xoc Kin there is no apparent order to good or bad days or other comments about any particular day or coefficient aside from those days which constitute the days pertaining to Ah Tocoob. If it were not for this intercalary system why then were year bearer shifts necessary, if indeed these year bearer shifts existed as a common feature of the Mayan calendar?
If we say leap year in our language, we expect our listener to immediately to understand both what we mean and the workings of the leap year system. It may well be that one of the terms used throughout this material e. Most of these terms are used without any thorough explanation of their meanings, just as we would normally not have to stop to explain the term leap year to our listeners. If it is true that in this text we are looking at the characteristics of year bearers, then based on the information supplied by the above table we have the following information for the year bearers Kan, Muluc, Hiix and Cauac: Kan Muluc Hiix Cauac good good good good There are several problems with this.
First, the attributes of good for Hiix and Cauac are at odds with the prognostication for these years in Dresden, pp. Second, this listing of good years for all these year bearers is at odds with the text called the Cuceb in which most of the years have bad prognostications. They are called uinals within the year. Each one begins a year. Here they are: Kan, Muluc, Hiix, Cauac. They begin the years to the four corners of the sky.
Twenty is their burden and their prognostication. First there is Kan to the east. Then falls Muluc to the north. Then falls Hiix to the west. Then falls Cauac to the south. These are the uinals to the four corners of the sky they say. The word cuceb, that which revolves is derived from cuc, turn, revolve, and -eb, an instrumental affix. Both the word cuc and the word cuceb are applied to the animal squirrel as well.
As is noted under the comments about the Cuceb, it seems that this name in the context of the material presented in this section is meant to be applied to the 52 year cycle. This calendar explanation is called in this book Prologue to the Cuceb although its function is quite different. There is a parallel but less complete version of this calendar discussion in the Kaua which is not followed by the Cuceb. The Kaua version gives dates years later, namely It has been noted by various Spanish scholars that the Spanish in this calendar explanation seems rather stilted.
The suggestion is that the explanation is not written by a native speaker of the Spanish language. This leads one to the conclusion that the explanation is written by a Mayan scribe, and most probably by the scribe who transcribed the Cuceb. A possible candidate for this work is Gaspar Antonio Chi Xiu. Of principal interest in this calendar discussion are the uinal and katun numerical coefficient series. Since more complete tables of these coefficient orders is given in Section A, line numbers from Section A are given as cross references.
The first series of numbers gives the order of the coefficients of the first day of each uinal during the year see table on lines AA This number series also coincidentally gives the coefficients of the day Ahau after it has completed a cycle as shown in the table on lines AA This latter point may be of no importance. The second series of numbers gives the coefficients of the day Ahau every days days is one tun.
The vertical columns of the table on lines AA shows this sequence of numbers. The third series of numbers gives the coefficients which the day Ahau has as the second day of a new katun in the 24 year Ahau Katun cycle lines AA or after every 20 tuns lines AA The combination of the coefficient plus the day name Ahau gives the name of the katun. Following the third series of numbers there is a discussion of how one Mayan year ends and the next begins. Unfortunately there seems to be some confusion in this discussion, especially about on which day of the Christian calendar the first day of the uinal Cum Ku should fall.
I have assumed that in fact the 21 st of June is meant, which is in line with table comparing the uinals with the Christian calendar given on lines AA If one works on the assumption that the Maya had no way of intercalating their years then there would be a shift in the day on which Cum Ku starts in the Christian calendar, but the shift would be backwards and not forwards as is the case here, and also the shift would have amounted to only about 10 days, assuming that the mid s is when the 1 st of Poop fell on the 16 th of July.
It would seem therefore that this confusion has nothing to do with the problem of whether or not a method of intercalation existed. The Kaua version of this calendar explanation has been translated by Bricker and Miram. See pages of their book An Encounter of Two Worlds for this translation which is accompanied by numerous footnotes. Uinales: 1.
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Katuns: Cuceb lines CC The Cuceb is a series of year prognostications. It is probably incomplete, as there should be 52 years with their prognostications instead of the 21 listed here. See Section J for more on these three men. Fifty-two years would make a complete cycle of u bubukil haaboob see table on lines A and would be more in keeping with the name Cuceb and the nature of all the other prognosticatory material presented by the colonial sources.
The year 2 Hiix did fall in the Christian years if one assumes the colonial method of dating, but it also fell in the years which is the year in which the Prologue to the Cuceb was written. While the following thought is just speculation on the compiler s part, it could well be that the Cuceb was in fact originally written in in hieroglyphs and then renewed on its anniversary date 52 years later in , but this time in Latin script. A Commentary about the Prophecies in the Cuceb The Cuceb is an incomplete set of year prognostications which begin with the year 13 Kan and ends with the year 7 Kan It goes through 6 iterations of Kan years and 5 iterations for the Muluc, Hiix and Cauac years.
The following is a commentary about these years: The Kan years appear to be years of drought. The Muluc years again appear to be years of drought, except that there is at least some little to eat, with both water and tortillas being rationed. There are also bloody conflicts in which the roads and resting places run with blood. Based on present-day pronunciation it should be spelled as shown in the later: cuuc or cuuceb.
The Hiix years also appear to dire years, with references of people having to return to the wells and caves for water. There also seems to be references to fighting and to animals such as the bob perhaps a variety of wildcat , cuy and icim varieties of owls scavenging, presumably on human remains, thus indicating a large scale die-off of the human population.
There is also reference to clothing, particularly the lack thereof. The Cauac years are again dire, with pestilence, hunger, and the change of clothing, perhaps in reference to clothing styles imposed by the Spanish. Again various meat-eating animals are referenced. While these prophecies are supposedly for the years , it should be remembered that they are probably based on historical fact and reflect what happened in the years In about an event termed by some to be a mega-drought hit Mexico and lasted into the s. In the highlands of Mexico in particular there was an attendant series of plagues called in Nahuatl Cocoliztli, which is equivalent to the Mayan term of Maya Cimlal.
Extracting what we can of the above in terms of good or bad we have the following: Kan Muluc Hiix Cauac bad somewhat bad bad bad This is of course almost the complete opposite of the information given by U Tzolaan Ah Cuch Haaboob. Thus, in the end there is no definitive answer to be found here as to what the quality of the year bearers should be in terms of being either good or bad.
On the 15 th of Zec it is proclaimed. Thus will be the days which will be bred by the katun. Mayapan is the aspect of the change of the katun. At this time the sustenance of the quetzal bird, the sustenance of the blue bird will descend. At this time it seems the children of women are eaten, the children of men are eaten. At this time there are three piles of skulls. Vigil at dawn, vision at dawn. The wall will be thrice thrown down. The trunk of the ceiba tree will be thrice stamped.
At this time there will be the scanty rain god standing in the water hole in the cave, standing at the end in the middle of the canal. The woman with carnal desires shall cry at this time, during this katun it seems. Another prophecy came over the observer, the revered observer, when it will be born it seems in heaven. Thus it will happen in 13 Kan, which falls in the years and In most cases in this translation lac will be translated as plate. However in this instance the word lac means clay idol. See CMM: Lac: pronunciada breuemente; plato, o cavete en que comen los indios, y tomase por qualquier plato o escudilla.
Item: llaman assi los ydolatras a los ydolos que hazen de barro. See lines c and f for similar wording. It is not clear if this is to be considered personal entity. On line d is a companion entity: Ix Bolon Yol Nicte. In this context yaal is usually paired with uah, tortilla.
See for example line d yan u uah, yan u yaal and line d nicte uah u uah, nicte ha u yaal. See lines d, d, e, e, f, j, j, j There is the suggestion that when so paired that the meaning is metaphorical for precious children. Tan beil che, tan beil tunich: arbol o piedra que esta assi. Roys has the following footnote for this line: Ah Uuc-Chapat 7-centipede is the first of a number of names containing a numerical coefficient.
It is evidently the same as Beltran s Ahuacchapat , p. A few actual fauna names have such coefficients, such as bolon-chac 9-chac for quail, buluc-luch This practice may have been introduced by invaders, since roped captives of the classical Maya are portrayed wearing loincloths Maler, , p. It is not clear whether or not this substitution is in error, either here or in lines cc Roys translates this as lost men and has the following note: The Tizimin expression, satay uinicil, which could also mean men without successors, may refer to the Itza, whose conquest of the Yucatecan Maya is likened to that of the Spaniards Tizimin, p.
Roys notes: The abbreviations, ma in the Tizimin and mta or mata in the Mani version, probably mean mandata edict from the Latin mandatum. Some of the katun prophecies are called ordenansas Kaua, p. This indicates the mandatory character of these predictions. Tu hunte, tu cate Junio: a primero o segundo de Junio. At this time they take the stored provision of garden stuff. At this time there is imploring to heaven. Lost shall be the tortillas, lost shall be the sustenance. The cuy owl shall cry, the horned owl shall cry at the crossroads, all over the world, all over the sky.
At this time the remainder of the royal jelly is taken away. This, then, is the time it seems when it shall occur at the seashore. The mouth of Chac Mumul Ain is open. The mouth of Chac Uayab Xooc is open. At this time the wasps gather at the remainder of the water, at the remainder of the food. During three folds of the katuns it seems, at the time of the rule of Lord Katun 5 Ahau, in the third tun it seems..
While Roys in his footnote to this line claims that the blowguns used only clay pellets, there are plenty of examples from other neighboring cultures that darts were also used. There are four examples of this phrase, the others being on lines e, f, f RR: Since the missile of the Maya blowgun was only a clay pellet, so far as we know, this reference probably indicates riot or the plundering of a town, rather than actual battle Roys, , p.
The icim, a horned owl, was an omen. Havoc at the crossroads is often mentioned in the prophecies. Landa, , p. In one version ibid. Ahau Lord 11 Ahau , so it may designate the patron deity of the katun. Ah Bolon-Kanan might mean the highly esteemed one. Eb is associated with Water Roys, , P. We are reminded of the two great demon bats, Chac. Sotz, who sucked the honey from the flowers Tizimin. Roys, , p. Lines c, c RR: Sometimes this prediction is associated with the end of the world in a Katun 13 Ahau Roys, , p.
Here, as in the prophecy associated with the year 12 Kan and the 12th tun p. See CMM: Paa: cerca de pared de tierra o de piedras. Making matters more uncertain is that in some instances mumul is also given as momol. Since, in the Bacabs, there is also Zac Mumul Ain, it can be supposed in this case chac means red and not great. Ain means crocodile, leaving in question the meaning of mumul. BMTV: Arrugas en el rostro: v momol ich. BMTV: Bullir mucha gente: momolancil. CMM: Mumul: cosa muy junta o amontonada. RR: Chac Mumul Ain: great slimy crocodile. He talks while he walks about in the night.
He begs water where he should be able to drink water. With hunger pains for left-over tortillas; then it seems he hungers for left-over tortillas.
De winst van duurzaamheid
He cries seated at the well, at the cave. He points with the plumeria flower fan, c the plumeria flower fan is his tortilla in this reign. At the time he takes his burden, in the 3 rd tun it seems. Thus is the end of lowly corn gruel, for 5 years is the burden Then his reign is taken away. Such is the time of 3 Cauac. See line c for the same meaning for pec. RR: These caves are probably cave cenotes. From the Popol Vuh it is clear that owls are the messengers for the gods of the underworld.
RR: 7-owl and 7-centipede. While Buluc Ahau and Bolon Ahau could mean specificly these respective Katuns, these names could also be on deities. Ah Bolonil. RR: For the Maya these were unhappy katuns. In 13 Ahau and 11 Ahau occurred the Spanish invasion and conquest; and Landa s inquisition took place in Katun 9 Ahau. Since cabal is also applied to people of low social position a thought might be that when applied to the word kol it might mean this food of little value. Then Chac Uayab Xooc shall arrive, then he wants to arrive.
The trees shall be felled, the rocks shall sink. The face shall burn on the earth, at the well, the frog shall cry out at midday. It shall overwhelm here the great Itza. Tu kinil, tu katunil ox kokol tzek Auatnom yaxcach tu hol can be, tu hol can lub. Tu than ca tu likil, auatnom cuy, auatnom icim, auatnom ah yaa. It is hard to explain such a decline so early in the katun. Luboob were and still are placed about one league apart.
They are usually a pile of stone constructed so the carrier of a burden on the back can back up to it and place the load on the pile. See CMM: Lub: descansadero de los indios de carga. RR: The Mani variant is chaalba. From this context it appears to be a bird of prey. See lines c, c, c, d, f RR: Probably the Mani variant, mazuy, is the better reading. In the Tizimin p. Elsewhere also in the prophecies Ah Masuy is associated with the coast region.
Llouer quiere: tal v cah v kaxal haa. Ya quiere espirar: tal v cah v benel ik.