- Women in the Americas
- Working women changing traditional roles in Latin America and Caribbean: UN report | UN News
- Women in Latin America and the Caribbean
Sale Title. Available for Course Adoption. Features Includes a timeline of women's history in Latin America and the Spanish Caribbean Provides a bibliography of suggested readings to promote further research Presents a lengthy general introduction on women's roles in Latin America and the Caribbean Highlights Synthesizes majors works and findings in Latin American women's history into a single volume Provides an excellent reference or classroom assignment for junior college and university courses Examines the roles of women today in Latin American society.http://podpiska.kovalev.com.ua/assets/xaji-how-to.php
Women in the Americas
Author Info Kathryn A. Contrary to the popular notion that African women are completely dependent on their husbands and male relatives, studies have shown that women bear greater responsibilities than men in their families. Research also suggests that colonial rulers were afraid of African women's spiritual abilities in anticolonial resistance and therefore sought to eliminate such women. Freed Caribbean slave Rebecca Protten lived in Europe and Africa and held positions of spiritual authority over high-born, white women as a deaconess in the Pietist religious sect.
Mary Lacy dressed as a man, enlisted in the British Navy, and became a successful shipwright, writing of her experiences in Credit: Courtesy of the government of Venezuela. On Jul. This process, and the bloody confrontations that marked it, was ushered in by early movements in the late 18th century, some of which had an undeniable female involvement and their fair share of heroines, which official historiography in some cases highlights and in others obscures.
Sisa led troops into battle and exhibited skills as a strategist when the Aymara foces laid siege to the cities of Sorata and La Paz. When the movement was defeated, Sisa was savagely tortured and finally hung. The participation of many women also stood out once the Creole wars for independence broke out. Gertrudis Bocanegra organised a network of Mexican insurgents. When she was captured by the Spanish, she refused to betray the patriots even under torture.
In the end, she was executed by the Royalists, as the forces loyal to the Spanish crown were known. Gammay of Grenada was as fierce a freedom fighter against slavery in the s as was her better-known male contemporary, Julien Fedon. Their joint leadership gave birth to the first successful rebellion against British slavery in Grenada — So strategic was Gammay's political-military advisory role to Fedon that it is said he was unable to launch his revolt until Gammay, his principal field lieutenant, operating as a vendor in the only market allowed at the time in Grenville, had canvassed supporters and gathered enough intelligence to guide the operations.
Gammay's invisibility in recorded history may well be explained by her gender and social status: as a slave woman, she would be seen only as a market vendor and not as a complex political analyst shielded by a vendor's identity; as a full-blooded African female, she would not be recognized in the way that the schooled, French-mulatto Fedon was. This would have been true for innumerable women, accounting in part for their absence in recorded history.
Where Nanny would lay the foundation for the model of the daring, lone woman leader, Gammay set the stage for the more traditional, gendered division of labor between women and men in today's political life: women perform the behind-the-scenes analysis and mobilization, and men undertake the role of public leader — commander, spokesperson, and titleholder. That partnership has become the model for how women and men share political leadership.
However, by the end of the twentieth century, unequal and stereotypical male-female power sharing would begin to unravel as women ascended, on their own, to significant places in government and other leadership positions. Both models of women's engagement in politics continue today. The participation of the region's women in contemporary public political life evolved from diverse historical backgrounds. For the majority of political women, activism arose from more traditional roles of mothering and caregiving in household, village, and community.
Cleaning the church, washing and ironing the robes of the priests and the ceremonial clothes of male religious leaders, taking care of the sick, elderly, and homebound in the community — these activities were a continuation of what women did in their homes. Thus, one model of the political engagement of women was politics as the art of mothering caregiving, nurturing, negotiating difference. For some observers this also explains the agenda that many women bring to political leadership in national government — motherhood in and as policy formulation, and thus a focus on issues such as child welfare, health care, and social security protections for the vulnerable.
The politics of mothering took radical form in the s in such groups as the Argentinean Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, mothers and grandmothers mobilized to petition the state for answers to the disappearances of their children and grandchildren.
Working women changing traditional roles in Latin America and Caribbean: UN report | UN News
In Catholic Latin America, the model is Mary, the mother of Jesus, who is held up as an icon of humility, submission, and sacrifice for others. Thus marianismo subservient female culture and behavior characterizes the political culture of many ordinary Latin American women. For others, such as Haitian women, experiences as resistance leaders in the fight against slavery and for independence in the late s inform current struggles for survival and justice.
Such Haitian groups as Kay Fanm Women Stand Strong are made up of activist feminists who are engaging in antidictatorship and anti-imperialist organizing among women.
Women in Latin America and the Caribbean
These groups draw inspiration from the lives of such Haitian women as Poto Mitans, that is, women as the main supporting beams of home, church, and community going as far back as the slavery period. For still others, experiences as subjugated black females continue to inform political engagement and nonengagement. In the post-emancipation Anglophone Caribbean, women's early public roles were very much in the social sphere.
They formed mothers' unions in Christian churches, friendship groups in secular society, and savings or susu collectives for financial viability in the economic sector. Women who come into politics from social work and social activism seem to carry with them experiences of being negotiators and bridge builders, and they are attentive to people's needs. Coming into the political sphere from these civil society groups, they also seem to have gained, prior to coming into office, self-confidence that allows them to be flexible, risk-taking, and politically generous.
Finally, they often have developed the formal and informal support networks that are so useful when they enter politics. Large numbers of women have also entered politics directly, through the struggle for political rights and freedoms and the attainment of power through electoral office. Mary Eugenia Charles , who served as prime minister of Dominica from to , began her political career fighting for the right to political expression.
Janet Jagan, president of Guyana from to , was a founding member and political activist in the People's Progressive Party, one of Guyana's foremost socialist parties. Thus, women in Latin America and the Caribbean have taken various paths into national political life. Cuban women became the first women in the region to gain the right to vote in Today adult suffrage is enjoyed by almost all in the region, with the important exception of indigenous women in many countries.
Women have gone further and played their role in the revolutionary seizure of power.
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Caribbean women have also filled the ambassadorship ranks. A leading pioneer was the Dominican Republic 's Minerva Bernardino, representative to the United Nations for twenty-one years — ; she later represented her country in various European capitals. Jamaican scholar Lucille Mathurin Mair became one of the Caribbean's most accomplished diplomats, serving as Jamaica's ambassador to Cuba, the United States , and Canada.
She also served as assistant secretary-general for the United Nations Decade for Women — Nora Astorga Gadia was revolutionary Nicaragua's UN ambassador in the s, and she went on to become her country's deputy minister of foreign affairs before her untimely death in Mexico's Rosario Green served for a short period as UN deputy assistant secretary-general. Ruth Nita Barrow, who served as governor-general of Barbados, was that country's representative to the United Nations from to , emerging from leadership posts in the World Council of Churches , the YWCA, and the global anti-apartheid movement.
This route through the social-service and social-justice sector remains typical of the women who reach top political posts. Nita is held up as one of the region's most successful women in politics — in the nongovernmental world, as well as with the state. Nita followed Nanny's model of standing largely on her own power base and not that of others, even though her brother, Errol Barrow, was prime minister of Barbados and would have contributed to her political ascendancy.