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Recently, a meta-analysis of six dietary case-control studies one each in Argentina, Australia, Canada, and Greece and two in Italy. The NCI Dietary Guidelines recommended that if alcoholic beverages are consumed at all, it should be done in moderation. It is essential for tumor growth and marked changes in organ glutamine metabolism are characteristic of the host with carcinoma. Numerous researches on glutamine metabolism in cancer indicate that many tumors are avid glutamine consumers, both in vivo and in vitro. In progressive tumor growth, host glutamine depletion develops and becomes a hallmark.
Animal and human studies that have investigated the use of glutamine-supplemented diet in the host with cancer give suggestion that pharmacologic doses of dietary glutamine may be beneficial. Glutamine, arginine, and to a lesser extent ribonucleic acid show pharmacological effect when supplied in amounts in excess of what is needed to prevent nutritional shortage. This findings suggest that special-type diets can be formulated that will be beneficial to cancer patients. In children with cancer, the effect of nutritional status on infection rate was studied in the department of pediatrics, King Edward Medical Colleges, Pakistan.
No such correlation was found in children with solid tumors. Based on these observations, nutritional supports are recommended to children with leukemia during chemotherapy to attempt to reduce the infection rate. The interest in defining the relation between dietary fiber and cancer can be traced to the early , when Burkitt cited international epidemiologic data indicating that fiber-rich diets played a protective role in cancer of the large bowel. This study and others found that the lowest rates of colon cancer are found in African and Asian countries, where high-fiber diets are consumed and that the highest colon cancer rates are seen in Western societies, where refined carbohydrates have commonly replaced the naturally occurring fiber-rich diets and where intake of fibers is consequently decreasing.
Actually, fibers in foods are complex carbohydrates. There are several type of fibers, but the fibers related to their mode of protective action in carcinogenesis are classified into two board types: Soluble and insoluble fibers. Soluble fibers are present in fruits, vegetables, and certain grains like oats.
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This type of fibers undergo metabolism in the small intestine and especially in the large intestine through bacterial enzymes, converting it to products that i increases stool size moderately, ii modify appreciably the metabolism of colon carcinogenesis like azoxymethane to yield detoxified products and thus reduce colon cancer.
In contrast, insoluble fibers present in brain cereals like wheat or rice are not significantly metabolized by enzymes in the intestinal flora. The probability of colon cancer can be minimized by such fibers in different ways, i. In comparison with insoluble fibers, soluble fiber polysaccharides may enhance the development of colorectal cancer by a reducing the ability of insoluble fibers to adsorb hydrophobic carcinogens; b if soluble fiber polysaccharides are maintaining hydrophobic carcinogens in solution, then the carcinogens may come out of solution and can be deposited on the mucosal surface of the colon.
These studies have important consequences for nutrition, because soluble fiber polysaccharides constitute a major part of our food. Based on these concepts, increased intake of wheat bran cereal fiber, to yield a daily stool in adults of about g, can significantly reduce the risks of colon cancer and to a lesser but definite extent of breast cancer.
In , scientist from Singapore reported that high-risk diet comprising high meat intake and a relative deficiency in fruits and vegetables especially those of the cruciferous family are very much relevant to colorectal and breast cancer. The active components of fruit and vegetables point to a number of micronutrients and substances which have cancer inhibitory properties.
They are recently subjects of vigorous research throughout the world. Among the food material tested, vegetable flower cooked drumstick, neem, onion , green leafy vegetables, and fruits amla, jackfruit, pomegranate are found to be harmless and protective against cancer and provide optimum nutrition. Among beverages coffee, green tea , drinking of coffee is linked with cancer of bowel, pancreas, and bladder. Thus, by knowing right and protective foods, incidence of cancer can be prevented. The potential of a high intake of fresh fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is well established.
Epidemiological, cohort and prospective, studies support vitamins C, E, and selenium as the active components present in these foods and antioxidant, free radical scavenging properties, and direct effects e. The role of other trace element is less clear.
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The modulation of immune function by vitamins and trace elements remain important and affects survival. Supplementation by these can diminish the damage induced by peroxidation. The intestinal absorption of vitamin A is increased by vitamin E. This effect may be related to the prevention of vitamin A by the antioxidant properties of vitamin E. This effect may be related to the protection of vitamin A by the antioxidant properties of vitamin E.
In addition, vitamin E seems to protect against various effects of hyper-vitaminosis A. In both cases, vitamin A and E may find important roles in cancer chemoprevention. Several studies support the view that higher levels of 1, 25 OH 2 D, the active metabolite of vitamin D,[ 52 ] reduce the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate. It is found that a low dietary intake of phosphorous has been reported to increase serum levels of 1, 25 OH 2 D.http://mugadova.ru/modules/58.php
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All these observations support that dietary determinants of hypophosphatemia by increasing the plasma levels of 1,25 OH 2 D could lower the risk of ageing men to develop prostatic disorders and carcinoma of prostate. Evidences exist regarding the role of vitamin D in colon cancer prevention. Recently, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the bioactivity of natural plants as sources of antioxidants,[ 59 , 60 ] as the antioxidants have the free radical scavenging property.
These are also related to the prevention of cancer. Plumbagin 2 methyl 5 hydroxy 1,4 naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica family-plumbaginaceae has been reported for its anticancer activity. The antitumor activity of plumbagin has been evaluated against Dalton's ascetic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice.
Carrot Daucus carota linn; Umbelliferae is widely used as a vegetable, the different part of this plant are known to possess multifarious medicinal properties. High vegetable consumption including carrots reduces the risk of breast cancer. The protective effects of carrots in case of the colon, rectum, and lungs have also been reported. The extract of the seeds of carrot showed antitumor activity, inhibiting the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.
Effects of a new mycotoxin obtained from the fungal strain Penicillium nigricans showed significant antitumor property on the growth of experimental tumor on mice. Deficiency of vitamin A has been found to affect the immune system at multiple sites. It affects certain subsets of T-lymphocytes, natural killers cells, cytotoxic activity, and the antibody response to bacterial polypeptides.
Data from numerous in vitro studies indicated that retinoids inhibit the process of malignant transformation induced in culture cells by various agents including radiation, testosterone, chemical carcinogens, etc. Retinoids can also reverse keratinization and other premalignant changes[ 76 , 77 ] of the epithelial cancer treated with retinoids, skin squamous-cell carcinoma, and cervical cancers, the most positive response on treatment with cis-retinoic acid [ Figure 2 ]. Chemical structure of cis-retinoic acid[ 52 ]. Even retinoids are documented to reduce cancer risks; the transport and storage of retinoids in the body present a major drawback to their possible use as prophylactic agents by the general population.
Because excess unbound retinol is stored in the liver, long-term high intake can lead to hepatotoxicity or other symptoms of hypervitaminosis A. Again, retinoids are given on combination therapy with interferon in skin cancer to supply sufficient chemopreventive potential. In laboratory and animal studies, it is seen that some beta-carotene [ Figure 3 ] is converted directly to retinol in the body so that ingestion of large amounts of beta-carotene could reduce cancer risk indirectly by preventing retinoid deficiency.
Two intriguing properties of beta-carotene are very much relevant to its potential for chemoprevention of cancer; i It has the ability to trap certain organic free radicals,[ 81 ] ii It has the capacity to deactivate excited molecules, particularly excited of singlet oxygen,[ 82 ] which is generated as a byproduct of many normal metabolite processes. There have been experiments performed to mice and rats, where highly significant protective effects of diets containing large amounts of beta-carotene e.
To date, more than 85 questionnaire studies of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in beta-carotene in relation to risk for cancer at 16 different sites were conducted in more than a dozen locations within the United States and 20 other countries. The strongest and most consistent evidence of a protective effect of high intake of carotene-rich foods comes from studies of lung cancer, most of which have suggested beneficial effects[ 84 — 86 ] [ Table 3 ].
Studies of beta-carotene and cancer at other parts of the body are less consistent. There have been found inverse relation between dietary carotene and cancer risk on studies of cancer of the esophagus. If beta-carotene reduces risk for cancer, one main advantage as a potential chemopreventive agent among large populations is its metabolic properties. In contrast with retinol, dietary intake of beta-carotene appears to be directly related to blood levels. Diet is one the most important factor for the formation and prevention of cancer. If alcoholic beverages are consumed anyway, according to NCI guidelines, it should be taken in moderate dose less than 40 g per day.
Retinoids, carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E should be taken in optimum amount. In order to control the malignant tumor, the above mentioned diet has been adopted in America for last 20 years. This type of food habits should be adopted in our country; instead of high intake of meal, fruits and vegetable rich diets should be taken.
More cost-effective and timelier methods of dietary surveillance of target population must be developed to support the development and evaluation of more effective interventions. The more recent advances in molecular and cellular biology that underlie understanding multi-stage carcinogenesis are providing further support for new research strategies to prevent and treat cancer.
The authors greatly acknowledge Dr. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: Nil. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: ni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Keywords: Antioxidant, chemoprevention, diet, fiber, nutrients. DIETARY FAT AND CANCER Although there are some inconsistencies in the reports relating dietary fat to cancer incidence, animal studies support a cancer-promoting role for fat and International epidemiologic studies strongly suggests that high amount of dietary fat intake may be associated with increased incidence and mortality of cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, and prostate.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 1 Dietary fat and breast cancer related factors. Table 2 Fiber content of selected foods. Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 3 Questionnaire studies of beta-carotene intake and lung cancer. Kesteloof H. Nutrition and health: An epidemiological approach. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: Rejoinder and discussion of research strategies.
Cancer Causes Control. A metabolic unit for studies on human nutrition.
Does having a healthy diet reduce my risk of cancer?
Arch Latinoam Nutr. Clayson DB. Food safety: Are human activities really worse than nature's? Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. Lee HP.
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Diet and cancer: A short review. Ann Acad Med Singapore. The interrelationship of weight loss, dietary intake, and quality of life in ambulatory patients with cancer of the lung, breast, and ovary. Nutr Cancer. Dietary strategies for cancer prevention. Avoid processed meat. Processed meats like hot dogs, bacon and any meat you find at the deli counter, have compounds that cause cancer. Limit red meat. Aim for no more than 18 ounces of cooked red meat per week.
Instead, choose lean chicken, fish or plant-based protein. Avoid alcohol. Women should have no more than one serving of alcohol per day. Men should have no more than two servings of alcohol per day. Less is better.
Related Posts. Read More Visit our archive to learn more about the healthy lifestyle choices that will help you reduce your cancer risk. Learn more.
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Get details. More Stories From Focused on Health. Colorectal cancer screening is an important step in reducing your risk for cancer. While colonoscopy is the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening, there are options. The important thing is to get tested. Easy strength training you can do at home, no weights required. Strength training can be simple and doesn't have to include weights or machines. You can use your own body weight to stay strong and reduce your cancer risk.
Intermittent fasting: What you need to know. Intermittent fasting is a technique for losing weight that relies on restricting the times or days that you eat. But does it work, and is it healthy? Help us endcancer. Give Now Your gift will help make a tremendous difference.
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Prostate cancer prevention: Ways to reduce your risk There's no proven prostate cancer prevention strategy. By Mayo Clinic Staff. References Wein AJ, et al. Epidemiology, etiology and prevention of prostate cancer. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology. Philadelphia, Pa. Accessed Aug. Prostate cancer prevention PDQ. National Cancer Institute. Ballon-Landa E, et al. Nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle factors in prostate cancer prevention. Current Opinion in Urology.
Kushi LH, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention. Department of Health and Human Services and U. Department of Agriculture. Accessed May 1, External beam radiation for prostate cancer Flaxseed: Does it affect risk of prostate cancer?