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Fifth, Bruce Lee almost single-handedly introduced kung fu into Western popular consciousness and discourse. If everybody was kung fu ighting, this owed almost everything to Lee. Sixth, along with this introduction of kung fu into global popular culture, a whole lot more was introduced or ampliied besides: Western interests in China, Taoism, Buddhism. Seventh, in the mid to late s Bruce Lee was experimenting with interdisciplinarity in martial arts practice and preaching both an antidisciplinary and an egalitarian philosophy.

Eighth, the impact and effects of Bruce Lee on cinematography and ight choreography is still being felt the world over although rarely acknowledged , in ilmic contexts as diverse as Disney and Pixar anima- tions, Manga, action dramas of all orders, from Raiders of the Lost Ark, to Buffy the Vampire Slayer, to Fight Club, to The Matrix, and way beyond, up to and including the many elements of Bruce Lee choreography, cam- era angles, editing, and orchestration that are palpably stamped all over such recent martial arts ilms as the American produced Forbidden Kingdom or the Hong Kong produced Ip Man.

Ninth, the impact of Bruce Lee on martial arts practice, the world over, is still being felt. Bruce Lee has always been construed as a igure who existed at various crossroads—a kind of chiasmatic igure, into which much was condensed, and displaced. For, although on the one hand, they are all little more than fantastic choreographies of aestheticized masculinist violence; on the other, they worked to produce politicized identiications and modes of subjectivation that supplemented many popular-cultural-political movements: his striking ly nonwhite face and unquestionable physical supremacy in the face of often white, always colonialist and imperialist bad guys became a symbol of and for multiple ethnic, diasporic, civil rights, antiracist, and postcolonial cultural move- ments across the globe Prashad ; Kato Lee has been credited with transforming intra- and inter-ethnic identiication, cultural capital, and cultural fantasies in global popular culture, and in particular as having been central to revising the discursive constitutions and hierarchies of Eastern and Western models of masculinity Thomas ; Chan ; Miller ; Hunt ; Preston In the wake of such well-worn approaches to Lee, I want to add a couple of dimensions.

This is not simply to refer to translation in a linguistic or hermeneutic sense. This is not least because the relations and connections between Bruce Lee and—well—anything else, will now come to seem always shifting, immanent, virtual, open-ended, ongoing, and uncertain.

Rather, it transforms them. But I will spare you further elaboration, for now. It seems this way because most dubbed and subtitled martial arts ilms from Hong Kong, China, or Japan have traditionally been approached not with cultural theories to hand but rather with buckets of popcorn and crates of beer. Nevertheless, the appeal of Bruce Lee and putatively mindless chop- socky kung fu ilms has never really been simple. As Bill Brown observes, it actually took scholarship a rather long time to make any sense of the massive popularity in the West of Eastern martial arts.

Some journalists in the early seventies, however, did touch on something important when they suggested, usually in rather un-PC ways, that it all seemed to have something to do with ethnicity: martial arts in the United States exploded irst within black and Hispanic communities. Some white commentators seemed to worry about this. However, the ilm industry cottoned on quite quickly that the black audience was a serious dollar: so, the irst entirely U.

And, yes, the Jones with the black belt was himself, of course, black. Retrospect has allowed both scholarly and popular discourse to agree that the historical moment of the entrance of Bruce Lee basically: can be drawn as a historical conjuncture characterized as overwhelmingly organized by two interrelated forces. This is indexed by the installation of these motifs right at the heart of mainstream popular culture.

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There is perhaps no better example of this than Enter the Dragon. But Bruce Lee does not simply amount to commodiication in the entirely negative sense that Marxist criticism often gives to the term. Kato , for instance, offers an argument about the way in which this commodiication generates an excess that is not comprehended by the commodifying system itself.

Bruce Lee ilms offer the possibil- ity of politicizing consciousness—of producing what Foucault or Deleuze might term a visibility. Repeatedly, Bruce Lee ights, wins, stops; is utterly calm. He bests hordes of opponents; then sits down in the lotus position. He kills a man, waits; walks away. Amid the mayhem of a mass battle, he sees his enemy, stops, ignores all else, walks toward him.

My basic claim is that this reiterated rhythmic cycle encapsulates the fundamentals of the event of Bruce Lee. Rather, this rhythmic motif, reiterated by Bruce Lee, enabled or completed a profound transformation in Western discourses and in Western bodies. We are dealing with an event. In all that concerns truths, there must be an encounter.

The Immortal that I am capable of being cannot be spurred in me by the effects of communicative sociality, it must be directly seized by idelity. That is to say: broken. To enter into the composition of a subject of truth can only be something that happens to you. Badiou 51 In its simplest form, the event of Bruce Lee boils down to this: in viewing Bruce Lee, something happened to many people. But what was it that happened? And how? Nevertheless, fantasy and physical reality cannot really be divorced.

In other words, fantasy ought to be understood in a way that frustrates the possibility of a simple or sharp distinction between objective and subjective, and indeed between the inside and the outside of the subject. In the language of cultural theory, fantasies can be said to supple- ment the subject. That is: there is no getting away from them. Everyone has them. They are an element from outside society that is taken into the heart of the inside of our subjectivities, our selves Derrida ; In one respect, the fantasy offered by Bruce Lee was perfectly nor- mal: as a point of identiication, the heroic subjectivity that Lee offers is straightforwardly patriarchal or heteronormative.

In the terms of Jacques Lacan, the image of Bruce Lee is a phallic image: an image of power, completeness, and plenitude, which we may fantasize about becoming. This is central to my argument: that Bruce Lee intervened into the fantasy life, discourses, and lived practices of international culture in a particularly remarkable way.

In arguing this, I am not alone. Any number of recent works have offered one or another version of this sort of argument see, for instance: Abbas ; Brown ; Chan ; Hunt ; Kato ; Marchetti ; Morris ; Prashad ; Teo However, in making my argument, I also—if not primarily—want to draw attention to the way that so many studies implicitly or explicitly adopt and follow a certain line of thinking; one that is associated with cultural theory, especially poststructuralism in general and deconstruction in particular.

This is important to note because, on the one hand, poststructuralist decon- struction and psychoanalysis has clearly been enormously productive in thinking about identities and bodily and cultural practices. Much has been said about the fact that the Second World War in Asia culminated in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Krug ; Chow ; Prashad , just as there was much outcry about carpet-bombing and napalming in Viet- nam. The signiicance of these wars as mediatized spectacles the images of the mushroom clouds, the images of burned Vietnamese villagers, and so forth and the effect that such imagery had on the popular countercultural psyche should not be overlooked.

Bruce Lee entered Western consciousness at the tail end of the emergence of the counterculture, in This could be you! All you need to do is train in kung fu, and you too could become closer to invincible! It is in terms of such a process of interpellation that the event of Bruce Lee ought irst to be understood. Such a quotidian practice may seem very little—almost nothing. But it is both subjectively and socioculturally signiicant. For there were not many nonwhite movie stars at the time, to say the least; fewer still who habitually fought and defeated white Westerners.

We see here the workings of a complex relation between visibility and invisibility around martial arts, popular culture, and cultural politics. Invisibility, exclusion, subordination, and marginalization in social, cul- tural, and political contexts helped add an affective interpretive charge to moments of visibility.

Brown argues that what Rudolph sought was remasculinization—as is often the case in discourses about masculinity—or the attainment of a sense or sensu- ous experience of self-worth and potency. The manner in which this becomes possible to him is via martial arts. This route is determined by what is available to him within his historical and cultural moment.

After viewing, he joins a kwoon and trains relentlessly, at every given opportunity. Over time, his middle-aged body is transformed. Moreover, because of the role that this textual encounter plays in the lives of those whose experiences and existential struggles involve the problems of ethnic and class prejudice and exclusion that are dramatized within it, the cultural-political signiicance of such an evental process ought to be recognized.

So, the ilms enable new forms of identiication and practice to emerge. However, this is not the end of the story. Its nature is inancial. To see this process at work, we would be hard pressed to ind a better publicly available example to consider than Bruce Lee. For the fantasy offered by Bruce Lee touched millions. Of course, this was not a physical touch. Of course, there is a huge gulf between call and response, between fantasizing and doing, imagining and becoming.

What the fantasy proposed by Bruce Lee demands is physical training: kung fu. This is why the cinematic event of Bruce Lee overwhelmingly precipitated a transnational popular engagement with Chinese and Japanese martial arts. This encounter was real and palpable, but it was and is still primarily an encounter with a fantasy—what one might call the fantasy of kung fu. This is not just a fantasy about the ancient, the mystical, and the distant.

It also operates in the very constitution of the real and present. In this often febrile debate about the status of the hybrid martial art of Jeet Kune Do, a lot of familiar issues about cultural hybridity more widely can be seen. Is the hybrid an inferior bastardization and dilution of something s , or is it a superior work of alchemy?

Or is hybridization just something that happens?

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Rather, it is simply to reiterate that in any and every eventuality, what Bruce Lee offered was a fantasy of kung fu. With the ilms, the fantasy on offer is that of an ancient, mystical, mysterious kung fu. Rather, the Shaolin warrior monk that he plays in Enter the Dragon is a mythical igure of dubious historical status , which antedates Lee. The transnational encounter with kung fu precipitated by the ilms was a cinematically mediated fantasy that called primarily to the imagination, in ways leading to new practices and new transformations of mind and body.

Martial arts ilms cannot simply be dismissed as fantasy. Rather they should be regarded as generative and productive conditions of possibility for certain kinds of ensuing intercultural encounters, of different orders. What matters is a fantasy about physicality. But this need not matter in the hybrid spaces of popular cultural practice. The fantasy here happily connects elements, ideas, and practices that hitherto have been geographically, culturally, politically, and otherwise distinct but that can be appropriated as if they are emotionally, semiotically, or affectively intimate, connected, or identical.

In this ilm, the life of a black youth Forrest Whittaker is saved by a maia gangster who shoots two white teenagers who were beating him apparently to death. Yet, despite this, he has attained a paradoxical and improbable status within the local ghetto community: Ghost Dog is both well known well respected in the community moreover, by gangs and rappers of all colors—a surely impossible fantasy , and yet he remains secretive, unknown and often effectively invisible. Throughout the ilm, Ghost Dog regularly refers to the book Hagakure: The Way of the Samurai Tsunetomo , and quotations from this book intersperse the ilm and the movie soundtrack.

Thus, the ilm directly proposes that, in certain conditions, through an encounter with a translated Japanese text, and through identiica- tion with a fantasy social position one cannot be a Samurai outside of feudal Japanese social relations and the practical discipline of martial arts, a black youth from violent ghetto streets can become, to all intents and purposes, a ninja. This is precisely what Ghost Dog has become.

Ghost Dog: In ancient cultures, bears were considered equal with men. Ghost Dog shoots both hunters] Ghost Dog: Sometimes it is.

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The question to ask here is, simply: Can it? Ghost Dog is particularly interesting because it deals with and dramatizes the kind of change precipitated in certain viewers and view- erships by martial arts myths and fantasies. In one way, the ilm itself constitutes a cinematic relection on the relation between oriental mar- tial arts and urban black communities, which plays self-consciously with intertextual references from Hong Kong and Japanese martial arts movies, s Hollywood maia movies, and mids hip hop aesthetics Wu Tang Clan member, the RZA, has a prominent cameo role.

Ghost Dog explores a change from ghetto kid to samurai- or ninja-like assassin; a change precipitated by an encounter with the Hagakure, Rashomon, and oriental martial arts. But is this a cross-cultural encounter? In this, of course, it could be said to be an intercultural encounter, perhaps, if not an interpersonal one. Unlike many other American martial arts ilms, Ghost Dog refrains from showing an Oriental-master—Western-student relationship.

Which makes the ilm ininitely more thought provoking: for, what the hell is going on here? So, if two individuals can have an encounter, there can be intercultural encounters. To broach this, let us return to our opening motif: Bruce Lee ights; Bruce Lee is still. What is there here? Rather, the encounter is with the image of a body and what it can do.

In exactly the same way, Bruce Lee is music to the eyes. During this frenetic and protracted ight, Lee systematically and artfully bests wave after wave of assailants with bare hands and a range of traditional martial arts weapons. The ight ends abruptly when Lee runs into a vault and thick steel doors slam down all around him, preventing his exit.

Instantly realizing there is nowhere to go, the sweating and bleeding Bruce Lee simply sits straight down, crosses his legs, hangs his nunchakus around his neck, and pulls his heels onto his thighs, adopting the classic meditative lotus position. And this is a rearticulation—a rewiring, a rearrangement—of the usual connections made in Western discourses, in which the spiritual is or was opposed to the physical, or the body. In Enter the Dragon, audiences are repeatedly shown an entirely novel transformation of this traditional relation. Indeed, the ilm needs to re introduce it several times, in different ways.

In fact, before introducing plot, before any characterization, and in fact, before anything else, the beginning of Enter the Dragon aims at deliver- ing the lesson of this new equation. The third scene involves Lee teaching a lesson to his own student, Lau. This scene actually begins with Lee meeting the British agent, Mr. Braithwaite, in a garden. They are served tea. But before they can get down to the business of discussing the mission that Braithwaite has for Lee the mission that will drive the plot , they are interrupted. A young boy turns up.

Braithwaite [slightly confused]:. Yes, of course. They bow to each other] Lee: Kick me. Kick me. An exhibition? We need [pointing to his head] emotional content. Try again. Not anger! Now try again! With me! How did it feel to you? Lau: Let me think. It is like a inger pointing away to the moon. Do you understand? The camera cuts back to Braithwaite, who is smiling and nodding our approval. For, even though this lesson has delayed his delivery of the plot, all is forgiven: this peculiar lesson feels much more important. But what has been learned? Certainly nothing logocentric, or to do with words, statements, or meanings.

This is the second scene of the ilm. The irst scene saw Lee winning a ceremonial—apparently graduation-like—ight in the Shaolin Temple. After passing that physical test, Lee goes to his own teacher as if for the viva voce : [Lee approaches an elderly monk on a path] Lee: [bowing] Teacher? Teacher: Hmm. I see your talents have gone beyond the mere physical level.

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I have several questions. What is the highest technique you hope to achieve? Lee: To have no technique. Teacher: Very good. What are your thoughts when facing an opponent? Lee: There is no opponent. Teacher: And why is that? Teacher: So. Lee: A good ight should be like a small play, but played seri- ously. A good martial artist does not become tense, but ready.

Not thinking, yet not dreaming: ready for whatever may come. When the opponent expands, I contract; when he contracts, I expand; and when there is an opportunity, I do not hit: [he raises his ist, but does not look at it] it hits all by itself. So, in the opening scenes of Enter the Dragon we have seen: a rite-of- passage ceremonial ight; Lee with his teacher; Lee with his student. The body may be the site of our bondage, but it is also the means of our extrication. Thus, it is not surprising to ind the Buddha suggesting that having been born into a human body is one of the three things for which we should give thanks daily.

Indeed, it barely exaggerates the matter to regard Bud- dhist meditation as a lifelong training in right body awareness. Rather it is fundamental harmony and enlightenment achieved through a non-egotistical but disciplined physical mastery of the mind and body.

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This involves a simulation that engages fan- tasy that precipitates in practice that leads to subjective, physical, and discursive transformation. Such practice may well be or become Zen or Buddhist meditation, Taoist qigong, or any number of other practices. Insofar as it is concerned with growth or develop- ment, especially improving development, it involves not the identity of the self, but its transformation and thus its differ- ence from itself.

An event, we might say, is what happens when we know that something is happening but we do not know what it is that is happening. This is just another way of asking: What is there? But, what is it? Similar statements have been made about the so-called Chinese Mind, of course. Designation is determined by a designator. Disciples are taught what to look at and what to see and what not to see. What disciples see is what they are in a sense shown or trained how to see. The question seeks to suggest that ways of thinking determine what can be seen, understood, or communicated.

Thus, what may seem like an object may perhaps be better construed as an event or a process. But, what is communication? As Jacques Derrida once asked: what does the word communication communicate? But, he observes: To the semantic ield of the word communication belongs the fact that it also designates nonsemantic movements. What happens in this case, what is transmitted or communicated, are not just phenomena of meaning or signiication. This is not a particularly unusual situation, of course.

It is, rather, everyday. Such translated, mediated, commodiied, technologized exchanges between cultures happen every day. Such ilms are translated, dubbed, and subtitled. But, this is not the start or end of translation. For a related discussion of the implications of this and of the discussion of Foucault in the paragraph that follows, see also Weber xii. As Rey Chow makes plain, this is so in at least three ways. So the subject is not merely a passive relection of structure. Rather, subjectivity is an ongoing performative process amid conlicting interpellations. In the postmodern, polyvocal, and media-saturated world, the interpellations that tend to prevail are, one might say, those calls that answer a call.

I have discussed the interplay and interconnection of these two apparently distinct but actually overlapping fantasies—mystical and rational—in Bowman Historians have always cast doubt both on the origin myth of Shaolin Kung Fu, in which wandering monk Bodhidharma introduced Zen meditation to the unit monks of the Shaolin Temple and, as a result of the physical discipline required for Zen meditation, also inadvertently invented kung fu.

Historians also consistently challenge the subsequent myths of the improbable physical abili- ties of Shaolin monks. It was instantly debunked by the leading contemporary martial arts historians of the time Tang Hao and Xu Je Dong.

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Yet this book in particular had a signiicant impact. However, music is felt by the body. I am simply saying, so does Bruce Lee. Hong Kong: Culture and the Politics of Disappearance. Min- neapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.

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Althusser, Louis. Lenin and Philosophy. New York: Monthly Review Press. Badiou, Alain. Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil. Peter Hallward. Bowman, Paul. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Brown, Bill. Butler, Judith. Clarke, J. Chow, Rey. Primitive Passions. The Age of the World Target. Durham and London: Duke Univer- sity Press.

Derrida, Jacques. Barbara Johnson. Chicago and Lon- don: University of Chicago Press. Margins of Philosophy. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Resistances of Psychoanalysis. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Docherty, Thomas. Pluto: London. Downey, Greg. Ferraris, Maurizio. Cambridge: Polity. Routledge, London. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. Chichester: Capstone. Heidegger, Martin. New York: Harper Collins. Hunt, Leon. London: Walllower. Inosanto, Dan. Los Angeles: Know How Publishing.

Kato, T. Kennedy, Bob, and Elizabeth Guo. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. Krug, Gary J. Laclau, E. Liu, Elizabeth. Yi Lin: Chu Ban She. Lo, Kwai-Cheung. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Marchetti, Gina. Miller, Davis. The Tao of Bruce Lee. London: Vintage. Morris, Meaghan. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Mowitt, John. Percussion: Drumming, Beating, Striking. Preston, Brian. London: Penguin. Smith, Huston, and Philip Novak. London: Harper Collins. Smith, Robert.

Erie, PA: Via Media. Teo, Stephen. Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit. Basingstoke and Oxford: Sidgwick and Jackson. William Scott Wilson. New York: Kondansha International. Secrets of Shaolin Boxing. Taipei: Zhonghuawushu Press. Watts, Alan. The Way of Zen. Weber, Sam. Institution and Interpretation. Xu, Jian. Film Black Belt Jones. Robert Clouse. United States. Warner Brothers. Enter the Dragon. Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai. Jim Jarmusch. Napoleon Dynamite. Jared Hess. Akira Kurosawa. This is exempliied by Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, a wuxia ilm sword-ighting martial arts genre directed by Ang Lee in This ilm typiies a focus on the body as a cultural site for representing nonhegemonic Chinese masculinities.

It is also a locale for cultural crossover, transgression, and contention. The study of this ilm will be situated within two contexts: the traditional Chinese conception of the body in constructing masculinities and its modern transformation as represented in Chinese martial arts ilms. In a broader sense, the trajectory of the body from traditional invisibility to postmodern spectacular presentations is an integral part of the historical transformation of China to a modern state.

A spectacular and exquisite epic, the ilm has both legitimized and globalized the wuxia genre of martial arts ilm as bona ide cinema. On the other hand, its character portrayals relect cultural ambigui- ties toward the body. This ambivalent representation of the body opens up new masculine imaginings and possibilities. From Hidden to Revealed: Body and Masculinity in Chinese Sociohistorical and Cultural Contexts Masculinity in the Chinese sociocultural context necessarily raises issues of body and gender.

Viewed from traditional Chinese cosmology, gender constructs sex, instead of the other way around Brownell and Wasserstrom The body is absent from traditional Chinese thinking as well as gender construction. The signiicance of the body in social and cultural life in general has emerged recently as a result of the rise of medical science, intellectual paradigm shifts, and social and political changes.

The Greek negative view was grounded in the inferiority of the body to the soul. Christianity identiied the body as the locale of sin. Western feminists argue that this dualism also forms the foundation for gender inequality by relegat- ing women to the domain of nature—the lower part of this hierarchy. Femininity is associated with body and nature and the female body is perceived as a social difference upon which is built sexual domination and suppression.

Marginalizing the signiicance of the body results in the suppression of women and gender inequality Rosenlee If the body is suppressed in the West, Confucian thinking, the dominant thought system in premodern China, relegates it to insignii- cant status. Its insigniicance can be demonstrated in the deinition of gender in the Confucian tradition.

In a philosophical study of gender in Confucianism, Li-Hsiang Lisa Rosenlee traces the genealogy of various meanings of yin-yang interplay and points out that sexual differences alone were not used to deine man-woman gender relations. Sexual differences were employed only to describe the animal world while human males and females were deined by gender roles and social obligations. Gender in the Chinese tradition was not dictated by biological differences; the innate physical attributes of sexed bodies as implied in yin and yang was not the ontological basis for gender difference.

In fact, the luidity of yin- yang complementarity and traditional Chinese medical theory contrasts sharply with the rigidity of gender roles in the Chinese gender system Rosenlee 45— However, the social pattern implicit in nei-wai is complicated; unlike the distinct spheres of public and private in the West, nei-wai is a continuum. Although the sexed body is not central to gender construction in premodern China, the body itself remains a key site for shaping both femininity and masculinity in the culture. In Confucian thought, the body is seen as insigniicant: its erasure works to produce both femininity and masculinity socially.

So only through mutilation and concealment of the female body can women achieve femininity and the feminine ideal and enter the realm of culture Rosenlee In the process of constructing masculinity, the body was under erasure in several different ways. Kam Louie discusses the construction of Chinese masculinity using the dyad of wen-wu literary attainment—martial virtues as a theoretic paradigm to understand its constituents.

Representing the dominant forms of masculinity, this model is based on the traditional igures of the oficial-scholar and the military soldier, each of which embodies different virtues. The wen type is based on Confucian ideals of what constitutes a gentleman: literary learning, artistic pursuits, moral cultivation, and good personal governance; while the wu type is represented by martial skills, martial power, loyalty, and righteousness.

Despite remaining in the shadow in this paradigm, the body in fact constitutes a crucial site for producing masculinity. In fact, because elite scholar oficials, the embodiment of the wen type, held the reins of political power, the wen type was more highly regarded than the wu type.

The wu hero shows strength and maleness by totally eschewing feminine charm; while the wen scholar, always associated with women, demonstrates masculinity by giving up erotic desires in order to fulill ethical obligations. Chris Berry further points out that the invisibility of the male body is part of a general absence of the revealed body in premodern Chinese art Its existence can only be pointed to through its cultural and social negation. The absent body in gender construction in premodern Chinese society means that the body is the very foundation and the last stronghold of Confucian moral and cultural thinking.

Thus the body only begins to appear when Confucian social and moral systems have collapsed. Thus the health of China as a nation was equated with the state of the male body. As the locus of national weakness, it needed to be transformed, just as weak imperial China needed to be modernized through the building up of military power and industrialization. Lu Xun, pioneer modern writer of the early twentieth century, initially went to medical school in order to help make Chinese people strong; Mao Zedong tempered his body with physical education.

A strong body became a precondition for mak- ing a modern male subject and building a strong nation. It was during this time that the wuxia ilm genre came into being to an enthusiastic popular reception. The lying body became the site of mass attraction and identiication. Wuxia ilms, as a body-related genre, possessed an empowering effect upon the people labeled as the sick men of East Asia Lu 56— The eroticized body as well appeared at this time in popular cultural productions—not as the object of suppression, but as a site with varying signiicance and as a symbol of romantic love and freedom.

Allow Cookies. Singing Dragon Log In. Martial arts. Items 1 to 10 of 27 total Show 5 10 15 20 Page: 1 2 3. Fendos, Jr. Providing a systematic approach to understanding and learning about Taiji, this visual guide includes background and theory, as well as the basics and the introductory steps and sequences. It offers a clear introduction to the elementary stages of Taiji as established by the International Wushu Federation. Learn More. A numerical reference system for each exercise and online content are also included.