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  2. Microbial endocrinology: host–bacteria communication within the gut microbiome
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. Microbes and the mind: emerging hallmarks of the gut microbiota–brain axis

Obviously, intracellular metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism like glycolysis, PPP, oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids, amino acid metabolism are major players regulating both innate and adaptive immune cells Given that the vast majority of immune cells are located in the gut, the availability of nutrients for the gut-resident immune cells and the local metabolic milieu may influence the immunometabolism in gut compartment, subsequently tuning the immunological architecture and response to microbial stimuli. For instance, the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, derived from commensal microbiota, has been found to preferentially induce differentiation of colonic regulatory T-cells by expression of Foxp3 gene, mediated by butyrate driven epigenetic modifications promoting inhibition of histone deacetylases HDACs Also long chain omega 3- polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA , e.

Based upon these findings, we hypothesize that the composition and functional capacity of gut microbiota in EC may be one of the factors contributing to virological and immunological control of the HIV-infection in absence of ART.

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  • Introduction.
  • Introduction.

Even if the EC group was very similar to negative subjects at both compositional and inferred functionality analyses, there were still significant differences present between the Elite controllers and negative subjects. We acknowledge the lack of extensive dietary data, which could bias our analysis.

Additionally, gene functional profiles were inferred from 16S sequences.


While inferred function has shown to be robust, particularly for gut microbiome 23 , they should be interpreted with caution. Our study was not designed to provide the answer about the association between the HIV progression and microbiota changes, which could be addressed in population studies with longitudinal design. On the other hand, our study was carefully designed regarding possible confounding and to our knowledge, we analyzed the microbiome of the largest cohort of EC described. In summary, we report that the microbiota of EC is different from individuals with progressive infection and more similar to HIV negative individuals.

The differences are robust, present both in number of observed species, richness, composition and inferred functionality. Our data suggest the concept of microbiota related control of HIV infection in EC, presumably at metabolomics level. If confirmed by metabolomics studies, new intervention strategies to control HIV can be considered. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Microbial endocrinology: host–bacteria communication within the gut microbiome

Correspondence to Jan Vesterbacka. Reprints and Permissions. Microbiome Mucosal Immunology Scientific Reports By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article metrics. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection: mechanisms, relevance for clinical care, and possible solutions.

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Persistent immune activation in chronic HIV infection: do any interventions work? Mehandru S. Hayes T. Gordon S. Journal of Immunology. Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. Nature Medicine. Mavigner M. Mucosal Immunology. Guglani L. Th17 cytokines in mucosal immunity and inflammation.

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1. Introduction

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The Necessity of the Immune System

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Wilkin T.

Microbes and the mind: emerging hallmarks of the gut microbiota–brain axis

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