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- 1. Introduction.
- Aaron S. Gross.
- Animals and the Human Imagination: A Companion to Animal Studies!
Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Contributor Gross, Aaron S. Vallely, Anne. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index. Other Animals: Animals Across Cultures 1. Pryor Coetzee, and American theorist Donna Haraway have initiated rigorous inquiries into the question of the animal, now blossoming in a number of directions. It is no longer strange to say that if animals did not exist, we would have to invent them. This interdisciplinary and cross-cultural collection reflects the growth of animal studies as an independent field and the rise of "animality" as a critical lens through which to analyze society and culture, on a par with race and gender.
Essays consider the role of animals in the human imagination and the imagination of the human; the worldviews of indigenous peoples; animal-human mythology in early modern China; and political uses of the animal in postcolonial India. They engage with the theoretical underpinnings of the animal protection movement, representations of animals in children's literature, depictions of animals in contemporary art, and the philosophical positioning of the animal from Aristotle to Derrida. The strength of this companion lies in its timeliness and contextual diversity, which makes it essential reading for students and researchers while further developing the parameters of the discipline.
Subject Human-animal relationships. Animals and civilization. Rather, for Derrida, religion manifests through the very tension between these two possible responses to the drama of the living. War is waged over the matter of pity.
This war is probably ageless. Dominance may be cruel and exploitative, with no hint of affection in it. What it produces is the victim. On the other hand, dominance may be combined with affection, and what it produces is the pet. For example, while dominant streams of Abrahamic traditions certainly elevate the human in a radical way, other prominent elements of these traditions—such as certain streams of interpretation of the Psalms of the Hebrew Bible, 81 medieval tales of talking animals, 82 or some stories of St.
In the dharma traditions, such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism, humans are radically elevated above animals ontologically and ethically in different-but-parallel ways to those we find in Abrahamic traditions, but in other ways humans are drawn comparatively closer to humans, especially so in Jain traditions.
For example, consider, on the one hand, the inclusion of animals in the basic dharmic ethical prohibition on himsa violence articulated in the principle of ahimsa nonviolence , or the common view that animals are fellow subjects in the wheel of samara , the chain of rebirth from which dharma practice aims to liberate adherents. The renowned Jain scholar of Jainism, Padmanabh S. The elephant, realizing his hopeless position, happened to recall a hymn that he had learned in a previous life and uttered it with utmost surrender, begging Lord Vishnu to rescue him from his calamity.
The Lord appeared atop his mount, Garuda, killing the crocodile and saving the elephant. The narrator hastened to add that, at that very moment, the elephant lost his animal body and assumed the form of a four-armed Visnu , suggesting thereby that he had attained a state of similarity samaya with the Lord. But, on the other hand, consider the notion in all dharma traditions that the highest state of realization requires birth in a human body and that nonhuman births are often conceptualized as punishment.
Examples of these tensions could be proliferated endlessly. Going still further, some recent scholarship has followed numerous religious traditions by opening to the possibility, disavowed in dominant Western discourses until recently, 87 of animals participating actively in their own religious lives distinct from the world of human religiosity. Virtually all early scholarly definitions of religion have sought to define religion in a manner that excludes animal behavior as religious, 88 conceding at most that we can identify proto-religious elements of animal behavior that evolved into what became the uniquely human domain of religion.
For example, primatological research, especially the studies of Jane Goodall, have provided scientific descriptions of primate behavior difficult to explain without recourse to religious vocabulary. Arguably, the most famous description is of the chimpanzee waterfall dance,. Deep in the forest are some spectacular waterfalls. Sometimes as a chimpanzee—most often an adult male—approaches one of these falls his hair bristles slightly, a sign of heightened arousal.
As he gets closer, and the roar of falling water gets louder, his pace quickens, his hair becomes fully erect, and upon reaching the stream he may perform a magnificent display close to the foot of the falls. Standing upright, he sways rhythmically from foot to foot, stamping in the shallow, rushing water, picking up and hurling great rocks. Sometimes he climbs up the slender vines that hang down from the trees high above and swings out into the spray of the falling water.
It is a response that is shared by animals with human beings. The idea that animals too may be responsive to religious realities strikes most people today as a rather new idea, appearing only after the pioneering studies of primatologists like Goodall, but the notion is in fact found in far older streams of thought.
Perhaps more surprisingly, the notion of animal religion is arguably present in most or all of the so-called world religions. Even traditions generally conceived as strongly anthropocentric nonetheless harbor within their corpus stories of animal religion. At stake in all the theoretical positions surveyed here, from the less controversial argument that there is a depth dimension to human-animal relationships to the controversial thought of animal religion, is a more basic question: Should we attempt to discuss animals and human-animal relations in religious terms?
It is certainly possible to define religion in more or less coherent ways that exclude nonhuman animals from any role of pride. Adams, Carol. Paul Waldau and Kimberley Patton. New York: Columbia University Press. Find this resource:. Adams, Carol J. New York: Continuum. Original ed. Aftandilian, David, ed. What Are the Animals to Us? Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Agamben, Giorgio. The Open: Man and Animal.
Kevin Attell. Alexander, Dominic. Saints and Animals in the Middle Ages. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. Ambros, Barbara. Anderson, E. Paul Waldau and Kimberley Patton, — Bellah, Robert Neelly. Benjamin, Andrew. Of Jews and Animals, Frontiers of Theory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Biardeau, Madeleine. Yves Bonnefoy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bland, Kalman. Deborah Green and Laura Lieber, — Oxford: University of Oxford Press. Aaron W. Hughes and Elliot R. Wolfson, x, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Buber, Martin. I and You. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Touchstone. Original edition, Buchanan, Brett. Aaron Gross and Anne Vallely. Burkert, Walter. Berkeley: University of California Press. Smith, and Robert Hamerton-Kelly. Violent Origins. Camosy, Charles. Cincinnati, OH: Fransciscan Media. Chapple, Christopher Key. Chris, Cynthia. Watching Wildlife. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Stigmata: Escaping Texts. London and New York: Routledge. Clark, Stephen.
Celia Deane-Drummon, David L. Clough, and Rebecca Artinian-Kaiser. Clough, David. On Animals: Systematic Theology. Coetzee, J. The Lives of Animals. Corso, Regina A. Pets Really Are Members of the Family.
Harris Interactive. Crane, Jonathan, and Aaron Gross. Animal Litigation and the Question of Countertradition. Jonathan Crane. Deane-Drummond, Celia, David L. Clough, and Rebecca Artinian-Kaiser, eds. Animals as Religious Subjects: Transdisciplinary Perspectives. Derrida, Jacques. Gil Anidjar, vi, New York: Routledge. Marie-Louise Mallet. In Perspectives in Continental Philosophy. New York: Fordham University Press. Primitive Classification. Foer, Jonathan Safran. Eating Animals. New York: Little, Brown. Frazer, James George, and Theodor Gaster, eds.
New York: Criterion Books. Geer, Alexandra van der. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Goodall, Jane. Bron Taylor. London and New York: Continuum. Gross, Aaron. Elliot Dorff and Jonathan Crane, xx, Gross, Aaron, and Anne Vallely, eds. Haberman, David. New York: Oxford University Press. Harvey, Graham. Animism: Respecting the LivingWorld. Herzog, Hal.
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New York: Harper. Hobgood-Oster, Laura. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Hughes, Dennis D. Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece. Ingold, Tim, ed. What Is an Animal? London: Unwin Hyman. Ingold, Tim. Aaron Gross and Anne Vallely, 31— Jacobson, Doranne. Jaini, Padmanabh S. India: Motilal Banarsidass. Jha, D. The Myth of the Holy Cow. London and New York: Verso. Jones, Deborah. The School of Compassion. UK: Gracewing Publishing. Komjathy, Louis. London and New York: Bloomsbury. Korom, Frank J. Lodrick, Deryck O. Marder, Michael.
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Marzluff, John M. In the Company of Crows and Ravens. New Haven: Yale University Press. Mason, Jim. Masuzawa, Tomoko.
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McAuliffe, Jane Dammen. Leiden: Brill. Melson, L. Meuli, Karl.
Basel: n. Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1—16, Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday Dell. Mortensen, Eric.