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- Diary entry by Schenker September 8, 1914
- Dopingfälle bei Spitzenathleten in den Jahren 2000 bis 2013
Characteristics of the Included Athletes With the exception of Ironman-distance triathletes, only elite athletes competing in Olympic sports were considered in this study. Any success had to have been accomplished in the male or female elite categories. Junior Championships, the Masters, U23, and other similar events were not considered in this study. The current paper represents approximately 3.
Types of Violations, Sports Profiles and Classification of Doping Cases For all cases, the type of doping violation was documented, and the cases were classified into groups to conduct better comparisons. Group classifications were based on the WADA Code and consisted of the following groups: Blood manipulation blood transfusions, erythropoietin use [EPO], or suspicious blood values , anabolic agents, peptide hormones, growth factors, stimulants, cannabinoids, narcotics, agonists, diuretics and other masking agents, missed tests, tampering or attempted tampering with doping control and possession of prohibited substances.
The types of control processes were divided into out-of-competition OOC control, in-competition control, ex-post examination of the sample, investigation and confession. For all doping cases, the year of the doping offense was also investigated, as in some cases, this date differed from the initiation of the ban.
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Furthermore, we distinguished between doping offenses during Olympic and non-Olympic years. In addition, we also noted whether an athlete had a second or third recorded violation. All Disciplines A total of 1, cases were found.
No doping cases were identified during the relevant periods for the following Olympic sports: trampoline, BMX, modern pentathlon, canoe slalom, archery, snowboarding, ice skating and Nordic combined. In Furthermore, cases The cause for the sanction could not be determined in 9. The number of doping cases increased until the year and remained relatively stable thereafter, with the exception of the year During the years of the summer and winter Olympic Games, The most common type of violation was anabolic agent use cases, Diuretics 5.
The reason for the sanction could not be determined in cases The sport with the most doping cases was track and field cases, Cases of doping were detected in countries.
The largest percentage of cases was found in Russia cases, The most common sanction of athletes was a 2-year ban For tennis and soccer, athletes missed a specific number of matches. Olympic Core Disciplines In certain Olympic disciplines including team sports such as soccer and basketball as well as road cycling and tennis , athletes and federations focused much more on World Championships, professional leagues or international tournaments than to the Olympic Games.
This analysis revealed cases males and females. A total of cases During Olympic years, The highest number of cases was found in Russia , Germany ranked 14th, with 19 cases 2. Individual Countries Table 2 shows the doping characteristics of the five countries with the highest doping rates. The most common violations were anabolic agent use and blood manipulation in Russia, whereas anabolic agent use was the most common in the USA, and blood manipulation was the most common in Italy and Spain. Track and field was the most affected discipline in Russia 53 cases and the USA 37 cases , whereas the most affected discipline was cycling in Italy 33 cases and Spain 28 cases.
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In Germany, a relatively high number of doping cases 8 cases was found in equestrian. To our knowledge, this descriptive study presents the first compiled set of data on doping cases among elite athletes and is the only cross-linked dataset of cases prior to that includes information such as the origin of the case, doping method, sports discipline, and type of control process. The most important results are that the doping cases most commonly occurred in Russia Furthermore, the sport most frequently associated with doping was track and field Additionally, the most common violation was anabolic agent use Assuming that this ratio is also valid for the entire course of our study, the current paper represents approximately 3.
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Diary entry by Schenker September 8, 1914
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Dopingfälle bei Spitzenathleten in den Jahren 2000 bis 2013
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