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However, her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time; the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack, saving the city, were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros the tale is preserved in the Suda.

In gratitude the Byzantines erected. As a virgin goddess, she remained unmarried and had no regular consort, though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla. In what appears to be a 7th-century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort, Saint Eligius, in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted ock in Flanders against putting devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads,[52] and, according to Saint Ouen would urge them No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium, where three roads meet Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene, she ruled over three kingdoms; the earth, the sea, and the sky.

She had the power to create or hold back storms, which inuenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors. Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog.


The dog was Hecates regular sacricial animal, and was often eaten in solemn sacrament. Although in later times Hecates dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then; that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress Pharmakis ; that she was extremely incontinent, and that she was aicted with abnormal sexual desires. Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature.

May the goddess be gracious to me : fables and their telling I leave to others. A goddess, probably Hekate or else Artemis, is depicted with a bow, dog and twin torches. The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe, who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene, daughter of Elektryon. They remained seated, each keeping their arms crossed.

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Galinthias, fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad, ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished. At all this, consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. Alkmenes pangs ceased at once and Herakles was born. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since, being but a mortal, she had deceived the gods. They turned her into a deceitful weasel or polecat , making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating.

She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. Athenaeus writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE, and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus of Athens notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate, on account of the resemblance of their names; for that the goddess is trimorphos, of a triple form.

The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla. It 'delighted in polluted things,' and 'would eat the corpse of a sh or a man'. Blood-coloured itself, it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size, the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens, a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity, and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying sh change.

In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. Apollonius of Rhodes, in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate, I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate, daughter of Perses, has taught to work in drugs.

The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientic name for yew today, taxus, was probably derived from the Greek word for yew, toxos, which is hauntingly similar to toxon, their word for bow and toxicon, their word for poison. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison.

It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate; indeed, since at least as early as the 1st century CE, there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a "liminal" goddess.

Hecate mediated between regimes Olympian and Titan , but also between mortal and divine spheres. As a goddess expected to avert harmful or destructive spirits from the house or city over. It was probably her role as guardian of entrances that led to Hecates identication by the mid fth century with Enodia, a Thessalian goddess. Enodias very name In-the-Road suggests that she watched over entrances, for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city, keeping an eye on all who entered, and in the road in front of private houses, protecting their inhabitants.

In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. Hecates importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city, according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches, and with her pack of dogs, which served as her constant companions. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans.

The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus, whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld, and the dead from leaving it. In Greek, deipnon means the evening meal, usually the largest meal of the day. Hekates Deipnon is, at its most basic, a meal served to Hekate and the restless dead once a lunar month on the night when there is no visible moon, usually noted on modern calendars as the.

The main purpose of the Deipnon was to honor Hekate and to placate the souls in her wake who longed for vengeance. The Deipnon consists of three main parts: 1 the meal that was set out at a crossroads, usually in a shrine outside the entryway to the home [82] 2 an expiation sacrice,[83] and 3 purication of the household. Strmiska notes that Hecate, conated with the gure of Diana, appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an emerging legend complex associated with gatherings of women, the moon, and witchcraft that eventually became established in the area of Northern Italy, southern Germany, and the western Balkans.

The gure of Hecate can often be associated with the gShe is worshiped by people who have reconstructed and ure of Isis in Egyptian myth. Lucius Apuleius c. Hecate is mentioned in Act 2, Scene 1 by the character Macbeth, known as the 'Dagger' soliloquy, in William Shakespeare's play of the same name: Witchcraft celebrates pale Hecates oerings In other circles Wiccan witches associate her with the Maiden, or the Mother aspects as well, for Hecate has three faces, or phases. Her role as a tripartite goddess, which many modern-day Wiccans associate with the concept of the Maiden, the Mother and the Crone,[91] was made popular in modern times by writers such as Robert Graves in The White Goddess, and many others, such as the 20th century occultist and author, Aleister Crowley.

Historical depictions and descriptions show her facing in three dierent directions, a clear and precise reference to the tripartite nature of this ancient Goddess; the later Greek Magical Papyri sometimes refer to her as also having the heads of animals, and this can be seen as a reference to her aspect of Motherhood; in this portrayal she is known as Mistress of Animals. Modern Hellenic polytheists honor Hecate during the Deipnon. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient, and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine, and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me, do call me Queen Isis.

In the Michigan. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes denition. They played a similar symbolic role in ancient China, where dogs were conceived as representative of the household sphere, and as protective spirits appropriate when transcending geographic and spatial boundaries. Dogs were also sacriced to the road. As Roel Sterckx observes, The use of dog sacrices at the gates and doors of the living and the dead as well as its use in travel sacrices suggest that dogs were perceived as daemonic animals operating in the liminal or transitory realm between the domestic and the unknown, danger-stricken outside world.

Dogs, with puppies often. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. Retrieved Hesiods Cosmos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecates name and will e. Walcot , Neitzel , Derossi The researcher is led to identify the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fullled. The Oxford Classical Dictionary Third ed.

New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN X. A Classical Dictionary. Metaphor and Reality. Leiden: Brill. Ovids Metamorphoses, Book Seven. Shakespeare, William c. A Dictionary of the English Language 10th ed. Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names, p.

Shakespeare seems to have begun, as he has now conrmed, this pronunciation, by so adapting the word in Macbeth And the play-going world, who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people, have followed the actors in this world, and the rest of the world have followed them. Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable : "Hec'ate 3 syl. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Oxford, Blackwell. Bilde der Gttin in Kleinasien u.

Griechenland Heidelberg Bergs argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland, and especially from Atticaall of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested Carian theophoric names is not convincing, and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. He concludes, Arguments for Hecates Anatolian origin are not in accord with evidence. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements, and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy, pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism, seeHornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds.

Such things they call charms, whether it is the matter of a spherical object, or a triangular one, or some other shape. While spinning them, they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds, laughing and ailing at the air. It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues. But it is all nonsense. As quoted in Frank R. Trombley, Hellenic Religion and Christianization, C. In the course of this beleaguerment, it is related, on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise, but were foiled by reason of a bright light which, appearing suddenly in the heavens, startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger.

To commemorate this timely phenomenon, which was attributed to Hecate, they erected a public statue to that goddess [ Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. Like Byzas in one legend, she had her origins in Thrace. Since Hecate was the guardian of liminal places, in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city.

Hecates importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city, according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her everpresent torches, and with her pack of dogs, which served as her constant companions. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecates defensive aid.

Vasiliki Limberis, Divine Heiress, Routledge, , pp. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda, a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius. Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. Retrieved 18 April Schmid and O. Sthlin, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur C.

Beck, , , vol. Roscher, Ausfhrliches Lexikon der griechischen und rmischen Mythologie Leipzig: Teubner, , vol. Bohn, New York: Algora Publishing. Pages 57 to Virgils Aeneid. New York: American Book Company. Rohde, i. See Heckenbach, p. Plato, Com. Timothy Miller Ed. Gaustad, Noll Eds. James R. Wilshire, Donna Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess.

An English translation is available online. Wayland D.

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Berkeley: University of California Press, Hecate, but the letters agree to closely, contrary to the laws of change, and the Mid. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them; no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M. P, Adams, D. Oxford University Press, The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures.

American Historical Association. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity, and goes on to note Dog sacrice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog gured prominently as a guardian of the underworld. Footnote , p [] Frederick J. Lewis Richard Farnell, Johnston, Sarah Iles, Les Dieux Antiques, nouvelle mythologie illustre. Kerenyi, Karl.

The Gods of the Greeks. Rabinovich, Yakov. The Rotting Goddess. A work which views Hekate from the perspective of Mircea Eliade's archetypes and substantiates its claims through cross-cultural comparisons. The work has been sharply criticized by Classics scholars, some dismissing Rabinowitz as a neo-pagan. Ruickbie, Leo. Robert Hale, Von Rudlo, Robert.

Hekate in Early Greek Religion. Horned Owl Publishing July Artemis For other uses, see Artemis disambiguation.

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  • Her Roman equivalent is Diana. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and protector of young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth.

    Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek king Artemidoros whose name means gift of Artemis , c. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting, Britomartis. Beekes suggested that the have been proposed. Phrygian and could be compared with the royal appel- Ancient Greek writers, by way of folk etymology, and lation Artemas of Xenophon. According to Charles An- some modern scholars, have linked Artemis Doric Arthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Per- tamis to , artamos, i.

    Hesiod, Theogony, lines written in the 7th century BCE. Apollo left and Artemis. Brygos potter, signed , Briseis Painter, Tondo of an Attic red-gure cup, ca. Artemis at the islands known today as the Paximadia. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. Most stories depict Artemis as born rst, becoming her mothers mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo.

    Artemis on the left, with a deer and Apollo on the right, holding a lyre from Myrina, dating to approximately 25 BC. Various conicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother, Apollo. All accounts agree, however, that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and that she was the twin sister of Apollo.

    An account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra rma the mainland or on an island. Hera was angry with Zeus, her husband, because he had impregnated Leto. The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. The Iliad reduced the gure of the dread goddess to that of a girl, who, having been thrashed by Hera, climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. She wished for no city dedicated to her, but to rule the mountains, and for the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth.

    In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis temple, Artemis Alphaea in Letrini, where the goddess and her attendant drink. Bouphagos, the son of the Titan Iapetos, sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. Reading his sinful thoughts, Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe.

    Sipriotes is a boy, who, either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her, is turned into a girl by the goddess. The details vary but at the core they involve a great hunter, Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs. Usually the dogs are his own, who no longer recognize their master. Sometimes they are Artemis hounds. Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow, the hunting dog, the stag, and the moon. Callimachus tells[26] how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress, how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara, where Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked.

    Okeanus daughters were lled with fear, but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan, the god of the forest, who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot.

    Artemis practiced with her bow rst by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts. According to the standard modern text on the work, Lamar Ronald Laceys The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies, the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who, seeing her naked in her sacred spring, attempts to force himself on her. For this hubris he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds.

    However, in some surviving versions Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her. Dierent tellings also diverge in the hunters transgression, which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked, sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she, or even merely being a rival of Zeus for the aections of Semele. In other versions, Artemis killed Adonis for revenge. In later myths, Adonis had been related as a favorite 8.

    As a virgin, Artemis had interested many gods and men, Therefore, Artemis killed Adonis to avenge Hippolytuss but only her hunting companion, Orion, won her heart. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by In yet another version, Adonis was not killed by Artemis, Gaia.

    Alpheus, a river god, was in love with Artemis, but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. So he decides to capture her. Artemis, who is with her com- 8. In some vergod does not recognize her. In another story, Alphaeus sions, he is killed by Artemis, while in others he is killed. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Apollo, gained her condence, then took advantage of her or raped her, according to Ovid. As a result of this encounter she conceived a son, Arcas. In some versions, Orion tries Enraged, Hera or Artemis some accounts say both to seduce Opis,[27] one of Artemis followers, and she changed her into a bear.

    Arcas almost killed the bear, but kills him. In a version by Aratus,[28] Orion takes hold Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed of Artemis robe and she kills him in self-defense. Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of CalIn yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[29] Artemis once loved Orion in spite of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos did , but was tricked into killing him by her brother Apollo, who was protective of his sisters maidenhood.

    Some stories say that he placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears, forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis was to sacrice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer. Various myths have been told around what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros and led the priests there, or became Artemis immortal companion.

    These twin sons of Iphidemia and Poseidon, Otos and Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for Artemis who captured a ne deer or in another version 8. The Aloadae threw their spears and A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe boasted of her superiority to Leto because while she had fourteen so mistakenly killed each other.

    When Artemis and Apollo heard this impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics, and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions two of the Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed them. Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis because she made two gods fall in love with her at once.

    Artemis was furious and killed Chione with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting o her tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo and Hermes protected her from Artemis wrath. Artemis saved the infant Atalanta from dying of exposure after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. But she later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta because people said Artemis pouring a libation, c. Atalanta was a better hunter.

    This is in some stories. Among other adventures, Atalanta participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis had sent to destroy Calydon because King Oeneus had forgotten her at the harvest sacrices. In the hunt, Atalanta drew the rst blood, and was awarded the prize of the skin.

    She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea as a dedication to Artemis. Meleager was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus had him gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis turned his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that Artemis loved very much. Iakhos later became an attendant of Demeter and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries.


    As a punishment Aphrodite cursed her, causing her to have children by a bear. The resulting ospring, Agrius and Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of Zeus. Ultimately the whole family were transformed into birds and more specically ill portents for mankind. She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis and proud of her maidenhood.

    One day, she claimed that the body of Artemis was too womanly and she doubted her virginity. Artemis asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate one of them while the other one, Iakhos, was saved by. Artemis may have been represented as a supporter of Troy because her brother Apollo was the patron god of the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia in historical times.

    In the Iliad[33] she came to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks and Trojans engaged each other in conict. Hera struck Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis ed crying to Zeus, Leto. Artemis played quite a large part in this war. Like her mother and brother, who was widely worshiped at Troy, Artemis took the side of the Trojans.

    At the Greeks journey to Troy, Artemis becalmed the sea and stopped the journey until an oracle came and said they could win the goddess heart by sacricing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's daughter. Agamemnon once promised the goddess he would sacrice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke the promise.

    Other sources said he boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess anger. Artemis saved Iphigenia because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth, Artemis made Iphigenia her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of night, witchcraft, and the underworld. During this time, the girls were known as arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it, so that, over time, the bear became tame.

    A girl teased the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her, while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either way, the girls brothers killed the bear, and Artemis was enraged. She demanded that young girls act the bear at her sanctuary in atonement for the bears death. Apollo she was identied with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated found him wounded by Diomedes and lifted him to Caryatis Carya.

    There, the three of them secretly healed him in a great chamber. Main article: Brauronia Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped throughout ancient Greece. She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest setting, carrying a bow and arrows, and accompanied by a deer. The ancient Spartans used to sacrice to her as one of their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign.

    The festival of Artemis Orthia was observed in Sparta.

    Color reconstruction of a rst century AD statue of Artemis found in Pompeii. Reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments. It was an imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC. Part of Gods in Color. As Aeginaea, she was worshiped in Sparta; the name means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of the javelin. Strabo records another precinct of Aetolian Artemos at the head of the Adriatic.

    Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the pa-. In Athens Artemis was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess, Aphaea. As Potnia Theron, she was the patron of wild animals; Homer used this title. As Kourotrophos, she was the nurse of youths. As Locheia, she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives. She was sometimes known as Cynthia, from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus on Delos, or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea.

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    She was sometimes identied by the name Phoebe, the feminine form of her brother Apollos solar epithet Phoebus. In Sparta the Artemis Lygodesma was worshipped. This epithet means willow-bound from the Gr. The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals. A goat was being sacriced to her. Laphria, a festival for Artemis in Patrai. The procession started by setting the logs of wood around the altar, each of them sixteen cubits long. On the altar, within the circle, is placed the driest of their wood. Just before the time of the festival, they construct a smooth ascent to the altar, piling earth upon the altar steps.

    The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis, and the maiden ofciating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer, Artemis traditional mode of transportation see below. It is, however, not until the next day that the sacrice is oered. In Orchomenus, a sanctuary was built for Artemis Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year.

    Festival of Artemis in Brauron, where girls, aged between ve and ten, dressed in saron robes and The oldest representations of Artemis in Greek Archaic played the bear to appease the goddess after she sent art portray her as Potnia Theron Queen of the Beasts : a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands, the plague when her bear was killed. This winged Artemis Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship lingered in ex-votos as Artemis Orthia, with a sanctuary Artemis Amarysia in Attica.

    In , a team of close by Sparta. Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden Artemis Amarysia Temple, at Euboea, Greece. A king rows. Often, she is shown in the shooting pose, and is named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after accompanied by a hunting dog or stag. When portrayed. Artemis chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer Elaphoi Khrysokeroi.

    The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold. Her cult in Aetolia, the Artemis Aetolian, showed her with a hunting spear. The description about Artemis spear can be found in Ovids Metaconnected as a moon goddess, Artemis wore a long robe and some- morphosis, while Artemis with a shing spear [56] with her cult as a patron goddess of shing. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings, where she is shown as the death- As a goddess of maiden dances and songs, Artemis is ofbringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and ten portrayed with a lyre.

    Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown, found at Issa Vis, Croatia. Artemis was sometimes represented in Classical art with Fauna the crown of the crescent moon, such as also found on Luna and others. Deer were also the rst animals she captured. She caught ve golden horned deer called Elaphoi 8. Heracles begged Artemis for forgiveness and promised to return According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis, she had it alive.

    Artemis forgave him but targeted Eurystheus for golden bow and arrows, as her epithet was Khryseher wrath. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sud Hunting dog den death and disease to girls and women. Artemis got her bow and arrow for the rst time from The Kyklopes, as the one she asked from her father. The bow of Artemis Artemis got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Aralso became the witness of Callistos oath of her virgin- cadia. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs, three ity.

    In later cult, the bow became the symbol of waxing reddish ones, and one spotted one - these dogs were able moon. Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the nest Arcadian race. However, Artemis only ever Chariots brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time. Bear The sacrice of a bear for Artemis started with the Brauron cult.

    Every year a girl between ve and ten years of age was sent to Artemis temple at Brauron. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois. A bear was tamed by Artemis and introduced to the people of Athens. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear, so Artemis sent a plague in revenge. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague. The oracle suggested that, in payment for the bears blood, no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis in her temple 'played the bear for the goddess.

    In honor of Artemis skill, they sacriced it to her. Oineus and Adonis were both killed by Artemis boar. Artemis felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother, Meleagor, so she transformed them into tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden xoanon. The rest were used for making churches, roads, and forts. Flora Palm and Cypress were issued to be her birthplace. Other plants sacred to Artemis are Amaranth and Asphodel.

    It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis through interpretatio graeca was worshiped primarily as a mother goddess, akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele, in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the Lady of Ephesus adorned with multiple rounded breast-like protuberances on her chest.

    They have been variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts, as eggs, grapes, acorns,[63] or even bull testes. Artemis is the acronym for Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol, a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in at the Atacama Pathnder Experiment APEX , located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile.

    Geburtstag Studies in Indo-European language and culture , W. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. Retrieved 15 March A Handbook of Greek Mythology, Dutton , p. The Greeks and Their Gods, Beacon , p. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford Classical Dictionary. Online Etymology Dictionary. A Classical dictionary. Scuola Pisa 28 ; Restelli, Aevum 37 , Immerwahr, Hesperia Supplements 33 p. Hammond, Oxford Classical Dictionary, In Smith, William.

    Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Strabo, v. In William Smith. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Terracotta Masks. London, England: Macmillan Publishers. Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis Amarysia. Sources Walter Burkert, The Gods of the Greeks Seppo Telenius Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan. Homeric Hymn to Artemis , and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. And how often goddess, didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?

    A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities eds. From Artemis to Diana: the goddess of man and beast. Selene This article is about the Greek goddess. She is shining is probably an epithet of Theia. She drives her moon chariot across the heavens. Several lovers are attributed to her in various myths, including Zeus, Pan, and the mortal Endymion.

    In classical times, Selene was often identied with Artemis, much as her brother, Helios, was identied with Apollo. Her Roman equivalent is Luna. Just as Helios, from his identication with Apollo, is called Phoebus bright , Selene, from her identication with Artemis, is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe feminine form. Also from Artemis, Selene was sometimes called Cynthia. And now thou thyself too hast part in a like mad passion; and some god of aiction has given thee Jason to be thy grievous woe.

    Well, go on, and steel thy heart, wise though thou be, to take up thy burden of pain, fraught with many sighs. Selene is best known for her aair with the beautiful mortal Endymion. Selene was also called Mene. It was also the name of the Phrygian moon-god Men. In the Theogony, the sun-god Hyperion espoused his sister Theia, who gave birth to great Helios and clear Selene and Eos who shines upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide heaven. Quintus Smyrnaeus' The Fall of Troy tells that, while Endymion slept in his cave beside his cattle, Selene watched him from on high, and slid from heaven to earth; for passionate love drew down the immortal stainless Queen of Night.

    Aelian, On Animals According to the Catalogue of Women, Endymion was the son of Aethlius a son of Zeus , and Zeus granted him the right to choose when he would die. According to Virgil, Selene also had a tryst with the great god Pan, who seduced her with a snowy bribe of wool. Detail of a sarcophagus depicting Endymion and Selene, shown with her characteristic attributes of lunate crown and billowing veil velicatio [35]. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men. Three early sources mention Selenes hair.

    Both the Hymn to Helios and the Hymn to Selene use the word , variously translated as rich, bright, or beautiful haired, and Epimenides uses the epithet lovely-haired. She is usually portrayed either driving a chariot, or riding sidesaddle on horseback or sometimes on an ox or bull, mule, or ram. Pausanias, we learn that Selene and Helios also framed the birth of Aphrodite on the base of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. In later second and third century AD Roman funerary art, the love of Selene for Endymion and his eternal sleep was a popular subject for artists.

    See also Apollodorus 1. Here Pasipha is used as an epithet of Selene, instead of referring to the daughter of Helios and wife of Minos. The same scholiast gives another story involving Endymions love for Hera, this time attributed to the Great Ehoiai, saying that Endymion was carried up by Zeus to heaven, but that he was seized by desire for Hera and was deceived by the phantom of a cloud, and that because of this desire he was thrown out and went down to Hades, see Most, fragment , p.

    Originally Pandia may have been an epithet of Selene,[63] but by at least the time of the late Homeric Hymn, Pandia had become a daughter of Zeus and Selene. Pandia or Pandia Selene may have personied the full moon,[64] and an Athenian festival, called the Pandia, usually considered to be a festival for Zeus,[65] was perhaps cele- [20] Apollodorus, 1. See also with Selene.

    Gantz, p. There are other accounts of fty daughters in Greek mythology, the Nereids were fty sea nymphs born to Nereus and Doris Hesiod, Theogony , and Thespius had fty daughters, each of whom bore a son to Heracles Apollodorus, 2. West , p. Cook p. Either Selene or her daughter may have been connected to the Athenian festival Pandia. Hard, p. Compare with Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers For Selene driving another pair of winged horses see Zschietzschmann, p. XII, p. For the use of golden in reference to the moon, see: Allen, [6] "".

    For an example of Selene driving the less usual four horses see Morford, p. This is the usual interpretation, but some have suggested that instead of Selene, the goddess on the right could be Nyx or Eos, e.

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    The same pair also appear on the North Metopes of the Parthenon, with Selene this time entering the sea on horseback, see Hurwit, p. For another example of the framing of a scene, in this case the Judgement of Paris, see Robertson, Martin , p. For the close association between the crescent moon and horns see Cashford. The Carmina of Gaius Valerius Catullus. Leonard C.

    Cicero, Ciceros Tusculan Disputations, translated by C. Bekker, p. Online version at openlibrary. Allen, Thomas W. The Homeric Hymns, edited, with preface, apparatus criticus, notes, and appendices. Cox, George W. Patricia Curd, University of Toronto Press, Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica; with an English translation by R.

    William Heinemann, Aristotle, Aristotle in 23 Volumes, Vol. Nauckium, Burkert, Walter Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Harvard University Press. Greek Religion.

    1. Night Deities;
    2. >Salvation and Glory (Psalm 62) | Glenda Faye Mathes.
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    Campbell, D. Sappho and Alcaeus, Loeb Classical Library, no. Heinemann, Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. The Phoenissae, translated by E. New York. Random House. Homeric Hymns. Cambridge, MA. AppletonCentury Company, New York, Hansen, William F. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA. Hurwit, Jeery M. Edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, Lucian, The Works of Lucian of Samosata. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Pullins Company, Mitchell, Lucy M. Morford, Mark P. Loeb Classical Library Volumes , , Obbink, Dirk, Orphism, Cosmogony, and Gealogy Mus.

    Anne Mahoney. Calvin Blanchard. Ovid, Fasti, translated by Frazer, James George. Loeb Classical Library Volume. Nunn, Great-Queen-Street; R. Priestly, , HighHolborn; R. Lea, Greek-Street, Soho; and J. Rodwell, New-Bond-Street. Ovid, Metamorphoses, Brookes More. Cornhill Publishing Co. Jones, Litt. Ormerod, M. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Pindar, Odes, Diane Arnson Svarlien. Most, G. Heinemann, Strabo, Geography, Editors, H.

    Hamilton, Esq. Falconer, M. Translated by Edmonds, J M. Loeb Classical Library Volume Thomas, Edmund. Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica. Translated by Mozley, J H. Teubner, Leizig Savignoni L. On Representations of Helios and of Selene. The Journal of Hellenic Studies pp. Oskar Seyert, S. Sonnenschein, Seneca, Tragedies, translated by Miller, Frank Justus. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. PDF Statius, Thebaid. West, Martin L. Nyx For the water spirit Nix, see Neck water spirit.

    For other uses, see NYX disambiguation. A shadowy gure, Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation, and was the mother of other personied deities such as Hypnos Sleep and Thanatos Death. Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology, but reveal her as a gure of such exceptional power and beauty, that she is feared by Zeus himself.

    Lightweight drones, these constructs are not as dangerous as some of the other constructs, and don't pose much of a threat. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. You can help Torment Wiki by expanding it. Contents [ show ]. Categories :. Cancel Save. Evil Wizard Construct. Mechanus' Cannon scroll. Fire 50, Cold 50, Magic 50, Magical fire 50, Magical cold Weak to Acid and Electricity.