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Cordova, J. Integrative behavioral couple therapy an acceptance- based, promising new treatment for couple discord. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, — Problem-solving and behavior modification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, — DiGiuseppe, R. Philosophical differences among cognitive behavioral therapists: Rationalism, constructivism, or both?
Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 7, — Dimaggio, G. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for personality disorders: A treatment manual. London: Routledge. Psychotherapy of personality disorders: Metacognition, states of mind and interpersonal cycles. Dobson, K. Historical and philosophical bases of the cognitive-behavioral therapies. Dobson Ed. Cognitive therapy: Looking backward, looking forward. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, — Dryden, W.
Hove, East Sussex: Routledge. Ehlers, A. A cognitive model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, — Ellis, A. New approaches to psychotherapy techniques. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 11, — Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Stuart. Handbook of rational-emotive therapy Vol.
New York, NY: Springer. Erikson, E. Childhood and society. Fairburn, C. A cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 1— Feixas, G. Aproximaciones ala Psicoterapia. An Introduction to Psychological Treatments]. Freud, A. The ego and mechanisms of defense. In The writings of Anna Freud Vol. Goldberg, E. The executive brain: Frontal lobes and the civilized mind. Oxford: University Press, Oxford. Goldfried, M. Systematic desensitization as training in self- control. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, — Clinical behavior therapy.
New York, NY: Holt. Systematic rational restructuring as a self- control technique. Behavior Therapy, 5, — Gross, J. Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, — Guidano, V. Complexity of the Self. The self in process: Toward a post-rationalist cognitive therapy. Cognitive processes and emotional disorders: A structural approach to psychotherapy. Hackmann, A. Oxford guide to imagery in cognitive therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hartmann, H. Essays on ego psychology. Papers on psychoanalytic psychology. Psychological issues monograph.
Hayes, S. Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 35, — Hayes, A. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, — Process-based CBT. The science and core clinical competencies of cognitive behavioral therapy. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: Examining the progress ofa distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44 2 , — A practical guide to acceptance and commitment therapy.
Hermans, H. The dialogical self in psychotherapy. Hofmann, S. The science of cognitive therapy. Hollon, S. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Garfield Eds. Cognitive therapy in the treatment and prevention of depression. Cognitive psychotherapies. VandenBos Eds. Enduring effects for cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, — Illardi, S.
The role of nonspecific factors in cognitive-behavior therapy for depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1, — Jacobson, N. A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, — Behavioral activation for depression: Returning to contextual roots.
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, — Kabat-Zinn, J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, — Kahl, K. The third wave of cognitive behavioural therapies. What is new and what is effective? Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25, — Kahneman, D. Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. Gilovich, D.
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Kahneman Eds. Kanter, J. Behavioral activation. New York: Routledge. Kazdin, A. History of behavior modification: Experimental foundations of contemporary research. Kelly, G. The psychology of personal constructs Vol. Kohlenberg, R. The dimensions of clinical behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 16 , — Kohut, H. The restoration of the self. Lancaster, C. Posttraumatic stress disorder: Overview of evidence-based assessment and treatment.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, Lazarus, A. Multi-modal behavior therapy. Has behavior therapy outlived its usefulness? American Psychologist, 32, — Leahy, R. The therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, — Emotional schema therapy. Linehan, M. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. Liotti, G. Le Opere della Coscienza [The works of consciousness]. Milano: Cortina. Some epistemological remarks on behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and psychoanalysis.
Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, — Lorenzini, R. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore. Ludwig, D. Mindfulness in medicine. JAMA, , — Lyddon, W. First- and second-order change: Implications for rationalist and constructivist cognitive therapies. Maddux, J. Self- efficacy. Lopez Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Mahoney, M. Cognition and behavior modification.
Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Psychoanalysis and behaviorism. The Yin and Yang of determinism. Messer Eds. Berlin: Springer. Human change process. Human change processes: The scientific foundations of psychotherapy. Theoretical developments in the cognitive and constructive psychotherapies. Mahoney Ed. Theory, research, and practice pp. Constructive psychotherapy: A practical guide. New York: Guilford. Constructive metatheory of the nature of mental representations. Marks, S. Cognitive behaviour therapies in Britain: The historical context and present situation.
Dryden Ed. New York, NY: Sage. Markus, H. Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63— Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, — The self in social information processing. Suls Ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Martell, C. Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York: Norton. Martin, J. Refining the dual-system theory of choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23, — Mathews, G. The cognitive science of attention and emotion. Power Eds. Wells Eds. Maturana, H. Autopoiesis and cognition.
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Boston, MA: Reidel. McCullough, J. Washington, D. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive behavior modification. Meyer, V. Modification of expectations in cases with obsessional rituals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, — Miller, G. Plans and the structures of behaviour. Mitchell, S. Relationality: From attachment to intersubjectivity.
Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press. Morgenstern, J. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for alcohol dependence. A review of evidence for its hypothesized mechanism of action. Addiction, 95, — Mosticoni, R. Personal communication, e-mail to first author 21 February Muran, J.
Emotional and interpersonal considerations in cognitive therapy. Rosen Eds. Nathan, P. A guide to treatments that work 4th ed. Neimeyer, R. Constructivist psychotherapy. Distinctive features. Constructivism in psychotherapy. Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. Newell, A. Elements of a theory of human problem solving. Psychological review. American Psychological Association, 65, — Normann, N. The efficacy of metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review.
Depression and Anxiety, 31, — Otte, C. Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: Current state of the evidence. Dialogues in Clinical Neurosciences, 13, — Pavlov, I. Conditional reflexes. New York: Dover Publications. Rachman, S. The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: A critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, — The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 64, 1—8. Rogers, C. A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. Koch Ed.
Rogers, Carl. On personal power: Inner strength and its revolutionary impact. Rosenfarb, I. Behavior Therapy, 15, — Rosner, R. Aaron T. History of Psychology, 15, 1— Isis, , — Rush, A. Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 7— Safran, J. Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: A relational treatment guide. Salkovskis, P. Obsessional-compulsive problems: A cognitive behavioural analysis.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, — Salovey, P. Emotional states and physical health. American Psychologist, 55, — Sassaroli, S. Viney Eds. Advances in theory, practice and research pp. London: Whurr Publishers. Segerstrom, S. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, — Semerari, A. Understanding minds: Different functions and different disorders? The contribution of psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy Research, 17, — Metacognitive dysfunctions in personality disorders: Correlations with disorder severity and personality styles. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, — Shapiro, L.
Embodied cognition. Skinner, B. The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 24, 86— An operant analysis of problem solving. Kleinmuntz Ed. New York: Wiley. An operant analysis of problem solving, Notes 6. Skinner Ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sloman, S.
Two systems of reasoning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Smits, J. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, — Stanovich, K. Who is rational?
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Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate. Radical constructivism. Karen structures her session with Kathy in the following way:. Assess Kathy's mood and review her view of recent events. Collaboratively set an agenda for the meeting, making sure that discussion of psychotherapy and medication options are a component.
Review results of Kathy's medical evaluation. Discuss Kathy's issues and views as identified on the agenda. Introduce or review specific skills to address her cognitions and behaviors. Formulate a homework task and identify any factors that may interfere with homework completion. Help Kathy summarize the main points of today's meeting and conclusion. Discuss her thoughts and feelings about the session.
Karen uses a Socratic dialogue technique to talk with Kathy. The goal of her questions is to understand the meaning Kathy is attaching to her experiences and the way she understands herself as an individual. Karen does this by gently and persistently evaluating experiences and Kathy's interpretations that support her beliefs and attitudes as well as examining the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining those views.
Specific questions Karen might ask include:. Examining Kathy's thoughts and allowing her to develop an alternative plan gives her control over her behavioral choices. This increases the possibility that Kathy will "own" the plan and act upon it in between sessions. Karen and Kathy evaluate progress on the plan homework in the following session. Depending upon the results of the homework, Karen and Kathy will modify the plan or move on to the next issue. Karen uses this same method of questioning to evaluate Kathy's negative thought processes and faulty conclusions.
Karen: "You said that your life will never be normal again. What do you mean by normal? Kathy: "I am so deformed and I don't have any energy and I don't care about anything anymore! Karen: "Which is more troubling to you — feeling deformed, no energy, or not caring about anything? Kathy: "If I have to choose, I would say feeling deformed. Karen: "Okay. Let's start with that feeling. Tell me more about feeling deformed. Kathy: "My right breast is rebuilt — but I don't have a nipple and I have this huge scar across my chest!
It is so ugly! Karen: "What choices have you discussed with your surgeon about replacing your nipple? Kathy: "He said there were more surgeries I could have to build one, or I could have a tattoo of a nipple put on it. Karen: "Which of these options is more appealing to you? She is giving Kathy limited choices in a positive direction. Kathy: "I think a tattoo — the other surgery really sounds painful.
Karen: "Would the tattoo make you feel more or less deformed? Karen: "What have you investigated about this possibility? Kathy: "I haven't started that yet. Karen: "Where will you start investigating this possibility? Kathy: "Well, my daughter got a tattoo last month — I can ask her where she went. She is going to laugh when I ask her about a tattoo parlor! Karen: "You'll have to let me know how that goes! Then end result of the session with Kathy is that Kathy now has a homework assignment that will shift her image of "deformed" toward a more positive possibility.
CBT is a process of engaging an individual in a collaborative manner in order to examine the way the individual constructs and understands the world around them cognitions , and to evaluate the processes by which the individual acts on those cognitions behaviors. The role of the APN is to act as a coach, mentor, or guide through the process, provide the necessary skills training, and design appropriate experiments with high likelihood for success in collaboration with the patient. There has been a rapid increase in the numbers of psychiatric nurses who obtain advanced degrees and develop independent practices.
The APN specializes in holistic assessment, prevention, and treatment approaches in a variety of settings. The approaches become more complicated as psychiatric medication, physical complications, and psychological conditions collide. APNs need specialized and empirically tested evidence to guide their practices. CBT has been proven to integrate well in nursing practice and meets the scientific standard for effective techniques and interventions that are empirically based.
As a result, CBT is the ideal vehicle for the APN to use to guide counseling and education interactions with individuals. Cognitive Technique. Downward Arrow. The individual is helped to uncover underlying assumptions in logic and sequence through careful questioning by the therapist, who asks, "If this is true, then what happens? Idiosyncratic Meaning. The therapist assists the client to clarify statements and terms used so that both the therapist and the patient have a clear understanding of perceived reality.
Labeling of Distortions. The individual is helped to identify automatic thoughts that are "dysfunctional or irrational. Questioning the Evidence. The individual is helped to question the facts related to their cognitions and conclusions. This procedure investigates whether information is based on facts or assumptions. Examining Options and Alternatives. This technique involves the development of all possible alternative explanations in order to learn the skills in generating options rather than "only one way" thinking.
In individuals with the habit of accepting all or most of the blame for outcomes, this is an excellent technique for redistribution of responsibility.
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This is also helpful for individuals with personality disorders that place the blame squarely on the shoulders of others for most outcomes. Catastrophic thinking is one of the hallmarks of anxious individuals. These individuals tend to focus on the most negative possible outcome of any given situation. Decatastrophizing allows for balance and realistic focusing by examining the "worst possible outcome" and developing a plan of action.
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Advantages and Disadvantages. For individuals who appear to be stuck between 2 options, examination of the advantages and disadvantages of certain situations helps them to develop alternative perspectives. This breaks the "all-or-nothing" mindset and permits a more balanced view of the situation. Paradox or Exaggeration. This type of technique should only be used by the very skilled therapist; otherwise, the patient may view this technique as sarcasm or belittling.
When used appropriately, the therapist takes an issue to the extreme to help the person see the absurdity of their sometimes overinflated viewpoints. Turning Adversity to Advantage. This technique is akin to "making lemonade out of lemons. For example, being turned down for a job may open the individual up for more attractive possibilities that they had not investigated. Cognitive Rehearsal. Prior to making a behavioral change, it is sometimes less threatening to "practice" the new behavior through visualization and discussion.
For example, this would include practicing assertiveness in a mirror or "talking through" a confrontation out loud prior to actually following through with the conversation. Automatic Thought Records. The ATR is used as homework after introducing the process within the therapy session. The individual completes the columns identifying a troubling situation, resulting emotion, and thoughts associated with both.
The therapist and patient work on clarification and development of "rational" responses in order to debate or challenge the original reaction. Behavioral Technique. Assertiveness Training. Assertiveness training involves a combination of cognitive and behavioral practice. The therapist may model assertive behavior, assist the patient within the session with role-play, and finally develop in vivo experiments that increase in complexity over time until the new behavior is internalized.
Cognitive therapy: foundations, conceptual models, applications and research
Behavioral Rehearsal. The behavioral component usually follows the cognitive training component and again includes behavioral experiments to gather more evidence or to develop more effective responses and styles. Graded Task Assignments. This technique is used in a series of steps that become increasingly more complex or difficult as a means of overcoming fears or anxiety-producing threats.
Bibliotherapy : The cognitive behavioral therapist will often prescribe specific readings related to the individual's difficulties. Guided Relaxation and Meditation. Therapists often employ behavioral techniques aimed at reduction of autonomic nervous system responses to anxiety such as measured breathing, relaxation training, meditation, and other techniques. Social Skills Training. These skills are often taken for granted by many individuals. It is important for the therapist to review and instruct on behaviors that will improve the potential for successful social interactions.
Shame-Attacking Exercises. This technique was first introduced by Albert Ellis as a rational emotive therapy technique. Rational emotive therapists have the patient engage in behavioral experiments that emphasize their concern for what others think of them. The individual develops an experiment testing their hypothesis people think I smile funny when I walk and look at me weird and collects data between sessions.
Have a neutral observer collect the actual data. This helps them differentiate between "feeling" and "fact" to move past shame-based behaviors [see homework below]. The hallmark behavioral technique in CBT is the use of homework assignments. Activities are designed within the therapy session to be carried outside and practiced between sessions.
Cognitive Distortion. All-or-nothing dichotomous thinking. He either loves me or he doesn't. Mind reading this is not thought insertion which is psychotic and in the opposite direction. I am sure they all think I am stupid. Emotional reasoning. Cipla 24hr Mental Health Helpline Adcock Ingram Depression and Anxiety Helpline 70 80 Akeso Psychiatric Response Unit 24 Hour Teen Suicide Prevention Week 11 - 18 February.
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