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  1. Learning Unit 7. Examining blood films
  2. Black Oil, Red Blood: A Legal Thriller |
  3. Flows set of oil paint liquid blood ink.
  4. Introduction

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Learning Unit 7. Examining blood films

This book sounds great! Cannot wait to read what happens! Hi Maureen! Yes, it will definitely be available on Kindle! Thanks for your interest! Stimulation of erythropoiesis and related genes Table 1 by garlic-fed mice is most likely mediated by CO, which by itself can increase the RBC counts, hemoglobin contents, and hematocrit in B6 mice Figure 4A. It was also reported in rat that chronic exposure to CO increased erythropoiesis [36]. Furthermore, the decrease of EPO showed an additive effect when garlic-fed mice were chronically exposed to CO Figure 4B , supporting the proposal that garlic-fed mice produced extra CO.

Nevertheless, none of these mice were anemic. Therefore, we have strong evidence e. Secondly, increased Hsp70 can protect the key transcription factor for erythropoiesis, Gata-1, from caspase-3 mediated proteolysis [28]. Stabilization of Gata-1 presumably increased downstream gene transcription for erythropoiesis [30]. Indeed, we have observed an increase of Gata-1 and the downstream gene expression in our mRNA expression profiles and immunobloting results Figure 3 and Table 1.

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Black Oil, Red Blood: A Legal Thriller |

Thirdly, the CO induced splenic erythropoiesis could be manifested through ERK1, a different subfamily member of the MAPK family, which is a negative regulator of the adult steady-state splenic erythropoiesis [37]. The major difference, however, is the lack of acute anemia in our garlic-fed animal model. The details of the proposed CO-mediated, EPO-independent erythropoiesis remain to be elucidated in garlic-fed mice. The proposed increase of CO from faster RBC turnover by dietary garlic may also have other physiological functions, some of which may be important for garlic's many health benefits.

It is widely perceived that garlic's various health effects stem from the synergistic actions among its diverse chemicals [1] — [3]. Our results on the mRNA expression profiles in the garlic-fed mouse spleens GSE indicate that the collective effects of phytochemicals and their metabolites on the expression of genes, for example, against oxidative stress, are very different from those reports using the alleged key derivatives of garlic such as diallyldisulfide, which changes the expression of cytochrome P's and phase II enzymes at high doses [38].

We did not, to our surprise, observe much induction of mRNAs for detoxification enzymes by either increased iron or phytochemicals or their metabolites in the garlic-fed mouse spleens. This suggests the absence of unusual oxidative stress in the garlic-fed mouse spleens. Such a condition could at least partially be attributable to the higher level of the potent anti-oxidant, bilirubin and biliverdin , also produced from increased heme degradation [40].

Thus, chemoprevention mediated by induction of cytoprotective enzymes alone is not sufficient to account for the systemic health benefits of garlic [41].

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A second mechanism by which garlic may exercise its health effect has been demonstrated in isolated aorta sections through the vaso-relaxation activities of H 2 S, which is produced from the organosulfur compounds of fresh garlic extracts, especially the allylsulfides [5] , [42].

As an environment rich in reduced GSH, RBC would naturally convert garlic's organic polysulfides to H 2 S, which presumably can circulate to the whole body by binding to hemoglobin and other hemoproteins [5] , [43].

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Besides, the polysulfides may also modify surface and intracellular proteins by reacting with cellular protein thiols, leading to RBC turnover. Our results point to a more robust biological amplification process that potentially provides a common second messenger for many of garlic's diverse physiological effects. Garlic and other plants of the genus Allium are known for their production of steroid saponins, compounds with hemolytic activities [1] , [44].

Therefore, the presence of steroid saponins in garlic is consistent with the dose-response behavior in the Prussian blue stain of the spleen sections Figure 2H ; saponins could cause mild chronic hemolysis without anemia and resulting in accelerated RBC turnover. As the dosage of saponins garlic exceeds the rodent's erythropoietic capacity, anemia ensues [4]. It is entirely possible; however, other classes of garlic compounds manifested the phenotype in our study. We propose that accelerated RBC turnover is the crux of the mechanism s by which garlic sustains and amplifies its multiple biological effects.

Garlic's anti-platelet, procirculatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects parallel those reported for the HO-CO pathway for heme degradation [1] , [6] — [9].

Flows set of oil paint liquid blood ink.

In addition to its stimulatory effect on EPO-independent splenic erythropoiesis, CO is a pleiotropic gasotransmitter [6] — [9]. Furthermore, from the perspective of detoxification of garlic's phytochemicals, many of garlic's health benefits could be the manifestation of physiological recovery to achieve systemic homeostasis. The reticuloendothelial system of spleen apparently plays a crucial role in this recovery process. The relationship between the molecular details of CO-mediated pathways for erythropoiesis and of garlic's many health benefits remain to be elucidated.

The authors would like to thank the staff of the pathology core, A. Wrote the paper: C-PDT. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Garlic Allium sativum has been valued in many cultures both for its health effects and as a culinary flavor enhancer. Introduction For millennia, garlic Allium sativum has been valued in many cultures both for its health effects and as a popular culinary flavor enhancer. Diet components and reagents Garlic and soybean oil were purchased from Taipei's supermarkets.

Histopathological Analyses Perfusion of animals and preparation of paraffin sections were according to those in Kikuchi et al [11].

Preparation of total cell extracts and immunoblotting We used the Complete Lysis Buffer Active Motif to prepare total cell extracts from frozen tissues mg liver or 50 mg spleen. Download: PPT. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 1. Table 2. Figure 4. Evidence that CO treatment promotes increased erythropoiesis by an erythropoietin-independent mechanism. Discussion Stimulation of erythropoiesis and related genes Table 1 by garlic-fed mice is most likely mediated by CO, which by itself can increase the RBC counts, hemoglobin contents, and hematocrit in B6 mice Figure 4A.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the staff of the pathology core, A. References 1. Amagase H Calrifying the real bioactive constituents of garlic. J Nutr S—S. View Article Google Scholar 2. View Article Google Scholar 3. J Nutr Biochem — View Article Google Scholar 4. Oboh G Prevention of garlic-induced hemolytic anemia using some tropical green leafy vegetables. J Med Food 7: — View Article Google Scholar 5. View Article Google Scholar 6. Science — View Article Google Scholar 7. Sci Signal 2: 1—8. Malaria, the disease.

Learning Unit 2. Cleaning and storing microscope slides. Learning Unit 3. Keeping accurate records. Learning Unit 4. Blood films. Learning Unit 5.


Staining blood films with Giemsa stain. Learning Unit 6. The microscope. Examining blood films. Learning Unit 8. Examining blood films for malaria parasites. Learning Unit 9. Artefacts in blood films. Learning Unit Routine examination of blood films for malaria parasites. Life cycle of the malaria parasite.

Supervisory aspects of malaria microscopy. Back Cover.