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With an election underway, he becomes immersed in local politics— campaigning to lower the age necessary to become grape juice. Will the grapes in the vineyard listen to a young grape of only 9 years of age or 9 and a quarter as he suggests? Bario's family is French-Canadian.
In the hockey-loving blueberry patch of Oxford, most of the blueberries speak English. While the rest of his hockey team is excited about making it to the Stemley Cup finals, Bario has the blues. He is worried that he is slowly losing his ability to speak in French. How can Bario protect his language and culture in Oxford? In a small warehouse, the potatoes are gearing up for the Potato Blossom Festival. Will the other potatoes open their hearts and allow their friendship to blossom? Olivia and a group of young Canadians travel all the way to Ottawa to tour Parliament Hill.
But soon after they arrive things get out of control. With a pounding headache, Olivia tries to get some peace and quiet. She stumbles upon a secret room where she finds Sir John Owl MacDonald, John Beefenbaker and Hare Trudeau eating poutine, and ends up learning the most important lesson of all. Click here to read more. He was concerned about the accessibility of information pertaining to our fundamental rights and freedoms. Over the course of six years he collaborated with a host of legal professionals from all different backgrounds in order to adapt the heavy language and lessons of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms into a child-friendly format.
The Charter for Children Set of 14 Why not get them all? Anne of Green Tomatoes When there is a shortage of red tomatoes for the market, green tomatoes are painted red to fill the tomato basket. The Golden Hook In St. In the Hoofsteps of Emooly Murphy The Calgary Stampede is home to many cows and bulls who work hard all summer in bull riding and cow riding. Little Courthouse on the Prairie Just outside of Winnipeg, the bison play all kinds of sports on the prairie fields.
Alexander The Grape Although not yet ripe, Alexander is mature beyond his years. Bario Leblieux Bario's family is French-Canadian. Science is essentially an extremely cautious means of building a supportable, evidenced understanding of our natural and social worlds. The essential elements of a scientific method are iterations and recursions of the following four steps:. A scientific method depends upon a careful characterization of the subject of the investigation.
The systematic, careful collection of measurements, counts or categorical distinctions of relevant quantities or qualities is often the critical difference between pseudo-sciences, such as alchemy , and a science, such as chemistry. Scientific measurements are usually tabulated, graphed, or mapped, and statistical manipulations, such as correlation and regression , performed on them. The measurements might be made in a controlled setting, such as a laboratory, or made on more or less inaccessible or unmanipulatable objects such as human populations.
The measurements often require specialized scientific instruments such as thermometers, spectroscopes, or voltmeters, and the progress of a scientific field is usually intimately tied to their invention and development. These categorical distinctions generally require specialized coding or sorting protocols that allow differential qualities to be sorted into distinct categories, which may be compared and contrasted over time, and the progress of scientific fields in this vein are generally tied to the accumulation of systematic categories and observations across multiple natural sites.
In both cases, scientific progress relies upon ongoing intermingling between measurement and categorical approaches to data analysis. Measurements demand the use of operational definitions of relevant quantities a. That is, a scientific quantity is described or defined by how it is measured, as opposed to some more vague, inexact or idealized definition. The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of mass ultimately relies on the use of an artifact, such as a certain kilogram of platinum kept in a laboratory in France.
In short, to operationalize a variable means creating an operational definition for a concept someone intends to measure. Similarly, categorical distinctions rely upon the use of previously observed categorizations. A scientific category is thus described or defined based upon existing information gained from prior observations and patterns in the natural world as opposed to socially constructed "measurements" and "standards" in order to capture potential missing pieces in the logic and definitions of previous studies.
In both cases, however, how this is done is very important as it should be done with enough precision that independent researchers should be able to use your description of your measurement or construction of categories, and repeat either or both. The scientific definition of a term sometimes differs substantially from its natural language usage. For example, sex and gender are often used interchangeably in common discourse, but have distinct meanings in sociology. Scientific quantities are often characterized by their units of measure which can later be described in terms of conventional physical units when communicating the work while scientific categorizations are generally characterized by their shared qualities which can later be described in terms of conventional linguistic patterns of communication.
Measurements and categorizations in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty or disclaimers concerning the scope of initial observations. The uncertainty is often estimated by making repeated measurements of the desired quantity. Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideration of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities that are used. Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to limitations of the method used.
Counts may only represent a sample of desired quantities, with an uncertainty that depends upon the sampling method used and the number of samples taken see the central limit theorem. A hypothesis includes a suggested explanation of the subject. In quantitative work, it will generally provide a causal explanation or propose some association between two variables.
If the hypothesis is a causal explanation, it will involve at least one dependent variable and one independent variable.
In qualitative work, hypotheses generally involve potential assumptions built into existing causal statements, which may be examined in a natural setting. Variables are measurable phenomena whose values or qualities can change e. A dependent variable is a variable whose values or qualities are presumed to change as a result of the independent variable. In other words, the value or quality of a dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable.
Of course, this assumes that there is an actual relationship between the two variables. If there is no relationship, then the value or quality of the dependent variable does not depend on the value of the independent variable. An independent variable is a variable whose value or quality is manipulated by the experimenter or, in the case of non-experimental analysis, changes in the society and is measured or observed systematically. Perhaps an example will help clarify.
Promotion would be the dependent variable. Change in promotion is hypothesized to be dependent on gender. Scientists use whatever they can — their own creativity, ideas from other fields, induction, deduction, systematic guessing, etc. There are no definitive guidelines for the production of new hypotheses. The history of science is filled with stories of scientists claiming a flash of inspiration , or a hunch, which then motivated them to look for evidence to support, refute, or refine their idea or develop an entirely new framework.
A useful quantitative hypothesis will enable predictions, by deductive reasoning, that can be experimentally assessed. If results contradict the predictions, then the hypothesis under examination is incorrect or incomplete and requires either revision or abandonment. If results confirm the predictions, then the hypothesis might be correct but is still subject to further testing.
Predictions refer to experimental designs with a currently unknown outcome. A prediction of an unknown differs from a consequence which can already be known. Once a prediction is made, a method is designed to test or critique it. The investigator may seek either confirmation or falsification of the hypothesis, and refinement or understanding of the data.
Though a variety of methods are used by both natural and social scientists, laboratory experiments remain one of the most respected methods by which to test hypotheses. Scientists assume an attitude of openness and accountability on the part of those conducting an experiment. Detailed record keeping is essential, to aid in recording and reporting on the experimental results, and providing evidence of the effectiveness and integrity of the procedure.
They will also assist in reproducing the experimental results. The experiment's integrity should be ascertained by the introduction of a control or by observation of existing controls in natural settings. In experiments where controls are observed rather than introduced, researchers take into account potential variables e. On the other hand, in experiments where a control is introduced, two virtually identical experiments are run, in only one of which the factor being tested is varied.
This serves to further isolate any causal phenomena. For example in testing a drug it is important to carefully test that the supposed effect of the drug is produced only by the drug. Doctors may do this with a double-blind study: two virtually identical groups of patients are compared, one of which receives the drug and one of which receives a placebo. Neither the patients nor the doctor know who is getting the real drug, isolating its effects.
This type of experiment is often referred to as a true experiment because of its design. It is contrasted with alternative forms below. Once an experiment is complete, a researcher determines whether the results or data gathered are what was predicted or assumed in the literature beforehand. If the experiment appears successful - i. An experiment is not an absolute requirement. In observation based fields of science actual experiments must be designed differently than for the classical laboratory based sciences.
Sociologists are more likely to employ quasi-experimental designs where data are collected from people by surveys or interviews, but statistical means are used to create groups that can be compared. For instance, in examining the effects of gender on promotions, sociologists may control for the effects of social class as this variable will likely influence the relationship. Unlike a true experiment where these variables are held constant in a laboratory setting, quantitative sociologists use statistical methods to hold constant social class or, better stated, partial out the variance accounted for by social class so they can see the relationship between gender and promotions without the interference of social class.
The four components of research described above are integrated into the following steps of the research process. Qualitative sociologists generally employ observational and analytic techniques that allow them to contextualize observed patterns in relation to existing hierarchies or assumptions within natural settings. Thus, while the true experiment is ideally suited for the performance of quantitative science, especially because it is the best quantitative method for deriving causal relationships , other methods of hypothesis testing are commonly employed in the social sciences, and qualitative methods of critique and analysis are utilized to fact check the assumptions and theories created upon the basis of "controlled" rather than natural circumstances.
The scientific process is iterative. At any stage it is possible that some consideration will lead the scientist to repeat an earlier part of the process. For instance, failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subject. It is also important to note that science is a social enterprise, and scientific work will become accepted by the community only if it can be verified and it "makes sense" within existing scientific beliefs and assumptions about the world when new findings complicate these assumptions and beliefs, we generally witness paradigm shifts in science .
All scientific knowledge is in a state of flux, for at any time new evidence could be presented that contradicts a long-held hypothesis, and new perspectives e. For this reason, scientific journals use a process of peer review , in which scientists' manuscripts are submitted by editors of scientific journals to usually one to three fellow usually anonymous scientists familiar with the field for evaluation.
The referees may or may not recommend publication, publication with suggested modifications, or, sometimes, publication in another journal. Sometimes peer review inhibits the circulation of unorthodox work, and at other times may be too permissive. The peer review process is not always successful, but has been very widely adopted by the scientific community.
The reproducibility or replication of quantitative scientific observations, while usually described as being very important in a scientific method, is actually seldom reported, and is in reality often not done. Referees and editors often reject papers purporting only to reproduce some observations as being unoriginal and not containing anything new.
Occasionally reports of a failure to reproduce results are published - mostly in cases where controversy exists or a suspicion of fraud develops. The threat of failure to replicate by others as well as the ongoing qualitative enterprise designed to explore the veracity of quantitative findings in non-controlled settings , however, serves as a very effective deterrent for most quantitative scientists, who will usually replicate their own data several times before attempting to publish. Sometimes useful observations or phenomena themselves cannot be reproduced in fact, this is almost always the case in qualitative science spanning physical and social science disciplines.
They may be rare, or even unique events. Reproducibility of quantitative observations and replication of experiments is not a guarantee that they are correct or properly understood. Errors can all too often creep into more than one laboratory or pattern of interpretation mathematical or qualitative utilized by scientists.
In the scientific pursuit of quantitative prediction and explanation, two relationships between variables are often confused: correlation and causation. While these terms are rarely used in qualitative science, they lie at the heart of quantitative methods, and thus constitute a cornerstone of scientific practice. Correlation refers to a relationship between two or more variables in which they change together.
A positive correlation means that as one variable increases e. A negative correlation is just the opposite; as one variable increases e. Causation refers to a relationship between two or more variables where one variable causes the other. In order for a variable to cause another, it must meet the following three criteria:.
An example may help explain the difference. Ice cream consumption is positively correlated with incidents of crime. Employing the quantitative method outlined above, the reader should immediately question this relationship and attempt to discover an explanation. It is at this point that a simple yet noteworthy phrase should be introduced: correlation is not causation. If you look back at the three criteria of causation above, you will notice that the relationship between ice cream consumption and crime meets only one of the three criteria they change together. The real explanation of this relationship is the introduction of a third variable: temperature.
Ice cream consumption and crime increase during the summer months. Thus, while these two variables are correlated, ice cream consumption does not cause crime or vice versa. Both variables increase due to the increasing temperatures during the summer months. It is often the case that correlations between variables are found but the relationship turns out to be spurious. Clearly understanding the relationship between variables is an important element of the quantitative scientific process.
Like the distinction drawn between positivist sociology and Verstehen sociology, there is - as noted above in the elaboration of general scientific methods - often a distinction drawn between two types of sociological investigation: quantitative and qualitative. For instance, social class, following the quantitative approach, can be divided into different groups - upper-, middle-, and lower-class - and can be measured using any of a number of variables or a combination thereof: income, educational attainment, prestige, power, etc. Quantitative sociologists also utilize mathematical models capable of organizing social experiences into a rational order that may provide a necessary foundation for more in depth analyses of the natural world importantly, this element of quantitative research often provides the initial or potential insights that guide much theoretical and qualitative analyses of patterns observed - numerically or otherwise - beyond the confines of mathematical models.
Quantitative sociologists tend to use specific methods of data collection and hypothesis testing, including: experimental designs , surveys , secondary data analysis , and statistical analysis. Further, quantitative sociologists typically believe in the possibility of scientifically demonstrating causation, and typically utilize analytic deduction e. Finally, quantitative sociologists generally attempt to utilize mathematical realities e. Qualitative methods of sociological research tend to approach social phenomena from the Verstehen perspective.
Rather than attempting to measure or quantify reality via mathematical rules, qualitative sociologists explore variation in the natural world people may see, touch, and experience during their lives. As such, these methods are primarily used to a develop a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon, b explore the accuracy or inaccuracy of mathematical models in the world people experience, c critique and question the existing assumptions and beliefs of both scientists and other social beings, and d refine measurements and controls used by quantitative scientists via insights gleaned from the experiences of actual people.
While qualitative methods may be used to propose or explore relationships between variables, these studies typically focus on explicating the realities people experience that lie at the heart or foundation of such relationships rather than focusing on the relationships themselves. Qualitatively oriented sociologists tend to employ different methods of data collection and analysis, including: participant observation , interviews , focus groups , content analysis , visual sociology , and historical comparison.
Further, qualitative sociologists typically reject measurement or quantities essential to quantitative approaches and the notion or belief in causality e. Finally, qualitative sociologists generally attempt to utilize natural realities e. While there are sociologists who employ and encourage the use of only one or the other method, many sociologists see benefits in combining the approaches. They view quantitative and qualitative approaches as complementary.
Results from one approach can fill gaps in the other approach. For example, quantitative methods could describe large or general patterns in society while qualitative approaches could help to explain how individuals understand those patterns. Similarly, qualitative patterns in society can reveal missing pieces in the mathematical models of quantitative research while quantitative patterns in society can guide more in-depth analysis of actual patterns in natural settings. In fact, it is useful to note that many of the major advancements in social science have emerged in response to the combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques that collectively created a more systematic picture of probable and actual social conditions and experiences.
Sociologists, like all humans, have values, beliefs, and even pre-conceived notions of what they might find in doing their research. Because sociologists are not immune to the desire to change the world, two approaches to sociological investigation have emerged. By far the most common is the objective approach advocated by Max Weber. Weber recognized that social scientists have opinions, but argued against the expression of non-professional or non-scientific opinions in the classroom.
Weber did argue that it was acceptable for social scientists to express their opinions outside of the classroom and advocated for social scientists to be involved in politics and other social activism. The objective approach to social science remains popular in sociological research and refereed journals because it refuses to engage social issues at the level of opinions and instead focuses intently on data and theories.
The objective approach is contrasted with the critical approach, which has its roots in Karl Marx's work on economic structures. Anyone familiar with Marxist theory will recognize that Marx went beyond describing society to advocating for change. Marx disliked capitalism and his analysis of that economic system included the call for change. This approach to sociology is often referred to today as critical sociology see also action research. Some sociological journals focus on critical sociology and some sociological approaches are inherently critical e.
Building on these early insights, the rise of Feminist methods and theories in the 's ushered in an ongoing debate concerning critical versus objective realities. Drawing on early Feminist writings by social advocates including but not limited to Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Alice Paul , Ida Wells Barnett , Betty Friedan , and sociological theorists including but not limited to Dorothy Smith , Joan Acker , and Patricia Yancey Martin , Feminist sociologists critiqued "objective" traditions as unrealistic and unscientific in practice.
Specifically, they - along with critical theorists like Michel Foucault , bell hooks , and Patricia Hill Collins - argued that since all science was conducted and all data was interpreted by human beings and all human beings have beliefs, values, and biases that they are often unaware of and that shape their perception of reality see The Social Construction of Reality , objectivity only existed within the beliefs and values of the people that claimed it. Stated another way, since human beings are responsible for scientific knowledge despite the fact that human beings cannot be aware of all the potential biases, beliefs, and values they use to do their science, select their topics, construct measurements, and interpret data, "objective" or "value free" science are not possible.
Rather, these theorists argued that the "personal is political" e. Whether or not scientists explicitly invoke their personal opinions in their teaching and research, every decision scientists make will ultimately rely upon - and thus demonstrate to varying degrees - their subjective realities. Some examples of the subjective basis of both "objective" and "critical" sociology may illustrate the point.
First, we may examine the research process for both objective and critical sociologists while paying attention to the many decisions people must make to engage in any study from either perspective. These decisions include:. As you can see above, the research process itself is full of decisions that each researcher must make.
As a result, researchers themselves have no opportunity to conduct objective studies because doing research requires them to use their personal experiences and opinions whether these arise from personal life, the advice of the people that taught them research methods, or the books they have read that were ultimately subject to the same subjective processes throughout the process. As a result, researchers can - as Feminists have long argued - attempt to be as objective as possible, but never actually hope to reach objectivity.
This same problem arises in Weber's initial description of teaching. For someone to teach any course, for example, they must make a series of decisions including but not limited to:. As a result, Weber's objectivity dissolves before the teacher ever enters the classroom. Whether or not the teacher or researcher explicitly takes a political, religious, or social stance, he or she will ultimately demonstrate personal stances, beliefs, values, and biases implicitly throughout the course.
Although the recognition of all science as ultimately subjective to varying degrees is fairly well established at this point, the question of whether or not scientists should embrace this subjectivity remains an open one e. Further, there are many scientists in sociology and other sciences that still cling to beliefs about objectivity, and thus promote this belief political in and of itself in their teaching, research, and peer review.
As a result, the debate within the field continues without resolution, and will likely be an important part of scientific knowledge and scholarship for some time to come. Ethical considerations are of particular importance to sociologists because of the subject of investigation - people. Because ethical considerations are of so much importance, sociologists adhere to a rigorous set of ethical guidelines.
The most important ethical consideration of sociological research is that participants in sociological investigation are not harmed. While exactly what this entails can vary from study to study, there are several universally recognized considerations. For instance, research on children and youth always requires parental consent.
Research on adults also requires informed consent and participants are never forced to participate. Confidentiality and anonymity are two additional practices that ensure the safety of participants when sensitive information is provided e.
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To ensure the safety of participants, most universities maintain an institutional review board IRB that reviews studies that include human participants and ensures ethical rigor. It has not always been the case that scientists interested in studying humans have followed ethical principles in their research. Several studies that, when brought to light, led to the introduction of ethical principles guiding human subjects research and Institutional Review Boards to ensure compliance with those principles, are worth noting, including the Tuskegee syphilis experiment , in which impoverished black men with syphilis were left untreated to track the progress of the disease and Nazi experimentation on humans.
A recent paper by Susan M. Reverby  found that such unethical experiments were more widespread than just the widely known Tuskegee study and that the US Government funded a study in which thousands of Guatemalan prisoners were infected with syphilis to determine whether they could be cured with penicillin. Ethical oversight in science is designed to prevent such egregious violations of human rights today. Sociologists also have professional ethical principles they follow. Obviously honesty in research, analysis, and publication is important. Sociologists who manipulate their data are ostracized and can have their memberships in professional organizations revoked.
Conflicts of interest are also frowned upon. A conflict of interest can occur when a sociologist is given funding to conduct research on an issue that relates to the source of the funds. For example, if Microsoft were to fund a sociologist to investigate whether users of Microsoft's product users are happier than users of open source software e. Unfortunately, this does not always happen, as several high profile cases illustrate e.
But the disclosure of conflicts of interest is recommended by most professional organizations and many academic journals. A comprehensive explanation of sociological guidelines is provided on the website of the American Sociological Association. Having discussed the sociological approach to understanding society, it is worth noting the limitations of sociology. Because of the subject of investigation society , sociology runs into a number of problems that have significant implications for this field of inquiry:.
While it is important to recognize the limitations of sociology, sociology's contributions to our understanding of society have been significant and continue to provide useful theories and tools for understanding humans as social beings. Charmaz, Kathy. Blumer, Herbert. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method.
Sociologists develop theories to explain social phenomena. A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts. In other words, a theory is explanation for why or how a phenomenon occurs. An example of a sociological theory is the work of Robert Putnam on the decline of civic engagement. While there are a number of factors that contribute to this decline Putnam's theory is quite complex , one of the prominent factors is the increased consumption of television as a form entertainment.
Putnam's theory proposes:. This element of Putnam's theory clearly illustrates the basic purpose of sociological theory: it proposes a relationship between two or more concepts. In this case, the concepts are civic engagement and television watching. The relationship is an inverse one - as one goes up, the other goes down. What's more, it is an explanation of one phenomenon with another: part of the reason why civic engagement has declined over the last several decades is because people are watching more television. Putnam's theory clearly contains the key elements of a sociological theory.
Sociological theory is developed at multiple levels, ranging from grand theory to highly contextualized and specific micro-range theories. There are many middle-range and micro-range theories in sociology. Because such theories are dependent on context and specific to certain situations, it is beyond the scope of this text to explore each of those theories. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce some of the more well-known and most commonly used grand and middle-range theories in sociology.
In the theory proposed above, the astute reader will notice that the theory includes two components: The data, in this case the findings that civic engagement has declined and TV watching has increased, and the proposed relationship, that the increase in television viewing has contributed to the decline in civic engagement. Data alone are not particularly informative. If Putnam had not proposed a relationship between the two elements of social life, we may not have realized that television viewing does, in fact, reduce people's desire to and time for participating in civic life.
In order to understand the social world around us, it is necessary to employ theory to draw the connections between seemingly disparate concepts. Another example of sociological theorizing illustrates this point. In his now classic work, Suicide ,  Emile Durkheim was interested in explaining a social phenomenon, suicide , and employed both data and theory to offer an explanation.
By aggregating data for large groups of people in Europe, Durkheim was able to discern patterns in suicide rates and connect those patterns with another concept or variable : religious affiliation. Durkheim found that Protestants were more likely to commit suicide than were Catholics. At this point, Durkheim's analysis was still in the data stage; he had not proposed an explanation for the different suicide rates of the two groups. It was when Durkheim introduced the ideas of anomie and social solidarity that he began to explain the difference in suicide rates.
Durkheim argued that the looser social ties found in Protestant religions lead to weaker social cohesion and reduced social solidarity. The higher suicide rates were the result of weakening social bonds among Protestants. While Durkheim's findings have since been criticized, his study is a classic example of the use of theory to explain the relationship between two concepts. Durkheim's work also illustrates the importance of theory: without theories to explain the relationship between concepts, we would not be able to hypothesize cause and effect relationships in social life or outline processes whereby social events and patterns occur.
As noted above, there are many theories in sociology. However, there are several broad theoretical perspectives that are prominent in the field they are arguably paradigms. These theories are prominent because they are quite good at explaining social life. They are not without their problems, but these theories remain widely used and cited precisely because they have withstood a great deal of criticism. As the dominant theories in sociology are discussed below, you might be inclined to ask, "Which of these theories is the best?
In fact, it is probably more useful and informative to view these theories as complementary. One theory may explain one element of society better than another.
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Or, both may be useful for explaining social life. In short, all of the theories are correct in the sense that they offer compelling explanations for social phenomena. Structural-Functionalism is a sociological theory that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological needs originally just functionalism.
Later it came to focus on the ways social institutions meet social needs structural-functionalism. Structural-functionalism draws its inspiration primarily from the ideas of Emile Durkheim. He sought to explain social cohesion and stability through the concept of solidarity. In more "primitive" societies it was mechanical solidarity , everyone performing similar tasks, that held society together. Durkheim proposed that such societies tend to be segmentary, being composed of equivalent parts that are held together by shared values, common symbols, or systems of exchanges.
In modern, complex societies members perform very different tasks, resulting in a strong interdependence between individuals. Based on the metaphor of an organism in which many parts function together to sustain the whole, Durkheim argued that modern complex societies are held together by organic solidarity think interdependent organs. The central concern of structural-functionalism is a continuation of the Durkheimian task of explaining the apparent stability and internal cohesion of societies that are necessary to ensure their continued existence over time. Many functionalists argue that social institutions are functionally integrated to form a stable system and that a change in one institution will precipitate a change in other institutions.
Societies are seen as coherent, bounded and fundamentally relational constructs that function like organisms, with their various parts social institutions working together to maintain and reproduce them. The various parts of society are assumed to work in an unconscious, quasi-automatic fashion towards the maintenance of the overall social equilibrium. All social and cultural phenomena are therefore seen as being functional in the sense of working together to achieve this state and are effectively deemed to have a life of their own.
These components are then primarily analysed in terms of the function they play. In other words, to understand a component of society, one can ask the question, "What is the function of this institution? Thus, one can ask of education, "What is the function of education for society? Durkheim's strongly sociological perspective of society was continued by Radcliffe-Brown. Explanations of social phenomena therefore had to be constructed within this social level, with individuals merely being transient occupants of comparatively stable social roles. Thus, in structural-functionalist thought, individuals are not significant in and of themselves but only in terms of their social status : their position in patterns of social relations.
The social structure is therefore a network of statuses connected by associated roles. Structural-functionalism has been criticized for being unable to account for social change because it focuses so intently on social order and equilibrium in society. For instance, in the late 19th Century, higher education transitioned from a training center for clergy and the elite to a center for the conduct of science and the general education of the masses. As structural-functionalism thinks about elements of social life in relation to their present function and not their past functions, structural-functionalism has a difficult time explaining why a function of some element of society might change or how such change occurs.
However, structural-functionalism could, in fact, offer an explanation in this case. Also occurring in the 19th Century though begun in the 18th was the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution, facilitated by capitalism, was increasingly demanding technological advances to increase profit. Technological advances and advanced industry both required more educated workforces. Thus, as one aspect of society changed - the economy and production - it required a comparable change in the educational system, bringing social life back into equilibrium.
Another philosophical problem with the structural-functional approach is the ontological argument that society does not have needs as a human being does; and even if society does have needs they need not be met. Masonry insists that "we climb up into heaven". In the 17th Knight of the East and West degree, we see more Masonic blasphemy and disobedience: The candidate is lanced slightly on his arm as if he is taking the part of the Lamb who was slain, even though Scripture tells us in Leviticus not to make any cuttings in our flesh - as pacts with the devil were usually done that way.
Attached to the Bible are seven seals as if mocking the seven seals of Revelation. The seven seals are opened in this ceremony. The candidate mocks Christ shedding His blood for us, and tries to take Christ's place, by opening the 7 seals. In a diabolical twist, Masonic Temples have their alter in the opposite side of the Temple.
The Masons enter in the west vs from the east. This is diabolically significant as say the diabolical 3 AM "witching hour" as an inversion and mockery of the hour when Jesus is believed to have died on the cross 3 PM. It's a dead giveaway to even the most naive among us as to who their alter is really honoring. This reverse image is very prevalent in the occult. The Masonic Temple always has the entrance in the west and the altar in the east.
In the Bible we are told the entrance of the Garden of Eden was in the east. To enter the Garden of Eden and go to the Tree of Life, one was traveling from east to west. To enter the Tabernacle or the Temple to approach God, the priest traveled from east to west. Freemasonry is degrees reversed.
In the ancient mystery religions, from which Freemasonry springs, the Sun was worshipped, and the most sacred direction was east, where the sun arose each morning to renew life on earth. The position of the feet is no coincidence when facing the Worshipful Master "in the East. He resides in the East. The position of the feet forms the "Tau Cross," a phallic symbol from antiquity associated with phallic worship and Sun worship. Such worship was always done facing East. It relates to this phallic worship. See example here. In typical Rosicrucian manner, they deliberately spiritualize that which is intended to be literal and literalize that which is meant to be spiritual.
Thus, the Chief Corner Stone mentioned in Scripture which is a clear symbolic reference to Christ is blasphemously reduced to a literal physical brick corner-stone which is profanely paraded round the Chapter room. Learn more about this mockery : here. If so, it may be influential and playing a role in high-level international affairs as well as in the domestic affairs of certain European countries and the EU His well-founded dislike for Masons was his belief that they exclude Jesus Christ, and instead bow down to some unknown impersonal god or fallen angel -- their generic "grand architect of the universe" GAOTU.
Leo XIII said; "Today evil doers all seem allied in a tremendous effort inspired by and with the help of a society powerfully organized and widely spread over the world, it is the Society of Freemasons. In fact those people no longer even try to dissimulate their intentions, but they actually challenge each other's audacity in order to assail God's August Majesty.
Pope Leo XIII defines the Masonic point of view on morality thus: "The only thing which has found grace before the members of the Masonic sect and in which they request that youth should receive the proper teaching is what they call 'Civic Morality', independent morality, free morality, in other words a morality in which religious beliefs find no room. This morality is insufficient and its effects are its own condemnation. Such counter-morality is that of civil marriage, of divorce, of free love and of irreligious education for youth.
In this way Freemasons make themselves the auxiliaries of those who wish that, like an animal, man had no other rule of conduct than his own desires -- Such a scheme can only dishonor human kind and ignominiously cast him into perdition. Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria vetoed his appointment in the last moment. The Roman Catholic church was officially opposed to the group ever since , when Pope Clement XII condemned Freemasonry and banned it from his faith. Catholics were forbidden from joining, under pain of excommunication.
In , Leo XII reiterated the ban and declared it to be permanent and everlasting. In , Leo XIII called on each member of the clergy to get the word out and help defeat this insidious foe: We pray and beseech you, venerable brethren, to join your efforts with Ours, and earnestly to strive for the extirpation of this foul plague, which is creeping through the veins of the body politic.
A more detailed early exposure of Freemasonry than in God's Banker can be found in Abbe Augusten de Barruel's book from the late 's called " Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism ". In this book, de Barruel, who lived in Revolutionary France charged that many years prior to the French Revolution, men who called themselves "philosophers" had conspired against the God of the Gospel, against Christianity, without distinction of worship. The grand object of the "conspiracy," the Abbe asserted, was to overthrow every altar where Christ was adored.
These philosophers, the Abbe said, formed the sophisters of rebellion, who joined with Freemasons --a group characterized as having a "long history" of hatred for Christ and kings. From this coalition he said, came the "Sophisters of Impiety and Anarchy," who conspired against every religion, every government, against civil society, and even against all property..
Reference: "Behind the Lodge Door", page 26 This opposition to Freemasonry persisted into the 20th century. Pope Pius XII hated them. Can Masonry Offer a Christian more than Jesus? In the 19th degree of Scottish Rite Freemasonry, the initiate is told that attachment to Masonry's "statutes and rules of the order" will make him "deserving of entering the celestial Jerusalem [heaven]. Even in the 32nd Degree, a Mason never can nor will find the "light" he is looking for.
Will the "sons of God" fallen Angels return to earth on December 21, and establish a new world order, led by an unearthly powerful ruler? The overall picture would appear at first to represent angels but then what angels have you ever seen with cloven hooves and red fur. Also very important to note These creatures do not possess arms or hands so we can only conclude that they are some form of lesser angel or more probably devils.
Jesus emphatically declared in John 3: that the basis for deciding one's eternal destiny is whether they accept Jesus, the Light of the world. Good character and good works can exist in a person who is not saved. Jesus said; "I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me. Because of its Religion nature and masons worship false idols. Masonry has a distinctly religious character, a fact which may surprise many American Masons who have joined the Lodge for business, social or political reasons.
They will be tempted to deny its religious character. They look upon Masonry as a purely fraternal organization and do not consider it a religion. Either they do not know the true constitution of their Lodge, or Masonic authorities are violating the principles of Masonry, for they definitely emphasize its religious character. Masons don't want anyone to think Masonry is a religion because it may turn off "real Christians", Jews, and Muslims; and that means less dues.
And less money for each degree masons have to pay for --for which they learn nothing but frivolous things about the occult and ancient pagan gods. The God of Masonry is Lucifer the light giver. Most Masons who deny that Masonry is a religion confuse religion with the Christian religion. They know Masonry is not Christian since if it were their Jewish and Moslem brethren would object.
It may be fairly assumed that the Grand Lodge of the State of New York knew what it was talking about when arguing its case against a certain Robert Kopp in a trial before the Appellate division of the New York Supreme Court in Kopp had been expelled from the fraternity and had appealed the action of his brethren to the civil court. One of the strong points made by the Grand Lodge during the trial was as follows:. Each requires a candidate for admission to subscribe to certain articles of religious belief as an essential prerequisite for membership.
Each requires a member to conduct himself thereafter in accordance with certain religious principles. Each requires its members to adhere to certain doctrines of belief and action Henry Wilson Coil is the author of the encyclopedia that many lodges now accept as their authoritative source Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia. Coil says that if Freemasonry is not a religion, nothing would have to be added to make it such, and that the religious service at the funeral of a Mason is evidence enough that Freemasonry is a religion. But the fact that Freemasonry is religion would not necessarily condemn it, except that the views of the Masonic religion are in open conflict with Biblical Christianity , so much so that, in our opinion, a knowledgeable and committed Mason could not possibly be a true Christian.
Remember, Masons think so highly about this Albert Pike extremely fat, occultist, Massachusetts Tory, and ex-Confederate General who was brought up on charges of mutilating Union soldier bodies --that they have his body buried in. Pike is the only Freemason to be given this "honor". Surprisingly enough - Pike who evidence suggests was also a KKK member, has somehow managed to get Masons to erect a statue to him in of all places - Washington, D.
There has never been a false religion in the world. The permanent one universal revelation is written in visible Nature and explained by Reason and is completed by the wise analogies of faith. There is one true religion, one dogma, one legitimate belief. Freemasonry is not of God "My children, recognize the faces of evil now loosed in the world. I bring you a sad lesson in knowledge.
In the past We have counseled through prophets, your Popes, to forbid all who have joined in My Son's Church, forbid them to become part of freemasonry and the Masons. And why? Because, My children, they are not of God, and if they are not of God, they are the Antichrist. And why are they the Antichrist? Because they worship false idols! This fundamental Catholic reason can be briefly stated. Now, the fundamental doctrine of the Naturalists, which they sufficiently make known by their very name, is that human nature and human reason ought in all things to be mistress and guide.
Laying this down, they care little for duties to God, or pervert them by erroneous and vague opinions. For they deny that anything has been taught by God; they allow no dogma of religion or truth which cannot be understood by the human intelligence, nor any teacher who ought to be believed by reason of his authority.
And since it is the special and exclusive duty of the Catholic Church fully to set forth in words truths divinely received, to teach, besides other divine helps to salvation, the authority of its office, and to defend the same with perfect purity, it is against the Church that the rage and attack of the enemies are principally directed.
Will Freemasonry unite with other "Societies with Secrets" to be the building block which will usher in the New World Order - which the Anti-Christ will gain control if? Has Masonry substituted Masonry for a real relationship with the living God of the universe through His Son! The rank and file of the lower degrees of Masonry to this day have no clue as to the purpose of the society or the intentions of the controlling elite. About , there arose a new generation of mystical knights. They were the arm of Freemasonry, which called themselves Jacobins. Weishaupht embraced the occult mysteries and organized The Order of the Illuminati in By he infiltrated Masonry as a fully-initiated Master Mason.
He then inducted the influential European elite of Masonry into the Illuminati— men by On the other side of the Atlantic, mystical Masons were under siege by the occult Illuminists. By the mystical Masonry of the New World succumbed to the occult one-world vision of the Weishaupht Illuminati, the guardians of the Ancient Mysteries of Nimrod.
Nimrod was the servant of Lucifer, and the resulting religious system was Luciferic. The unrest of the s and the rise of the "Drug Culture" molded the beginnings of another public re-emergence of occultism. The New Age Movement of the 70s and 80s successfully mainstreamed many occult beliefs. This new renaissance of the occult has perfectly positioned Freemasonry to play a vital role in the year-old dream of Nimrod, a one-world, occult kingdom. Freemasonry currently serves as the conduit between the political organizations of the global elite Club of Rome, Trilateral Commission, Bilderbergers, CFR, etc.
In this way, the goals and work of the United Nations shall be solidified and a new Church of God, led by all the religions and by all of the spiritual groups, shall put an end to the great heresy of separateness. There appears to be an active interest in obelisks on the part of the Masonic Order.
A book published by the Freemasons titled Obelisks provides detailed information on the Babylonian origins of Masonry and many ancient obelisks around the world. Two of these were removed from Egypt a few years prior to the completion of the Washington Monument -- one was placed in London in and the other in New York in Peter's Basilica in Rome… It is not a mere copy of an Egyptian obelisk, it is the very same obelisk that stood in Egypt in ancient times!
The Bible mentions an obelisk-type image approximately nine feet in breadth and ninety feet high: 'The people…fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up' in Babylon Dan. But it was in Egypt an early stronghold of the mystery religion that the use of the obelisk was best known. Books of Freemasonry, Theosophy and other mystery religions state that it is not intended that the "uninitiated" or lower orders understand occult symbols, but it is important that they ignorantly venerate and even worship them.
It is further believed by esotericists that the obelisks and other monoliths hold the sacred mysteries which were known to the ancient religions. Throughout the ages, these mysteries or secret doctrines have been entrusted only to the adepts -- the sages or "elect" -- nevertheless, they will be revealed to the world at the end of the age. Each succeeding degree in Masonry has a similar horrible oath and penalty connected with it with that Oath below. But Jesus commanded His followers to "not swear at all" Matthew ; James In addition, Jesus would never sanction these required oaths, for He said: "I have said nothing in secret" John In Masonry, each entering Apprentice says ;.
All this I most solemnly, sincerely promise and swear, with a firm and steadfast resolution to perform the same, without any mental reservation or secret evasion of mine whatever binding myself under no less a penalty than that of having my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by its roots, and buried in the rough sand of the sea at low water mark where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four hours, should I ever knowingly or willingly violate my solemn oath and obligation as an Entered Apprentice Mason.
So help me, God. From his initiation as an Entered Apprentice on up into the highest degrees of Freemasonry, the individual Mason is told that his sworn duty is to construct, through public service and adherence to the doctrines of the Lodge, a "spiritual temple" -- his own good works being the building material. This goal is allegedly based upon the following passage from the Bible: " The remainder of the verse "by Jesus Christ. In the second, Fellowcraft degree, for example, the candidate binds himself to his oath "under no less penalty than to have my left breast torn open and my heart and vitals taken from thence and thrown over my left shoulder and carried into the valley of Jehosaphat.
The true Christian knows that it is only through the atoning work of the Savior in his behalf that his works of righteousness are acceptable to God the Father, for apart from faith in Jesus Christ and in the redemption of the cross, all religious endeavors are as worthless as "filthy rags" Isaiah It is disturbing, therefore, to find this very necessary clause of 1 Peter ominously absent when the verse is quoted in Masonic proceedings.
This, wrote Albert Mackey Mackey, Albert. History of Freemasonry is a "slight but necessary modification. Because Masons have rejected the chief Cornerstone of the Christian faith 1 Peter Their so-called "spiritual temples" are therefore corrupt and unstable right down to the very foundations. The following is taken from pages of the book, Masonry: Beyond The Light, by former Mason, William Schnoebelen: "The high point of the KT initiation is when the candidate is brought before a large, triangular table covered in black velvet illuminated by candles and containing eleven silver goblets and a human skull enthroned on the Bible.
Skulls figure prominently throughout this initiation. It seems but a grim mockery, though. The visual effect is more satanic than Christian, especially to one accustomed to the Table of the Lord in churches. However, the ambiance is the least of the problems. The fourth libation is to the memory of Simon of Cyrene, and the fifth is the most sinister of all. After the toast in this ritual, the candidate is required to take an oath which makes him the sin-bearer of his own sins and the sins of the person from whom the skull was taken. Does this sound like something that a Christian man should do?!
Kenneth Copeland a 33rd Degree Mason? Robert Schuller? Oral Roberts? The Religiosity of Freemasons. It is worthy to remember that although there are a lot of decent people in the Lodge, in a spiritual sense they are not aware of that they are doing, at least some of them, for it is the spirit of darkness that has control over them. At first I did not notice that none of the prayers are in the name of Jesus Christ. I resigned. I had not realized that those who were members of anti-Christian religions could become Masons.
He advised me that as Grand Master he had the authority to disband my Lodge and remove its Charter as a Lodge, if I persisted in using the name of Jesus with members present who objected. I now had an irresistible force meeting an immovable object, namely the God of the Universe, Jesus Christ, and the god of Freemasonry, Satan. However, I lacked spiritual guidance and maturity. Rainbow had Bible-like sayings that sounded "church-y", so I perceived Christianity and the teachings of Rainbow to be the same.
How wrong I was. DeMolay, Lodge and then Christ. A Mason who had second thoughts wrote: My readings in Blackmer helped me realize the origins of Masonic rituals in Egyptian sun worship. I could not dismiss this, because Blue Lodge and Royal Arch Masonry are the only two, true original forms of the Craft.
Therefore, it did not matter what other types of Christian window-dressings were placed into the York or Scottish Rites. It also does not matter how much they attempt to change the rituals to be more palatable to Christians, since the origins, to me, betray the focus. Martyn Attard finds out Freemasons are hoodwinked.
Martyn Attard was a Freemason for around six years and who renounced the fraternity for Catholicism. In the s, a successful businessman in his late 20s, drowning in alcohol and leading a lifestyle based on sex, power and money, Mr Attard became a Freemason. Having resigned from the organization now I know with certainty that it is Freemasons who are in darkness. All Knight Templars are Freemasons. Freemasonry is the UK's largest secular, fraternal and charitable organization, and the United Grand Lodge of England has over , members working in nearly 8, Lodges throughout England and Wales and more than 30, members overseas.
It was a good friend who introduced him to the world of Freemasonry - he calls a secret society. Freemasons say the criteria for becoming a Freemason is a belief in a Superior Being referred to as G. The idea is also to replace all religions with the one true Masonic religion. Upon quitting the GOI, Di Bernardo accused his old lodge of Satanic rituals saying, "in the lodges of the GOI, obscene rites are practiced, deriving from the Templar tradition, in which the devil Baphomet is invoked , together with the Supreme Being.
In an interview he explains his goal, "A new utopia may be based on the cabala. I see a utopia based on Jewish mysticism, but Jewish mysticism as a place This is my intention. This is my will! Lord Northampton said; "I know the Golden Dawn extremely well, and I love Aleister Crowley's poems and Macgregor Mathers, and all those people and I know all the people in England who are still practicing it, and I have done the rituals.
I have done all these things. Great fun. Tremendously exciting! He was also the president of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and two decades earlier had been the chief engineer for British excavations of the Temple Mount. And I think you can spot them, quite clearly, in old English families. I am sure you can. I know they came to Ireland, then to the north of Wales, and then down into England. And then that became some of the oldest families we have. Di Bernardo says that there are strong connections between B'nai B'rith and freemasonry.
The Masonry Temple of All Religions Truly, the Holy Bible is proven true in its prophecy of great "merchants" who, in the last days, deceive the world through their commercial trade and their sorcery. Reference for the above - Christian writer Texe Marrs: here. Masonic plan to reveal their Messiah on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. When we speak of Masonry, we need to speak of the occult, kabbalah cabala , black magic, satanism, and spiritism. All forbidden by the Word of God. As we know, the dabbling in the occult, black magic and spiritism are all very good ways of inviting demons into ones life.
Masonry takes all the world religions, ignores their teachings, and comes up with its own blend of enlightened man. This is what Masons mean by the "perfected man". He belongs to a fraternity which on the surface puts up the facade of benevolence, all the while directing and corralling its initiates to its true God - as Masonry Grand Master Albert Pike tells us: "Lucifer, the Light-bearer!
His fearsome appearance in a tall pointed hat and his penchant for crystal balls gave the world the archetype of the wizard after which dozens of story book wizards have been based, including Gandalf, Harry Potter, and even the Wizard of Oz. He founded the Rosicrucian order the preeminent training School for the occult , the first of many magical secret societies, which promoted spiritual growth throughout the centuries.
John Dee was an English mathematician, professor, and astronomer who gave it all up for the at that time more lucrative occupation of being an "angel channeler" and astrologer. Dee eventually became Elizabeth's court astrologer, and soon after, her spy. As an agent of the crown, Dee conducted several mysterious missions for purposes mostly unknown to this day. He relished his espionage duties, creating elaborate, sophisticated ciphers. The angelic channeler John Dee believed that specially constructed mirrors could draw magical power from the sun and transmit messages and objects to distant stars and other worlds.
Dee attempted to receive visions from 'angels' using a globe of crystal. Dee was born near London on the 13th of July He entered St. John's College at Cambridge at age He achieved notoriety early on with a charge of sorcery, which stemmed from a mechanical flying beetle demonstrated in a stage play. After spending many years studying mathematics and cartography, he took an interest in natural magic, a pastime then accepted by the church. From his studies he developed a doctrine that one could obtain knowledge of God from the applied practice of magick- a controversial idea that was to get him into trouble on a number of occasions.
Early in his "Magik" career, during the reign of Queen Mary Tudor Bloody Mary , Dee was arrested and accused of attempting to kill her with sorcery. He was imprisoned in Hampton Court in He was accused of practicing black magic. In one of his many books dealing with Occult matters, The Monas Heiroglyphica was published, the Monas Heiroglyphica is a symbol created by Dee, which he believed was the ultimate symbol of Occult knowledge. The following year he published Di Trigono. Dee began his experiments in trying to contact discarnate entities in , mainly fuelled by strange dreams, feelings and mysterious noises within his home.
On 25 May he recorded that he had made his first contact with the spirit world, through the medium of his crystal ball. This had taken Dee years of work to achieve, through studying the occult, alchemy and crystallomancy.
Spirit contact would prove to be a major driving force behind Dee for the rest of his life. While Dee was away in Europe things were not boding well at home. In a large mob attacked Dee's home and library at Mortlake in Surrey destroying his collection of books, occult instruments and personal belongings.
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The attack was probably in response to rumors that Dee was a wizard. And that's that benevolent "higher spiritual beings" are just waiting in one of many other dimensions to aid "Perfected Men" like Dee and Freemasons, men who have perfected themselves through proceeding up through the ranks of the secret societies.
Freemason's are aware that God is opposed to this. The Bible calls these spiritual beings demons, with God forbidding such practices completely. This practice is called "necromancy", and is defined as "conjuration of the spirits of the dead for purposes of magically revealing the future or influencing the course of events" Miriam Dictionary.
In the following passages, God forbids this practice: Deuteronomy ; 1 Samuel ; Leviticus ; and Leviticus Dee was a practitioner of 'Hermetic Gnosticism', a school of thought based on the ancient pre-Christian teachings of the Greek god Hermes. Hermes was in fact a mere copy of the much earlier Egyptian god of knowledge and language, Thoth.
In this sense, all 'Hermetic Gnosticism' can be viewed as a worship of the teachings of Thoth. According to the Egyptian mythos, Thoth was one of the gods who came down to Earth, along with Isis and Osiris, to bring the fruits of knowledge, civilization and the sciences to the Egyptian people In , using his knowledge of these ancient practices, he began a series of attempts to communicate with 'higher beings'.
His channel in this capacity was one Sir Edward Kelly The was the insignia number that Elizabeth was to use for private communiques between her Court and Dee. Dee was the man whom Ian Fleming modeled his James Bond character. Lamech in turn had three sons: Jabal, Jubal, Tubalcain. Tubal Cain refers to blacksmiths from antiquity and the original Tubal Cain supposedly worked with bronze and iron in the far distant past. It then looks like two balls and a club or a cane. The interesting thing about this is that there is a resemblance to the Masonic symbol "Two Ball Cane".
Listen to what occultist and Mason, Manly Palmer Hall, has to say : "The day has come when Fellow Craftsman must know and apply their knowledge. The lost key to their grade is the mastery of emotion , which places the energy of the universe at their disposal. Man can only expect to be entrusted with great power by proving his ability to use it constructively and selflessly. When the Mason learns that the key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the mastery of his craft. The seething energies of Lucifer are in his h ands and before he may step onward and upward, he must prove his ability to properly apply energy.
He must follow in the footsteps of his forefather, Tubal-Cain, who with the mighty strength of the war god hammered his sword into a ploughshare. Hall, 33rd Degree, K. Blight, 33rd Degree, K. Former Mason, Bill Schnoebelen, explains: "For Masons who wish to conceal their membership from non-Masons, but still advertise it to their Lodge brothers, there is a special pin or tie tack they can wear.
It looks like an upside down golf club with two balls near the top Many people assume the person is a golfing enthusiast, but it is actually a visual Masonic pun. It is also an all-too-obvious pun on the 'god' of Masonry, the male reproductive organ. Nice, eh? Enoch is also the central figure around which a great deal of Masonic legend is centered, as he is said to have constructed the two pillars of Masonic lore to preserve the antediluvian high knowledge of Atlantis inside them. He procured what tended to the pleasures of the body by that method; and first of all invented the art of making brass.
This image depicts John Dee, Queen Elizabeth's personal astrologer, passing a lantern symbolizing the esoteric tradition to Francis Bacon. When he was 21, Bacon met the alchemist and original , John Dee. On August 11, there was an entry in Dee's journal that they met at Mortlake — the young Bacon came to the famous alchemist to learn about the ancient Hebrew esoteric numerical code known as the Gematria , one of the oldest cipher systems known, dating from BCE.
The original English "Top Secret" When Frances Drake sailed up the coast of California he had navigational instruments that were top secret. The French, the Spanish, must be kept away from this stuff and these were navigational instruments created by John Dee that allowed him to locate himself anywhere on the globe. In addition to his studies of the occult, and numerous trips abroad which many think as a spy , Dee was employed teaching navigation to Naval Captains for 30 years.
Asher Kaufman, to begin studies on the exact location of where the Temple originally stood. This lodge was founded by Giuliano Di Bernardo, and at the opening ceremony he declared, " The rebuilding of the Temple is at the center of our studies. Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable, blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish souls? At the heart of Masonry is a secret Luciferian doctrine which a Mason only comes to understand as he reaches the higher levels.. Masonic books given to handpicked members of the 32nd and 33rd Degrees, say that Jesus was an impostor, and that Lucifer is the true God.
See more testimonies at the site ex-Masons for Jesus here. Witnessing to Freemasons. An unsaved Mason has no reason to follow Jesus; and he would need to be approached like any lost soul: with much prayer and with the understanding of two factors:. He has substituted Masonry for a real relationship with the living God of the universe through His Son!
Most Christian Masons, on the other hand, have no idea of what they are involved in, but have joined because of family obligations, or business connections. Unfortunately, these men may also lack an appreciation of the holiness and majesty of the Lord Whom they profess to follow; and may not know a great deal about either the Lodge they serve or the Bible. Amazon is linked for reference only--we make no money from these.
They glorify the pagan Islamic religion. We must also remember that the Shriners are no more and no less than very high degree Masonry--no matter how many funny cars they ride around in with their funny hats on; and no matter how they try to fit into the community with benevolent fund raisers, etc.. Shriners are the Islamic branch of Masonry linking this occultist, Satanist, God hating "institution" and conspiracy to another enslavement movement known as Islam.
While generally known as a social organization, the Shriners branch in the U. That is a ploy, however. The Shriner goal is no less than political control of all governments with the ultimate idea of the formation of a one world currency and then a one world government endorsed by docile domesticated religious leaders. The memberships of their organizations supply the financial backing, either directly or indirectly, for political action. Their focus is primarily upon the election of members to political office at all levels of government.
Shriners promote democracy in place of republicanism, the original legal form of government developed by the founding fathers of the U. The concept is for the government — controlled by freemasons — to dominate the population rather than having a government restricted as to its actions as intended by the American Constitution.
Many powerful corporations are dominated by Freemasons and contribute to political causes that elect such men as William Clinton, an acknowledged supporter of sodomy and abortion, and John Kerry. Masonry is all about lying to new candidates about what Masonry including Freemasonry is all about. Masons are even lied to about what their symbols and aprons are all about. Masons are spoon fed via degrees what they should know. Some of these folks still think the star in the east is referring to Bethlehem, when to the Wise men coming from the east this should be the "shining star in the west".
The Charter For Children
It's all about the occult and Satan Worship, but a Mason will point to the Bible in the Masonic Temple and say; see it's one of the 3 great lights of Masonry. Ask this Mason, when the last time something was read from it about the Son of God. Or, when the last time he heard the name of Jesus even mentioned in a Masonic Lodge. The "Kabbalah" he refers to here is a medieval book of the occult, a highly mystical and magical interpretation of the Bible, and important sourcebook for sorcerers and magicians.
Don't Masons know the Holy of Holies temple rights faced West? Yet Mason temple rights face east -- in Satan's direction - to the Sun god Ba'al? Haven't Mason's heard that the north side of a Masonic Lodge is the side of ignorance and darkness? In the Bible, the north side is where God presides. And like some sick satanic joke a Masonic Lodge is facing exactly backwards from the real Temple of Solomon - sort of a Black Mass of direction. Satan has managed to deceive so many people into thinking they are getting real brotherly friendship under his guidance than they would get in a Christian Church.
Also, Masonry's teachings, rituals, customs and practices, and its secrecy have had an inspirational effect on other similar groups such as the Moose, Eagles, Elks, and the National Grange. In an almost a dead "giveaway" to its satanic nature, a common Masonic ritual even promises; "when in that last day your poor trembling soul stands naked and alone before the great white throne". Any Christian should know only the unsaved and "damned" will stand in front of the great white throne of God. When you stand in front of the great white throne in your mocking lambskin aprons with satanic sexual "G"enerative symbol printed on them and plead your "good works" instead of the blood of The Lamb, surely you'll generate a "hit".
So much time wasted that could have been better spent with family and Jesus. Read Genesis to see why God did not want Adam and Eve to wear aprons of fig leafs to cover their shame, and why God gave them coats from animal skins. I Pray you plead the Blood of the Lamb and remove this scourge from yourself and your family, before it's too late. This book is an especially important read for any Catholics who may be contemplating making the mistake of becoming a Freemason.
They should be looking into joining a fraternal organization such as the Knights of Columbus instead. It was finally the problem of Masonry's teaching on the resurrection that convinced John Salza to leave Masonry forever. A Freemasonry believes in a bodily resurrection to the celestial lodge above.