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The Evolution of Noun Classes from Latin to Italian

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  4. She skates again

She skates again. Thread starter Teerex51 Start date Aug 7, Teerex51 Senior Member Milan, Italy. OK, so what's the big deal? Nothing mysterious about this sentence. To skate means—quite predictably— to glide or propel oneself [ Except it doesn't, at least not in this particular case. She Skates Again! This is a news headline, from which I have redacted the subject's name, and it deals with a certain American politician who was recently investigated by no less than FBI agents for a host of alleged security violations. The shocking outcome was the US Dept.

So she skated. In Italian, there are a few options to try and match both meaning and register of this slang expression. Sfangarla [or sfangarsela ] get away with sthg. TR and others, feel free to shoot it down! Ref: sbucciare: significato e definizione - Dizionari - La Repubblica fig. Sbucciarsela, riuscire a cavarsela, scansare una noia. Pietruzzo Senior Member Salento Italy. This is not a translation but the headline they'd probably make in Italy: "Graziata ancora!

Every little noise and I thought it was you suffocating, choking, dying in your cot. We used to go and walk by the sea. Me pushing your buggy, all wrapped up in my old jumpers, like a bag lady; you swathed in layers of wool, and nylon and gloves and scarves, like a round bundle of rags, chirping away to yourself. I couldn't talk to them. I was somewhere else, smiling back but distantly, giving a silent warning; Keep Off The Grass. We used to go down to the sea and just stare out at it. You loved the waves. I loved the noise they made, falling over and over, like breath.

I often hear that noise now. Comforts me at night. They left me some magazines and a drink and some yoghurt. It was nice of them; they didn't have to do that. There's a bloke next door. I know because I heard him shouting a while ago. He wanted a piss, poor bastard. And then Davey comes back. Wearing a shirt, and someone's ironed the collar. Clean jeans. Jesus Christ, I think, and then I see why.

A woman follows him in; bubbles of blonde hair piled on her head like a poodle in a show and she's plump, but smart, really smart. And look at the state of this place. I wouldn't even sit down in here! The bath is stearning, full of your dirty nappies. Damned if I'm going to cry. Barbara sniffs and tugs Davey towards the cot where you lie.

She picks you up. And you betray me by smiling at her. How can you know that you are all I have? Taken away. Two little words like drops of acid. I went mad. I threw everything I could find, howling, howling like a cat. They fled, clattering and threatening all the way down the stairs.

Nerys banged on the ceiling. There were no more men after that. No more odd men; men in pubs; men who reek of beer and pies, men with lazy eyes travelling up and down, assessing the meat for plumpness, freshness, stamina. No more nights spent under these men. No more hands touching but not seeing. No more foul breath on my neck. No more hours wasted; waiting, waiting; dry lips, creased skin, legs goosepimply and cold, selling my wares. No more. Never warmed me up, those men. Left me cold. I used to pay a kid from the flats to sit with you while I was out.

A twelve-year-old bloody kid; someone too young to know my shame. Jesus Christ! Anyone could have taken you from me then. I'd come in blue and shaking with cold, the shape of their hands still printed on me; blank inside. I'd pay the kid and he'd bugger off. Then I'd go towards you and pick you up and you'd be warm; so warm; always warm and wriggling, giggling, my baby. Playing with you on the sofa; a game where I hide the rabbit with the bell and you scream and laugh until you find him. I hear a tiny, gentle sound and I see that a letter, a letter in a white envelope has landed on the mat.

There's typing on the front. I put you down for a nap and when I read it I'm sick. In the end I tear it with my teeth into a thousand pieces and when it's no more than mush and spit I take it to the window and throw it to the gulls. But the letters come thick and fast. First from Social Services, then from the council, then another white envelope with writing saying I've been summoned.

I chuck them in the bin. When people knock at the door, I never answer. I just sit with you in the toilet until they go away. Two ladies come and shout through the letterbox. It's too dangerous. Anyone might be waiting there. But I know. I know they are coming. We can't hide in the toilet for ever. I imagine them breaking the door down with axes and grabbing you out of my arms!

I imagine them ambushing me when I go out for food! I imagine them surrounding the block of flats and starving us out! I turn all the lights off and we crawl about on the floor below the level of the windows. You think it's fun. Days pass; maybe weeks, maybe months. I don't know because each moment seems the same; grey and small. I wash your clothes in the bath, again and again, and when they're all wet, I dress you in old T-shirts of mine. Then one day we come to the end of the dry Rice Krispies and the packet soups.

I feed you the last egg, the very last egg, and a few hours later you begin to cry with hunger. I lake you to the window and we look down. And there they are, same as always, hundreds of them watching us, listening to you cry. There they all are, shimmering, all the ladies and the solicitor and the people from the council, and Davey and thingy, poodle-dog, whatever her name is, and she floats up to the window and leers in shouting: 'He's crying! She's making him cry! Please, don't cry.

Somehow, in the darkness, they seem to lose their strength. I move from the window and look all around the little flat. So small, so bare, a haven no longer. You're tired out with sobbing and while you sleep, I bundle you into your pram. We creep past Nerys' door. I can hear her telly, loud and ordinary. The pram wheels squeak but we get away. The street is vast, veering away towards the sky, and my feet feel light as they touch the pavement. I am glad I have the pram to keep me on the ground.

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I can hear the sea breathing in the distance. I know where I am going. I buy a bottle of vodka and four packets of aspirin and that's it; the end of the money. On the way back, we go down to the sea. I take you out of your pram and we watch the waves, black and silver in the darkness. So much space. We stand on the edge of the path to the moon, the diamonds on the water blinding me. And then we go back. Walking along the shore I start to laugh. I remember that.

I walk so slowly, holding you tightly to me. I leave the pram sitting on the shore; a gift for the waves. We won't be needing it any more. We'll be up there, in that space, gliding on the water to the moon. Back in the flat, I turn on the lights, for the first time in. Bright, bright dazzling lights. You blink with surprise, and when I look at you, I know I'll need the drink first, because I am a coward after all.

I lay you down to sleep and I drink. She drinks. I drink the vodka, gagging on the strength of the aspirins. Then, I can't remember. I can't remember, Jordan. I can't. I take up a pillow and without looking I place it over you, so so gently and I press down on it for a long time, without looking.

I can't look, in case. I see you kick. Then -I go into the kitchen and swallow the rest of the pills. She drops the bottle. Smashes everywhere. I think. Then I can't remember anything else. I can't remember anything else. During the night, the queen tossed and turned, calling to mind all the names that she had ever heard. And she sent messengers all over the country to enquire, far and wide, what other names there were.

When the little man came on the next day, she began with Caspar, Melchior, Balthazar and mentioned all the names which she knew, one after the other; but at every one, the little man said, 'No, that is not my name. She pulled out her hair with anguish, trying desperately to think of every last name under the sun. She could tell the king nothing of this, because he would be so angry when he discovered that she had deceived him with her golden straw.

He would surely have her killed! As dawn was breaking, she made her decision. She took up her child and fled into the fading darkness and the king never heard of her again. Later, days later. I was sitting under those bright lights. It turns out Nerys called the police when she heard the bottle smash. They took me to the hospital; had me pumped out. They told me it was the sound of breaking glass that had saved my life. She picks up the magazine and flicks through it.

The line, white sand will caress your feet as you sit at the hotel breakfast table, laden with tropical fruit. When Elvis married I cried for days. She chucks the magazine away. It must be soon. I'll have my yoghurt. She picks up the yoghurt. No fucking spoon. Peach Melba. She slowly eats the yoghurt with her finger. I loved him, you know. I loved him more than life, more than anything in the world. More than life. Sometimes, just before I'm fully awake, I think he'll be there, beside me, but he never is.

Not any more. For days I didn't know where I was. Hate anything to do with kiddies they do, this lot. It helped, and I wanted so badly, so badly to believe it. I said that I imported a load of heroin. No, heroin. They looked at me funny. I put your pictures up on the pinboard above my bed. I stapled one to the pillow. I made sure you were everywhere, everywhere I turned. You smiling in your pram, you in the bath, you with the furry rabbit, you asleep, thumb curled into your mouth. They'd put me in a dorm with three other women. Perhaps they thought the company would do me good. One of them was called Dotty, poor cow.

Fancy being on de nut wing, called Dotty. Fucking incredible, she could make a rollie out of anything, that woman. I miss my kids something awful. Potty fucking dog-end Dotty. She puts her skinny arm around me when I cry. She moves. Your second word was Ma. You said it all the time then, when you learnt how. You were so proud, pointing at me saying Ma and I'd blow kisses on your tummy. She smells lovely, so I know she isn't from the prison. So I trail after her down the corridor. We all sit painting with our fingers because brushes are too dangerous. I draw some big yellow flowers.

She says she'll come and visit me once a week, if I want, but as soon as she goes away I forget who she is. I find plenty of places to cry in the cell. I cry by the window; I cry by my bed; I cry in the tiny dark smelly toilet. When I get bored of crying in one place, I move. The tears are silent but they still get on everyone's nerves.

No difference between night and day. The others play cards wearily and write letters home, while I see a parade of passing shrinks. Tall shrinks, small shrinks, bald shrinks, old shrinks. Shrinks with glasses, shrinks with half-glasses; shrinks who smile, shrinks with mouths like cats' arses. And one shrink, my favourite, with a big wart by the side of his nose. It's all I ever look at when I'm with him. He and I play a little game. He waits for me to speak and I wait for him. He always wins. Perhaps I know he'll have nothing interesting to say. He waits, I am waiting; it's different.

So I tell him, all over again. Fast: I laid him down to sleep and I drank. I washed the aspirins neatly down my throat. I drank fast and furious out of the bottle, gagging at the strength of the spirit. I was nearly sick. Then - I can't remember -I can't remember! I took up a pillow and without looking I placed it over him, so so gently, and I pressed down on it for a long time, without looking.

I couldn't look, in case. I saw him kick. Then I went into the kitchen and swallowed the rest of the pills and I drank and I drank and I drank.

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Then - then I dropped the bottle. Smashed everywhere. Each time I see them I never learn to give only the smallest crumb. I bare all and each time without fail, the pain is left, screaming bloody raw, the stale sticking plaster ripped off cruelly, without thought. No lint but acid, neat to the wound. Maybe I never cried enough. Now I can't hold you I'm always cold, so cold. Frozen up. I am cold even in the summer, with the heat of the sun striping my skin through the bars. I sit on the radiator by the big window and try to catch its rays.

They seem to go right through my hand. I started to cut myself to see if the blood still ran, trickling down my thin, papery skin. I thought the liquid would be blue, but it was still red and dark and alive, disappointingly. The thing about death is, it doesn't come easy.

You really have to work at it, and you have to be bloody determined; because death knows if you aren't. I tried drinking shampoo; but it only came in little sachets and all it did was make me puke. I sawed away at my wrists, with the blunt rusty razor they gave us to shave our legs for visits. Every day an officer tipped pink disinfectant down our sink and I cupped it in my hands before it disappeared and drank it.

One time I fetched a cup of boiling water secretly from the urn. I mixed four spoons of sugar in it and threw it down my neck. The pain was a relief. Jesus wants me for a sunbeam. The woman next door, she isn't coy like me. Oh no. She's a screamer, is Christine, and a banger and a wailer, and she has a little, round red hole, right smack in the centre of her forehead. She bangs her head, see, against the wall, the floor, the metal sink. Sometimes I feel myself burning, trembling, a shudder running through me, and I cover toy eyes and swallow and it goes back from where it came.

When I was a kid, sometimes Dad would pile us on to a bus and we'd go a little village by the seaside. There was a white church with old paintings that my mum used to like and a path along the cliffs. My dad would sit on the beach wearing a silly hat, trouser legs rolled up.

My brothers and sister and me would run along the cliffs.

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I used to go for miles, playing a game where I was a spy, or a princess, running from trouble. One day I almost ran into an old man. He was sitting there very, very still. He was wearing a jumper but he looked like a king, so I told him of the armies I was running from.

He nodded and asked if I would like to sit with him for a while. He said if I kept very still, the soldiers probably wouldn't find me. He asked me if I knew who had made the cliffs, and how. I said no, I didn't. So he told me about ice, and dinosaurs, and terrible storms, and the Cracking Of The Earth. It was the best story I ever heard. When my dad came looking for me it was growing dark. He gave me a thump and put me back on the bus.

And then my mum comes to visit. She looks round, worried she might catch a disease, from being in the same room as prostitutes, drug addicts, thieves. She hangs onto her bag tightly, wearing a headscarf so that no one'll recognise her, because there are bound to be plenty of people from Morecambe strolling round Holloway Prison, aren't there? I put on a frock and some lipgloss.

People are looking. She said she heard about you when the local paper phoned her for a quote or two. We sit silent and apart. I can't go back, and she can't come forward. She looks so old, so tired. The baby - ' 'Please don't, I'll scream. Don't be sorry, Mum, Please don't be sorry.

Please, don't.. She asks could she come back and see me again? It gets lonely, you know, just me and the cockroaches. We never talked, me and my mum. And now there's everything in the world left to say. My lawyer began to come more and more often. He tried to give me some chocolate once but it wasn't allowed.

Kind and posh. He brought statements with him from police; forensic scientists; prison staff; and of course, psychiatrists. She is reluctant to talk, giving sly glances at me, but is unable to meet my eyes. Her manner may be manipulative; she has obviously learned to relate to men in a sexual manner and this was apparent throughout our meetings.

When asked if she regretted what she had done, she refused to answer and this indicates to me that she is trying to give the impression that she was not responsible. Jones has JORDAN 25 refused her solicitor dialogue with me, telling him that she considers psychiatrists to be a load of crap. From this, I conclude that she has a problem with authority and courts controversy.

She is definitely fit to plead. Her statement was like a Reader's Confidential; blood everywhere. Davey told them I was a common prostitute. I didn't have to, but anything was better than waiting, lying on the bed all day. I washed the corridors of power with carbolic soap, shedding the skin of my hands on the toil. I cleaned out the bathrooms, pulling a tangle of assorted hairs out of the plugholes. I polished the tiles until they gleamed and everyone was very pleased with me. The nice lady came back and said I should get a gold star. I even went down the gym once. There were these two big men there.

Bill and fucking Ben, trying to get us to do press-ups. Hut we were all on too much medication and we just lay on the Moor like dead fish. I told him to fuck off and they look me back to the wing. That's me, hard as nails. Your second Christmas came and went. No presents, no visits to Santa, no nativity.

Dotty made us snowmen out of sanitary towels and we all made cards in art. I sent one to my mum and she sent me one back with a candle on it. Then it was time to go to court. There were seven of us making appearances that day. We all met in reception with our best clothes and borrowed tan tights. I had nothing much to put in it.

She takes a toy rabbit out of the bag, looks at it for a moment and quickly returns it. It's nice, isn't it? I never showed anything, Jordan, first day of the trial. Valium in my veins, forensic photos of you in my head. I never blinked, never moved a muscle. I dug a safety pin into my wrist so hard that tears of pain came to my eyes. I concentrated all of me into that and of course, I looked at the jury.

Wish there were more like her. Now I know why. On the third day I had to go in the box. I could see the nice lady sitting in the gallery and I smiled at her. It saved me from looking at my mum. The wig from the Crown, the other side, spoke to me like I was a child; an evil lunatic. You say that you left the pram on the shore? You intended to return home, having purchased drugs and alcohol, and murder your child, the victim, Jordan Jones. Then -I can't remember. I can't remember. I took up a pillow - and without looking I - Hang me! Don't let me linger on like this! I wish for the death sentence with all my soul!

A picture of him from a telly in my head to come into focus for just a moment and I want to be there, where he is! I long for you to place a black cap on your JORDAN 27 head and for someone to put a noose, thick and ropey, around my neck, and for it all to be over! Know what the worst thing about prison is, Jordan? For me it Isn't the food, or the smell, or the screaming you hear at night sometimes; for me, it's the visiting room.

It's other people's kids, you see.. I watch them all the time. There was one little boy about two and he's always be running up and down the room, restless he was, typical terrible two. He had brown skin and hair just like yours. He ran straight up to me once and stood looking at me, like they do. I was frozen. I had to hold myself back from touching him. His mum called him but he didn't go. After the visit was over, I just sat there, blank. The screws waited for a while then they sighed and stubbed their fags out and took me into the search room to frisk me down.

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They never look you in the eye when they do that. Makes them uncomfortable too, see, running their hands over a perfect stranger's body. Anyway, there isn't really a Them and an Us. I only light with the monsters inside me, not the ones that patrol the- corridors and lock the doors because they have some compassion. I have none. Every time I hear. Every time I hear a baby cry on the wing below me, every time I see a woman kissing her baby's head or sucking its toes or blowing on its soft, fat stomach, my throat sticks hard and rasping and I can't swallow.

It refers to the medieval custom quite ironically, originally an English custom of nailing an horseshoe to the door in order to ward off witches and sorcerers Corriere della Sera Interestingly, history played an even more critical role in the way the two communities idiomatically refer to a language that is impossible for them to understand, the English- speaking community resorting to double Dutch and the Italian one to Arabic. As pointed out by phrases. In addition to geographical and historical factors, religion has undoubtedly had a huge influence; the role of Christianity in Italian culture is reflected in the frequency of religious references in Italian idioms.

Like any other TV series in the world, Chuck features a large number of cultural referents. Hospital volunteer, or candy stripe, the uniform they wear Costco Costco Wholesale Corporation is a membership warehouse club which provides a wide selection of merchandise FCC The Federal Communications Commission FCC is an independent agency of the United States government Grape soda Grape soft drinks also known as grape soda or grape pop in certain regions of the US, or grapeade in the UK are carbonated grape drinks Little League Little League Baseball and Softball officially, Little League Baseball, Incorporated is a non-profit organization in South Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States which organizes local youth baseball and softball leagues through out the U.

How Can You Mend a Broken Heart is a song released by the Bee Gees in If you had one shot, one the initial part of Lose Yourself, a song by opportunity, to seize everything the American hip-hop artist Eminem you ever wanted, one moment, would you capture it or just let it slip? Many references are to famous people or international pieces of work that are likely to be familiar to the average viewer worldwide and should therefore present no problems in the translation process; the name of a world famous person need not be changed in the TL version in the former case, whereas the TL translated version of the title of the piece of work will be resorted to in the latter, unless the English title is kept in the TL.

Nevertheless, a number of intertextual references in the table are quite culture- specific and may not be familiar to viewers living outside the US, specifically in Italy, thereby reducing the humorous effect. It is even more so when songs are alluded to; generally speaking, song titles are hardly ever translated into other languages.

Consequently, the TL cannot possibly provide a counterpart and the only way both the humorous element and the reference can be maintained is for the viewer to know the English language and American popular culture and therefore be able to appreciate the context-related allusion. Similarly, a humorous remark could be based on one of the previously mentioned cultural referents, which, having no counterpart in the TL, would prevent the translator from transferring the humorous effect. In other words, the only way to try to deal with the problem is Skopos Theory.

Usually, a ST is produced for a given situation in order to perform a certain function. In addition, it is usually oriented towards a source culture, because its author had a specific kind of audience in mind when producing it. But a new target audience may lack the awareness of the source culture that is necessary to fully comprehend the text, and this is why the TT must be oriented towards the assumed knowledge that the target community has.

Thus, the role of the translator is not only to transpose a text into another text in a different language, but also to act as a mediator in a process of intercultural communication. Even though the relationship between language and culture is obviously relevant, the cultural factor will be taken into consideration in the present study only if one of the analysed cultural aspects of language, be that an idiom, a cultural referent or an intertextual reference, is the direct focus of language-play or at least plays a non- negligible role in the economy of the language-play.

Indeed, the type of creativity-based challenge for translators of Chuck I have decided to focus on does not merely consist of adapting a culture-bound element to the TL, but in the fact that the culture-bound nature of the term in question is linguistically exploited to create a particular effect mostly, but not necessarily, a humorous one.

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An instance taken from the corpus of this study provides an empirical example: Season 1, Episode 3 An evil arms dealer called La Ciudad has tied Chuck to a chair and is threatening him with a knife. In order to make Chuck spill the beans about some pieces of intelligence, she is enumerating all the possible ways he can be tortured. The pun in question is vertical in that although the similarity of form between two items sight and fight is exploited to confront two meanings, only one item is mentioned. If the pun was to be visualized, it would look something like this: sight When these two spies first met, it was love at first fight In this instance, the vertical connection between the two elements is quite straightforward in that it is supported by the punnee13 being a part of an idiom, in which case a visual aid is seldom needed.

As an empirical example, the following instance of language-play has been taken from the corpus: Season 4, episode 20 Chuck and Sarah are interrogating the previously captured international weapons dealer Alexei Volkoff, who, claiming to be a redeemed man, seems ready to cooperate with them. I've had a lot of time to think about my life.

I'm not interested in how the world can serve me anymore. I'm interested in how I can serve my fellow man. Well, if that's the case Nothing remarkable may seem to have taken place so far. This is because, unlike the viewer, the reader cannot see the picture that appears on the screen while Chuck is delivering his line. I shall therefore consider the above example, along with all other similar instances in the present study, as vertical wordplay. The only way translators can try to cope with interlingual asymmetry is by resorting to their own creativity. Translators are held to have some room for manoeuvre as long as the following hierarchy of priorities Chaume Varela is respected: 1- The translation respects the visual narration.

That does not imply that complex SL language-play always needs to, or ought to, be replaced by equally complex language-play in the target text […]. Yet the fact remains that the choices to be made become even less obvious if the SL language-play is multifaceted. Chapter two has been entirely devoted to the multifaceted nature of language-play.

Throughout my analysis, I will therefore investigate the correlation between this multifaceted nature language, culture and the visual element , the categories of language-play and the translation strategies adopted. In order to do this, each analysed instance will be marked in one of the following ways: - For instances of language-play relying mostly on the linguistic form - For instances of language-play relying heavily on both the linguistic form and the cultural factor - For instances of language-play relying heavily on both the linguistic form and the visual element - For instances of language-play relying heavily on all three factors It is understood that, constituting a necessary condition for language-play to take place, language is always present.

The language-play being either horizontal or vertical will be a further factor of analysis. Sarah and Chuck, whose relationship is one of the main themes of the TV series. Though extremely intelligent, Chuck is an underachiever.

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The only surviving copy becomes subliminally embedded in Chuck's brain via encoded images when he opens an email from Bryce. Chuck is recruited to use the knowledge he now possesses to help thwart assassins and international terrorists, upending his previously mundane life. The Intersect causes Chuck to receive involuntary "flashes" of information from the database, activated by triggers such as faces, voices, objects, and keywords. In order to protect his family and friends, Chuck must keep his second occupation a secret.

Casey and Walker are assigned to watch over Chuck. They are forced to establish an uneasy alliance and cover identities; Walker poses as Chuck's girlfriend and takes a job at a fast food restaurant near the Buy More, while Casey reluctantly becomes part of the Buy More sales team. The main antagonists driving the plot are a series of rogue spy cabals, first internal to the United States intelligence community and then global in scope, and a core part of the threat is the danger of the Intersect being either captured, making Chuck as much a liability as an asset to the government, or replicated, making Chuck obsolete or outmatched by less scrupulous spies.

Chuck, Sarah and Casey all face professional conflicts as they grow to respect each other, and a genuine romantic interest develops between Chuck and Sarah. Chuck's desire to maintain his close relationships and eventually return to a normal life is challenged by the dangers and growing responsibilities of his secret life, and he gradually becomes a more competent, confident and willing spy. In the course of events, Chuck unravels mysteries from his life before the series, often dealing with the Intersect: why his parents left, why Bryce got him kicked out of Stanford, and why he is unusually suited for the Intersect.

Meanwhile, Casey and Sarah confront unresolved issues from their lives before the series, including their families, and as Chuck grows more comfortable with his own role, those closest to him are gradually drawn into his spy life. It may be useful to understand the dynamics of the series and therefore the contexts that will be provided at the beginning of all analysed instances in chapter four.

Bartowski is Ellie and Chuck's father, who left them eight years before the series began. He first appears in the second season. She first appears in the final episode of the third season. Later during the fourth season it is discovered that she went undercover for the CIA and acted as a double-agent, eventually gaining the trust of an international arms dealer known as Alexei Volkoff, becoming his favourite agent. Her code name is Frost. The following fictional organizations appear in the series: - Fulcrum, a secret hostile espionage organization which serves as the series' main antagonists up until the end of season two.

Conversely, only the passages where the respective language-play is uttered have been considered in depth in the Italian version. Two points are worth stressing in this section. But ambiguities and verbal echoes may also be — or become, in different circumstances — more subtle, so subtle in fact as to elude some readers, or many readers, or indeed most readers. Secondly, even though I found it quite impossible not to add a number of personal comments and suggestions during my analysis, language-play has been analyzed mainly from a quantitative and objective point of view.

Nevertheless, one aspect is worth mentioning; the categories of language-play are far from being clear-cut and overlap-free. The problem and also its possible solution are described by Delabastita: It must be seen as a step forward when […] many scholars began to abandon the idea of a single taxonomic structure that branches out into ever further subdivisions. Finding this pigeonholing method unfit to capture the complexity and the dynamic of the pun, they have suggested that it is not just more elegant but also more effective to define and classify wordplay in terms of clusters of mutually independent criteria intersecting in each occurrence […].

Delabastita I am not suggesting that we should therefore do away with the distinctions at stake. On the contrary, we should use them more productively, for example by taking on board the view that classificatory assessments must be made in a global and context-sensitive manner, that grey zones may exist […]. However, depending on the purpose, this definition may be considered sufficient as it stands, encompassing an almost infinite number of examples, or it can be qualified by an addition to the effect that the structures must not be etymologically related, which would drastically reduce the scope of the category.

Some, like Nash […] and Gottlieb […] call any items that have the same form, but different meanings, homonyms. Hausmann […] and Delabastita […], by contrast, pay considerable attention to the distinction between etymologically unrelated yet formally identical structures on the one hand, i. Such an assertion is confirmed by the empirical example of Chuck.

When the names themselves are being played with, i. The alternative would thus have been to not count the quoted passage as a pun at all, which I would have found an unsatisfactory solution since two semantically different interpretations of the same element are, after all, contrasted with one another. Finding a verb that fits the context and is at least similar to the name Chuck is so challenging in Italian that the dubbing team opted for a non-punning rendition. Chuck compares him to Q, the character who provides James Bond with the most original gadgets. Well, that and play video games.

The intertextual reference fits the context and is worldwide known, so the translator would have no other reason to substitute it apart from the linguistic factor. James Bond being a recurring theme throughout the episode prevents the dubbing team from resorting to their creativity and so the pun gets necessarily lost.

In other words, although the pun remains on the level of the English language, the Italian viewer is allowed to make the connection and to perceive the pun thanks to the added translation. In the Italian version, the Italian translation of jester is provided, i. Do the math, Grimes. Morgan seems confused so Casey tries to make the matter a little less cryptic.

He's going to need a walker when Walker's through with him. Morgan seems even more confused than before and Casey loses his patience They're having intercourse, idiot! Got you. Say no more. Due to his ineptitude, he covers the table with a cloth that depicts the logo of Large Mart, the fiercest competitors of the Buy More. Harry Tang, another Buy More employee, is complaining about it. No pun is present in the Italian version, possibly because the non- conspicuous nature of the pun in the English version itself did not require an extra effort on the part of the dubbing team.

Sarah appears out of nowhere with a very sexy costume.

She skates again

Morgan resorts to a typical punning expression to show his appreciation. The way Morgan pronounces the Italian ciao elicits a humorous effect and stresses his appreciation. However, the humour is non-language specific, so the pun is lost. I have therefore decided to count instances of this nature as horizontal. The pun gets lost in the Italian version. She thinks her mother-in-law Honey will soon be there but she does not know she is there already. Ellie is saying something not particularly nice about her to her husband Devon.

The pun is once again lost in the Italian version. The dubbing team has simply added the understood item inferno hell to let Ellie complete her sentence. Chuck is too busy with his secret spy life to be able to fulfil the task, so he passes the matter on to his best friend Morgan, who lets a physical fight between Jeff and Lester decide who will be promoted. After winning the fight and therefore getting promoted, Lester lets it go to his head and starts bossing people around.

In the course of the episode, though, Chuck finds himself on the roof of the Buy More while Sarah, who is standing in front of the Buy More entrance, finds a gun pointed at her. Chuck wraps one end of the banner around him and throws himself off the roof, using the banner almost as a liana and knocking down the antagonist. There is hardly a way translators can escape from the visual element, as there is hardly a way translators can render both meaning and form.

Linguistically speaking, the pun is not conspicuous to the Italian viewer. At the same time, though, the pun being exclusively visual allows the Italian viewer to perceive it provided they possess some knowledge of English. The two items being shown at the beginning and at the end of the episode respectively makes it hard to consider the pun as horizontal. What is truly remarkable about these scenes is that the four items that are played with belong to different categories of puns, which means that scriptwriters were able to concentrate all conceivable kinds of puns apart from homography in two strictly connected dialogues whose total duration is about 90 seconds.

Providing both the entire strictly connected dialogues would be useful to have a more direct overview of the kind of puns and particularly to enjoy the humour of the situation. However, I shall adhere to the categorization of the present study and analyze the four puns separately at the end of each section. Here is the example concerning a proper name-related homonymic pun.

In the first scene, Devon is driving a limousine while the rest of the crowd is sitting comfortably in the long rear. They are sharing their huge expectations about the trip to the land of excess. Flabbergasted, they ask for an explanation. In order to avoid a non sequitur, the dubbing team has maintained the cultural referent and substituted strip with the Italian sentiero, fictitiously imagining that they shared the same name. Although the connection between the word strip and the place in Las Vegas is clear, The Strip is nonetheless a proper noun with a capital letter denoting a different entity.

In other words, if someone hears the word strip in the context of Las Vegas, they will not associate it with a stretch of land, but to that precise avenue containing a conglomerate of casinos and hotels. The same could be said for the surname Walker; although it is an occupational surname for a person who walked on damp raw cloth in order to thicken it surnames. However, although the pun is lost, the humorous effect is preserved thanks to the preservation of the invariant core Chiaro , i.

Morgan wants to stop and buy some fireworks but Chuck thinks they are too dangerous. Morgan does not give up. In the target version, the verb embrace has been substituted by the verb affrontare, to tackle, which features a similar polysemy that fits the context very well. Therefore, the literal and metaphorical meanings of the verb in question have been exploited to create the same kind of pun in the TL.

Chuck seems a little embarrassed. Yeah, yeah, yeah. Even though the general meaning of the sentence is modified in the TL version, the verb to sleep has been substituted by the idiom andare a letto con qualcuno to go to bed with somebody and the literal and metaphorical meanings of the idiom in question have been exploited to create the same kind of pun in the target version. Sarah takes off her coat. She is wearing a sexy nightdress. Unlike the English language, even though an Italian item has the same polysemy as an English one, its respective verbal and noun form are hardly the same.

However, although the pun is lost, the humorous effect is maintained thanks to the preservation of the invariant core. Bryce, in turn, is pointing a gun at the antagonist. Bryce is about to ask Chuck if he is wearing a bulletproof vest using a code the two of them invented back at Stanford. The literal semantic layer is provided by the picture. The Italian verb sparare features the same polysemous nature, which allows the pun to be effortlessly transferred.

Picture 8. A schawarma26 girl is bringing some hot wraps to Jeff and Lester. They do not miss the chance to film her as well. It also refers to a sandwich or wrap made with shawarma meat. The metaphorical semantic layer is provided by the picture. Picture 9. All of a sudden, he notices that a black and small piece of technology is hidden on a display rack.

The metaphorical meaning is provided by the picture. The Italian word cimice featuring the same polysemy allows the pun to be effortlessly transferred and the picture not to constitute a major constraint. Picture On a strictly formal level, the pun is maintained. Semantically, though, it must be pointed out that the connection between brother and brother-in-law upon which the pun is semantically based cannot be present in the TL version because there is no formal identity between the Italian words fratello and cognato brother-in-law.

Chuck and Casey are trying to intervene. The two girls roll down the roof and end up in a dumpster. The Italian adjective sporco features an extremely similar polysemous nature. However, in Italian it can hardly refer directly to a person in its metaphorical extension, but it tends to refer to their activities instead a literal translation would therefore sound extremely unnatural. In order to cope with the problem, the dubbing team resorted to a horizontalization of the pun in which the literal and metaphorical meanings are contrasted thanks to the use of an Italian idiom containing a peculiar feature of neostandard Italian29, namely a recategorization.

This process takes place when there is a shift from one morphosyntactic category to another. Meanwhile, Casey, who is not particularly supportive of their developing love relationship, is poisoned by a Fulcrum agent. It can be assumed that although the same metaphorical meaning is catching on in the Italian spoken language30, it is not as embedded in the Italian culture as it is in the English one.

This may be the reason why the dubbing team has opted for the verb morire, to die, losing the pun but preserving the invariant core. Meanwhile, some Fulcrum agents are already at the restaurant and surround Chuck and Sarah, who seem to have no escape route. The dubbing team adapted the cultural referent to the TL culture, resorting to the similar concept of the drive-in31 that is presumably embedded in Italian culture thanks to films and TV series such as Grease and Happy days, not to mention the light entertainment programme which aired in Italy from to , whose title was Drive In.

Although the pun is lost and the effect is slightly different, the English line focusing on the movement of the car and the Italian one on the car being inside the restaurant, the invariant core is maintained. At a drive- through restaurant, conversely, customers wait in a line and pass by one or more windows to order, pay, and receive their food, encouraging them to take their meals elsewhere to eat. He is holding a briefcase. Got a qualche giorno. Ho un for a few days. Both meanings are expressed through language but the visual element nonetheless plays a role the dubbing team cannot ignore.

Chuck tries to get rid of them. No, they are just old, old Buy More ex colleghi del Buy More former Buy More colleagues that che non sono andati avanti. Andate avanti. Andate moved on. The Italian expression andare avanti features the same polysemy, so the same kind of pun is effortlessly transferred. Talking to himself without realizing that the microphone is on and that the two girls can hear him, Chuck complains that he earns 12 dollars and a half instead.

Jill is bewildered and asks for an explanation. Ci hai messo my phone? Did you put a Did you bug it or una cimice? The Italian word cimice featuring the same polysemy allows the pun to be easily transferred. After learning that his company was secretly selling the bioweapon, he planned to uncover the crime but he got killed before he could do so. However, he hid invaluable information in a music box that Chuck, Sarah and Casey are able to retrieve from Le Fleur hotel room. Unfortunately, Guy was paranoid about keeping information, so the music box is crammed with conundrums and puzzles to solve.

Chuck and Sarah are able to open it using a complex Fibonacci sequence, but some spray is expelled from the box. At first, they think it may be a dangerous substance but it turns out to be powdered fruit punch instead. Jill thinks the fruit punch is a clue. When they find out the chemical composition of the substance, they compare it with a list of known products.

They start making assumptions about possible connections. Apart from the obvious language factor, the pun features a cultural factor, in that although Hi-C is not played with yet34, the cultural referent nonetheless reverberates through the whole sentence, not to mention the fact that the description of the drink provided by the visual factor does not allow the dubbing team to intervene on the 33 See page 94 for a further pun-related development of the scene.

The coexistence of the three factors language, culture and picture makes it extremely unlikely for the dubbing team to maintain the pun. Unless the Italian viewer is able to master the English language at such a high level that allows them to make the polysemic connection of root in a couple of seconds, Chuck wondering about the meaning of rooting for a vitamin C raspberry will leave them quite bewildered, in the words of Chiaro , they are left with a non sequitur, since there is no connection between what the viewer sees and what is said.

Chuck is tasked to seduce an alleged Fulcrum agent, which is likely to be very easy given that she has shown interest in him before. Carmichael, Carmichael. The Italian verb venire featuring the same polysemy allows the pun to be easily transferred. He is trying to uncuff himself and through his earpiece and his watch he asks Casey for a piece of advice on how to do so. Chuck replies that there is no way he will break his finger. The sex- related semantic layer is provide by the context, a representative picture of which is to be found on page However, the dubbing team opted for a less intense and more neutral expression, either because of the word being gross or the pun being not particularly conspicuous.

The Italian word fratello features the same polysemy, the metaphorical meaning being possibly a calque from the English language. Chuck walks into the room and starts asking questions to the sharpshooter in order to get into the character for his next mission. Someone is looking for something in the fridge. Morgan thinks it is Chuck, and when Sarah suddenly appears holding a jug of orange juice and wearing only her underwear, he cannot stop staring at her.

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Hey, Morgan? Vuoi un some? Orange juice. Mi piacciono le Orange juice, absolutely. Man, that sounds good. I like oranges, Vitamin Ds are very importanti. C, le vitamine Vitamins T are important. Vitamin Cs. I Jug- I'm sorry, I The latter meaning is provided by the picture. The Italian language not featuring such a polysemy led the dubbing team to try to cope with this fact shifting the focus from the jug to the concepts of vitamins. Such a choice, however, turned out to a be a double-edged sword, in that the translation is further exacerbated by the letters C and D denoting both different vitamins and different bra sizes and by extension, different breast sizes in the English speaking culture, the second interpretation of which is not present in the Italian culture.

As a consequence, the viewer is left with a non sequitur, also because vitamins can hardly be said to be big or small. Hai your levels of normal level of hotness. The pun gets totally lost. Since the Italian language does not feature a word that has the same polysemy, the dubbing team opted for a verb featuring the former meaning only. Such a choice involves not only the loss of the pun, but a non sequitur, in that the Italian viewer cannot possibly understand for what reasons Chuck would not use a neutral verb such as accalappiare, which has no connection whatsoever to the sexual sphere.

Casey tries to cheer him up. As previously pointed out, the Italian word for baggage, valige, does not feature the same metaphorical meaning. The allusion to the metaphorical meaning being not so explicit unlike on page 65, prevents the dubbing team from resorting to the similar Italian word fardello bundle , even more so because the whole episode revolves around a suitcase, not a bundle.

At the same time, though, the said weak connection to the metaphorical meaning allows the TL version to flow featuring the literal meaning only. Luckily, he is wearing a bulletproof vest. After all he has done to find his mum, Chuck is devastated. Mi ha heart hurts. The dubbing team resorted to two different verbs, so the pun is lost but the comic effect is maintained.

However, the same metaphorical meaning in Italian is expressed by the verb ferire to wound , which could have been used in the present context. Casey seems to miss the action more than anyone else. Un mese, mi mission in a month. A I wake up with my sveglio con il dito in month, I wake up with my trigger finger twitching. The Italian language does not feature the same polysemy, so the dubbing team opted for a loss of the pun and translated the line accordingly. However, before exploring its content, he has to type in the solution to a conundrum.

Sarah and Casey are with him in their secret base called Castle. The Italian viewer is left with a non sequitur for two reasons. This is so because the dubbing team did not expect the expression, which is mentioned several times throughout the previous seasons, to be a part of a pun in the fourth season, and so they translated it differently from time to time.

He wants to be free to chose whoever he wants, but when the chosen girl comes to visit him, he finds out she is extremely beautiful, so he decides to impress her. He pretends to be extremely traditionalist like his parents, raving about the fact that they were meant to meet, but the move backfires on him. Therefore, he apologizes and begs for another chance. The Italian adjective scritto featuring the same polysemy allows the pun to effortlessly be transferred. The latter semantic layer is provided by the picture.

The Italian language does not provide neither the same nor a similar polysemy. Therefore, the pun is lost. The dubbing team opted for a complete omission of the pun. Although the Italian word rapporto does not feature the same polysemy, it nonetheless features a polysemy that could have fitted the context perfectly. Specifically, the Italian word rapporto can refer both to a report and to intercourse. There is no word in Italian that feature the same polysemy. However, the dubbing team enjoy a certain room for manoeuvre thanks to the pictorial information not playing a prominent role and therefore not constituting a major constraint.

As for the metaphorical extension, pollastrelle pullets in place of gallinelle would have made for a more idiomatic alternative, but its literal meaning would have been less strong. Such structures are thus homonymic on the phonetic level. After learning that his company is secretly selling the bioweapon, he plans to uncover the crime but he gets killed before he can do so. However, he hides invaluable information in a music box that Chuck, Sarah and Casey are able to retrieve from Le Fleur hotel room.

They start making assumptions about possible connections with the music box. That's good. It's a music box. It's not high sea s-e-a.