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The proportion of the elderly in the populations of many industrial countries and some emerging markets will rise sharply, in some cases even as total population shrinks. Safeguarding financial stability : theory and practice by Garry J Schinasi 16 editions published between and in English and Chinese and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide How is finance related to economic processes, and why should it be viewed as a public good requiring policy action?
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Direction of trade statistics by DC IMF Washington in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide Contains approximately 56, country and area time series reported in the corresponding publication. These data cover the distribution of exports and imports by partner countries for about countries. Annual entries generally begin in , quarterly entries in , and monthly entries in Time series include data estimates derived from reports of partner countries for nonreporting and slow-reporting countries.
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This remarkable turnaround offers other countries and the international community valuable lessons in preventing conflict and in coping with postconflict recovery. This book also provides a summary of the most recent research on conflict, an analysis of the causes of conflicts in Africa, and an outline of their key economic characteristics. The Caribbean : from vulnerability to sustained growth by Paul Cashin 9 editions published in in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide This book sets out the economic challenges facing the island nations of the Caribbean and presents policy options to ameliorate external shocks and embark firmly on a sustained growth path.
While the countries of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union that are the focus of the book have enjoyed a sustained period of price and exchange rate stability, they have been buffeted in recent years by adverse shocks, including the erosion of trade preferences, declines in official foreign assistance, and frequent natural disasters. Strengthening their growth performance will require design of a multifaceted strategy that integrates the Caribbean with the global economy, facilitates an economic transformation from agriculture to tourism, fosters greater regional cooperation, and preserves macroeconomic stability.
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During the s the growth in international commercial bank lending to some developing countries served a purpose in recycling the surpluses of the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC -but at the cost of a growing external debt, and there are signs that debt problems may intensify during the next few years. International money and credit : the policy roles by George M Von Furstenberg 9 editions published in in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide In recent years, financial evolution has come nearly full circle, and there is renewed interest in finding answers to questions that had not been pursued since shortly after the kind of rethinking of the international agenda that has begun at leading universities, banks, and official institutions.
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India goes global : its expanding role in the world economy by Catriona Purfield 9 editions published in in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide In the past few years, India has emerged as a global economic power. It is one of the world's fastest-growing economies, the leading outsourcing destination, and a favorite of international investors. The purposive sampling technique and key-informant interviews Tongco helped collect data from the biosphere reserve managers and process facilitators in order to receive background information as well as references to other interviewees.
Snowball sampling was used to identify elderly women interviewees: initial contacts, some of them recommended by the key informants, referred the researchers to further contacts Atkinson and Flint Focus groups and individual interviews were used to encourage female interviewees to openly discuss issues related to biosphere reserves.
In addition, existing reports Huber ; Huber et al. The total number of interviewees in our study is Additionally, five middle-aged women 40—50 , who acted as key informants and facilitated the involvement of the elderly women, were interviewed about their perceptions of the elderly women. We specifically focused on women in the elderly population group due to the fact that they have been underrepresented during the participatory events and also due to the limited resources available for data collection.
This approach was consulted with and agreed to by the biosphere reserve managers. In all cases, the main questions were openly discussed first, followed by addressing specific issues on the basis of literature and previously collected data. Most interviews were recorded and transcribed three elderly women preferred not to be recorded; the interviews with one youth and one manager were done via phone.
Notes were taken by the interviewers on all occasions. The data was analyzed via qualitative content analysis Mayring using MAXQDA software, implemented separately for each case study area by applying deductive codes, followed by inductive codes. The results in each province were compared with regard to the same guiding questions Yin The results are presented jointly for both biosphere reserve provinces and distinguished between them only where relevant.
General associations with the biosphere reserve voiced by all interviewees were in line with the overall biosphere reserve aims: nature, agriculture, and sustainable development. However, the potential for local economic benefits was often brought up by the elderly interviewees as the key purpose of the biosphere reserve status for the region. They also expressed skepticism and frustration with the lack of the expected economic benefits from the reserve to-date.
Elderly interviewees in both provinces seemed reluctant to accept the idea that the BR administration was representing the region. Many associated the biosphere reserve with restrictions rather than benefits at least not accessible to all :. Young and elderly interviewees in both provinces did not seem to have a clear understanding about the biosphere reserve function and their own potential role in it. In their view, participatory campaigns implemented in both provinces during the process of biosphere reserve designation were carried out without paying attention to the special needs of the young and the elderly population of the region.
This resulted in the lack of appeal, as well as unclear information, misunderstanding, disinterest, frustration and disappointment with respect to the biosphere reserve among these groups. In Nockberge, representatives of both generations expressed confusion about the relationship between the former national park and the biosphere reserve.
The interviewed elderly women in both provinces perceived the public events to be dominated by the same people, characterized by hierarchical roles and perceptions. They felt a lack of open discussion, and that the process was sometimes challenged by competition and frictions:. Young people expressed the feeling that events and processes in the region, including those related to the biosphere reserve, are not open to participation of the youth. Perhaps the elderly look at it, but the youth does not look at it.
Some of the elderly interviewees expressed personal reasons for the lack of involvement: old age and poor health, reservation and lack of self-confidence, lack of mobility and inconvenience.
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Some of the young and elderly interviewees expressed the lack of interest, as well as the lack of time for engagement, and pointed out the abundance of events and projects in the region:. Obstacles to and motivations for participation in biosphere reserve-related activities expressed by the youth and elderly women in Lungau and Nockberge.
Many interviewed young people highlighted the importance of intangible incentives in order to encourage their participation, such as the possibility of learning something, having a good time, meeting friends, but also making a contribution, having a voice, taking part in a participatory discussion and exchanging ideas:. Some expressed personal interests in nature and mentioned health benefits from living in the biosphere reserve. Others suggested providing tangible incentives for the youth to participate in processes, such as free food or a little bit of money.
Interest of other peers in the issue has also been mentioned as a potential motivation for participation. From the perspective of the youth, BR-related events should provide entertainment value e. Likewise, the elderly women called for the possibility to get involved and for an open bilateral exchange.
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The possibilities of learning something, meeting peers, cultivating relationships, escaping loneliness, and experiencing entertainment are also of high relevance for them, as well as the potential for local economic development. While the youth prefer being contacted via institutional structures associations, schools… , for the elderly women the obstacles to participation decrease when they are personally addressed. The elderly women also asked for more consideration of agricultural production duties, such as harvest and feeding times, when planning an event.
While both generations appeared skeptical, to some extent disappointed and even disinterested in the biosphere reserve, reflections on intergenerational practice were more positive. In both Nockberge and Lungau generations interact with each other, especially in regard to music and traditional songs. Other intergenerational activities comprise community festivals and events, such as traditional celebrations or card games as well as sports activities in which the old and the young take part together:.
Both generations expressed appreciation for each other, the need and interest to interact with each other.
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The elderly appreciated receiving help and learning from the youth and just keeping connections with them:. An elderly interviewee in Carinthia mentioned that women living with the youth become more open despite their historical traditional roles:. The youth demonstrated an interest both in traditional knowledge and in sharing their knowledge and skills with the elderly.
Their ideas of mutual learning included both natural and cultural heritage from the region, such as nature, cooking, music, and cultural knowledge, embracing traditional lifestyles:. At the same time, some young and elderly interviewees assumed that the other generation might be less interested in intergenerational communication. Obstacles to and motivations for engagement in IP activities among the youth and the elderly women in the Lungau and Nockberge.
Initially the managers in both provinces were not familiar with the concept of intergenerational practice and its potential benefits for the biosphere reserve. However, after having been explained the concept, they seemed positive about the existing and potential intergenerational exchanges in the region. Nevertheless, they very distinctively assessed the role of the BR management for promoting and implementing IP. Both Lungau managers took an active role of the reserve management and thought of several IP-related ideas, which could be implemented by the biosphere reserve, such as providing students with homework focused on cultural or natural heritage in order to facilitate their discussion with the elderly, as well as extending existing biosphere reserve—related high school courses to the senior population.
Other ideas included organizing intergenerational cooking sessions and facilitating support from the elderly in childcare. They highlighted the potential of technological skills of the youth in enhancing the media presence of the reserve, as well as in training the older farmers to use computers.
At the same time, he spoke about a computer course organized by the middle-aged women in Nockberge, in which representatives of the elderly generation took part, and acknowledged technological skills of the youth, which could be useful for such activities in the future. However, he believed that such initiatives as intergenerational activities or economic development ideas should come from the local population, and only then can be supported by the biosphere reserve. Thus, he sees the management role in providing support, but not leadership.
The perceptions of both elderly women and youth about the biosphere reserve, their ideas about the other generation and interest in IP are similar in the two provinces. All the managers share similar awareness about IP, although those from Lungau seemed more enthusiastic about actively engaging elderly women and youth in reserve activities and considered a more active role of the reserve management in facilitating IP. An important factor for fostering IP is the interest among the elderly and youth to interact with one another.
Interviewees from both generations mentioned prevailing benefits of IP, showed much interest in the other generation and have reacted positively to the prospects of participating in intergenerational interactions. They showed greater interest in discussing IP activities than general biosphere reserve-related topics and events. At the same time, several of the proposed joint activities mentioned by the interviewees, such as exchange of traditional knowledge on land use practices, culture, nature, and landscapes, can be considered as core tasks of biosphere reserves.
Altogether with the creative, entrepreneurial and technical skills of the youth, these can be further developed into innovative, place-based goods and services. Thus, based on the interviews, IP seems to hold much potential for the biosphere reserve and the fruitful participation of the younger and older generations in it. The results presented in this paper with respect to the obstacles to participation in biosphere reserve activities are complementary to those found in the study of the Nockberge Huber et al.
The frustration and negative attitudes expressed by the women and youth during the case study could be explained by the unfulfilled expectations for the biosphere reserve Huber and Arnberger , namely, of economic benefits for the local communities. The decreased enthusiasm about the Lungau and Nockberge biosphere reserve among the local residents, the lack of awareness about its functions, as well as the need for an improved, unbiased, and transparent cooperation among the reserve management and the locals were also emphasized by Humer-Gruber , who investigated the perception of the reserve among the local farmers.
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The motivations expressed by both the elderly and the youth: mutual learning, spending time together, as well as mutual appreciation and personal benefits—imply that IP activities could indeed attract both age groups and foster intergenerational learning. At the same time, some of the obstacles seem to result from the lack of interaction between these groups. Existing literature also provides detailed recommendations for the implementation of IP activities, such as the importance of careful planning and selection of participants Zeldin et al.
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Finding interested interviewees in Nockberge was more challenging than in Lungau, which could be attributed to the negative attitudes of some landowners in this province towards the biosphere reserve, inferred by the researchers during some of the interviews. Another possible explanation is that the communities in Lungau are located in the middle of the biosphere reserve with a long-standing common identity and place-attachment, while the settlements in the Nockberge are located on the periphery of the reserve and are oriented towards several different regions only partly overlapping with the reserve.
The Carinthian population may hence have a weaker place-attachment to the reserve area and may, therefore, be less interested in being engaged in biosphere reserve—related activities Huber and Arnberger Based on the analysis of our results and supported by examples found in academic and practice-oriented publications from the intergenerational field, we provide suggestions of how IP-related solutions could be used to address the obstacles we have identified and improve participation of the youth and elderly women in biosphere reserve management:.
The lack of understanding of and information about the biosphere reserve can be addressed directly by organizing intergenerational activities, which can be used as opportunities to inform youth and elderly about the reserve and their potential role in it. This could become the first step towards their potential participation. In this respect, it is important to note the distinction between the abundance of information and its clarity and appeal to the underrepresented groups. The reserve managers and process facilitators provided ample examples of conducted participatory events and referred to various media including news and online media, school presentations and discussions used to reach and involve a broader audience in both provinces.
Based on the results of the interviews, Snajdr recommends event formats specifically promoting the intergenerational interaction of the young and the elderly in the biosphere reserve. Several interviewees reflected their interest in intergenerational exchange: learning from the elderly, passing on stories, skills and knowledge to the younger generation.
This intergenerational exchange could be something new, something different the biosphere reserve managers could focus on in order to attract both generations. The interest in topics related to cultural and natural heritage expressed by both elderly and young interviewees could provide an entrance point to discussion about the biosphere reserve during intergenerational activities. Moreover, some of the young and elderly interviewees expressed willingness to provide a contribution and be involved in the region, while others implied that they could become interested via their peers.
Thus, engaging representatives of youth and elderly women in decision-making, organization of events and developing information material could pave a way for stronger involvement of these groups. While biosphere reserve-related literature does provide recommendations for participatory formats i. Guidance and innovative methods for engaging youth and elderly in research activities on traditional knowledge transfer and intergenerational learning can also be used in biosphere reserve implementation i. Increased awareness about the biosphere reserve and its function can also help tackle the perceived lack of benefits from it.
IP has been suggested as useful in increasing awareness about and acceptance of protected areas among both younger and older people. IP could be designed to support projects and processes leading to both economic benefits for local communities and the protection of natural and cultural heritage—such as creation of innovative goods and services by combining traditional knowledge with new ideas. For example, IP can facilitate sustainable tourism development based on the traditional knowledge of the older generations and technical skills of the youth and thus provide income possibilities and jobs for the youth Mitrofanenko et al.
Examples exist of IP addressing power inequalities and hierarchy, lack of agreement, one-sided representation or perception of stakeholders and missing trust. A number of authors suggest that IP can facilitate community benefits, including enhanced community spirit, community cohesion, greater understanding, trust and interaction between groups in the community Pain ; Zeldin et al.
Zeldin et al. With respect to the expressed lack of interest and having other priorities, IP can lead to enhanced rates of volunteering, active citizenship, community development Pain ; Vegeris and Campbell-Barr , pro-social life values EAGLE Project , sense of ownership for the elderly and gratification for their contribution to the community Newman and Hatton-Yeo , as well as an enhanced sense of social responsibility in youth Buffel et al.
Linking IP with school-related activities can help overcome the lack of time expressed by the young interviewees. The existing collaborations between the reserve and the local schools show a number of synergies. Cohen-Mansfield and Jensen report benefits from the IP in schools to both participating seniors and children in the academic, social, and emotional domains. This could encourage opening the reserve school events to the elderly population. With respect to personal and age-related participation challenges, IP literature provides many suggestions. For the elderly, IP can lead to increased skills and individual capacity, improved physical and mental health and well-being Reisig and Fees , extended social networks and new friendships, improved social and digital inclusion Vegeris and Campbell-Barr , increased energy, reduced likelihood of depression Spence and Radunovich , a renewed sense of worth, increased activity and mobility improvements, as well as ability to cope with vulnerabilities Springate et al.
Thus, the biosphere reserve could facilitate the multiple benefits outlined above, both on the individual and community level by organizing and or supporting IP activities. This would not only constitute a useful contribution to community cohesion—an important social aspect of local sustainable development relevant for biosphere reserve implementation—but also enhance the view of the reserve as beneficial for the region among the participants of IP.
The interest in IP activities expressed by both youth and elderly women interviewed should facilitate this process in the Lungau and Nockberge biosphere reserve. While the focus of the intergenerational literature is on youth and elderly as underrepresented groups, whose mutual contact should be facilitated, and while literature often refers to facilitating extra-familial connections in this respect, activities organized by the biosphere reserve should by no means limit participation of the middle-generations or entire multigenerational families.
With respect to more active vs. Moreover, improperly managed activities could have adverse outcomes Vegeris and Campbell-Barr At the same time, Zeldin et al. In this respect, the reserve staff, in particular when considering the specific objectives of biosphere reserves as incubators for innovation, could take on the role of facilitators and use IP as occasions to actively involve the local youth and elderly in biosphere reserve activities. Moreover, biosphere reserve-related literature suggests an active management role in initiating and mediating participatory processes Stoll-Kleemann et al.
Taking initiative in organizing IP activities could require skills and competencies beyond those traditionally expected from biosphere reserve managers Springate et al. IP literature provides suggestions in terms of competencies needed Kaplan and Sanchez provide a summary and refer to a number of additional sources. IP guidance aimed specifically at biosphere reserves is not available to-date, although recommendations for the management of the Lungau and Nockberge have been provided based on our results in Snajdr Another important barrier to implementing IP is the lack of time and financial resources on behalf of biosphere reserve staff, which in reality often renders implementation of ambitious recommendations and biosphere reserve objectives impossible or at least challenging.
These barriers, as well as the lack of competencies within the reserve, could be tackled by cooperating with institutions and professionals within the biosphere reserve community such as local schools and social services or working together with universities. Such cooperation could involve using resources of partner institutions, as well as developing cooperative grant applications, which could fund inviting external IP experts or hiring and training of IP personnel these suggestions are in line with the IUCN Global Competences Register , Appleton Our results build on and complement their work by more specifically focusing on the individual biosphere reserve level.
Many of the obstacles and motivations to participation in biosphere reserve activities identified during our studies are similar to those reported in other publications, cited above. The results suggest that participation of the youth and elderly women in biosphere reserve activities should and could be strengthened.
Both groups need more information regarding the meaning and objectives of the reserve, how its functions relate to the developments in the region including learning activities and leisure, as well as potential for economic development , and how they can take on an active role in the biosphere reserve by being involved in its implementation. However, the results also point to a number of obstacles to the involvement of these groups, which could be overcome via applying intergenerational practice. Intergenerational practice is an emerging field aimed at promoting and facilitating the interaction of youth and elderly as well as achieving wider social benefits as a result of this interaction.
This paper establishes a link between this field and that of biosphere reserve management. We provide evidence that there is much potential for intergenerational practice in the Lungau and Nockberge Biosphere Reserve region as both the young and the old interviewed residents are interested in an exchange with the other group; moreover, their ideas about the existing and potential interactions between the youth and elderly are related to the local cultural and natural heritage.
As such, intergenerational activities could be easily linked with the biosphere reserve. They could be used to provide more information about the reserve, to build trust among the local population towards its management and to potentially build a connection with the reserve as a part of local identity. The results imply that some of the youth and elderly might prioritize IP activities over conventional biosphere reserve events, as some of them expressed more enthusiasm about exchange with the other generation than about the biosphere reserve.
Moreover, IP activities facilitated by the management could be perceived as another added value of the biosphere reserve for the region. Furthermore, the combination of traditional knowledge and skills of the elderly with the creativity and technical skills of the youth holds potential for new economic activities, which could provide local livelihood options for the younger population, such as through developing and promoting sustainable tourism products. The management could initiate and support IP projects in cooperation with schools, the local youth and elderly associations as part of biosphere reserve implementation in line with the recent MAB strategy and Lima Action Plan.
Due to the lack of existing empirical studies on applying IP in the context of protected areas, we propose that these activities should be monitored and complemented by evaluative research. Building on the overlapping motivations of young and elderly for intergenerational exchange highlighted by our empirical work, we suggest that future research should contribute to theory development and testing of methods used in other application contexts, such as via:.
Establishing and experimenting with intergenerational platforms and facilitation methods;. Theory building on the evolution and intergenerational transfer of traditional ecological knowledge. Results of such research efforts would also provide a useful contribution to the broader realm of protected area management as well as to the emerging field of intergenerational studies. This would further highlight the role of biosphere reserves as test-beds for innovative solutions towards sustainable development. Drau und Feldkirchen. Tabelle B. Kurz , 82— The biosphere reserve establishment process was accompanied by professional facilitators in both parts of the reserve.
In the Lungau province, two consecutive managers were interviewed. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Environmental Management. Environ Manage. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Received Mar 15; Accepted Apr Abstract Stakeholder participation is of high importance in UNESCO biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development; however, certain groups remain underrepresented. Objectives This article aims to fill the empirical gap by exploring the potential of IP for encouraging participation of the younger and elderly population in biosphere reserve implementation. Open in a separate window. Specific Research Questions The paper examines the motivations and barriers for participation of the youth and elderly women in processes and activities related to the implementation of the biosphere reserve and considers the potential for applying IP as a means to increase their involvement by addressing the following questions: What are the perceptions of the biosphere reserve among the elderly women and youth, as well as the obstacles to and motivations for them to engage in biosphere reserve-related activities?
Table 1 Overview of the interviewees. The code names stand for: N —Nockberge, L —Lungau, Y —youth, E —elderly women, M —manager, PF —process facilitator b Two of the interviews were conducted with two interviewees at the same time c Participants of interviews and focus group discussion were different people. Results The results are presented jointly for both biosphere reserve provinces and distinguished between them only where relevant.
Obstacles to participation The interviewed elderly women in both provinces perceived the public events to be dominated by the same people, characterized by hierarchical roles and perceptions. Table 2 Obstacles to and motivations for participation in biosphere reserve-related activities expressed by the youth and elderly women in Lungau and Nockberge. Perceptions of the Elderly and Youth about Each Other and Spending Time Together While both generations appeared skeptical, to some extent disappointed and even disinterested in the biosphere reserve, reflections on intergenerational practice were more positive.
Table 3 Obstacles to and motivations for engagement in IP activities among the youth and the elderly women in the Lungau and Nockberge. Impressions of the Biosphere Reserve Managers About IP Initially the managers in both provinces were not familiar with the concept of intergenerational practice and its potential benefits for the biosphere reserve. Potential of IP for Involving Elderly Women and Youth in the Biosphere Reserve The perceptions of both elderly women and youth about the biosphere reserve, their ideas about the other generation and interest in IP are similar in the two provinces.
Discussion Reflection on the Research Process Complementing previous studies on the reserve The results presented in this paper with respect to the obstacles to participation in biosphere reserve activities are complementary to those found in the study of the Nockberge Huber et al. Interest by the local population Finding interested interviewees in Nockberge was more challenging than in Lungau, which could be attributed to the negative attitudes of some landowners in this province towards the biosphere reserve, inferred by the researchers during some of the interviews.
Based on the analysis of our results and supported by examples found in academic and practice-oriented publications from the intergenerational field, we provide suggestions of how IP-related solutions could be used to address the obstacles we have identified and improve participation of the youth and elderly women in biosphere reserve management: Addressing the lack of information The lack of understanding of and information about the biosphere reserve can be addressed directly by organizing intergenerational activities, which can be used as opportunities to inform youth and elderly about the reserve and their potential role in it.
Making benefits visible Increased awareness about the biosphere reserve and its function can also help tackle the perceived lack of benefits from it. Avoiding power, hierarchy, and conflicts Examples exist of IP addressing power inequalities and hierarchy, lack of agreement, one-sided representation or perception of stakeholders and missing trust. Addressing obstacles related to personal conditions With respect to the expressed lack of interest and having other priorities, IP can lead to enhanced rates of volunteering, active citizenship, community development Pain ; Vegeris and Campbell-Barr , pro-social life values EAGLE Project , sense of ownership for the elderly and gratification for their contribution to the community Newman and Hatton-Yeo , as well as an enhanced sense of social responsibility in youth Buffel et al.