Manual Die Reinigung der Seele (Teil 10) Die Wahrhaftigkeit (Die Reinigung der Seele 1-41) (German Edition)

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The article offers a condensed, and very accessible, summary of aspects of his larger survey. Uwe Saeger 83 someone purporting to be related to a former colleague of the narrator is actually more disturbing. The following week, the narrator is telephoned by a DEFA producer, seemingly out of the blue, about the possibility of filming the screenplay.

Ultimately, the sudden interest would appear to have little to do with coincidence. The unsettling impact of this sequence of events on the narrator is doubtless accentuated by his own creative impasse. In essence, it borrows heavily from the original tale, recounting the return home of two conscriptees, but with the added dramatic tension of being set in October Der Text des M. DN, Du galtest schon als kooperativ. Ist ein Aktenvermerk. Aber so war die Strategie damals. Ich war immer in Erwartung eines Unheils, das von dieser Episode seinen Ausgang nahm.

Ich trank viel 52 und ich schrieb nichts. Clearly unsettled, it is striking that the narrator should resort to alcohol once more, as he had following his tour of duty at the Berlin Wall. In an ironic twist, when one considers the proactive role the Stasi played in combating insurgency, the narrator is chided for his inactivity and apparent indifference towards the fate of the GDR: 52 This passage is reminiscent of Was bleibt, in which the narrator is similarly afflicted by a debilitating paranoia.

Hatte der Meister etwa Angst? War er sich zu schade? Wars doch nicht seine Stunde, nicht seine Zeit? Furthermore, the existential situation of the two diametrically opposed characters seems strikingly similar, thus reflecting a far broader social pattern, for both are plagued by doubts about their professional futures.

Conversely, the narrator himself is uncertain whether he will be able to write again now that the Wall has fallen.

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The text thus depicts most effectively not only the causes, but also the symptoms, of the pressures exerted on individuals in the GDR. What is more, the psychological ramifications of this pressure are manifest in the very form of Die Nacht danach und der Morgen, the disjointedly hybrid nature of which reflects the disorientation of the author. The conflation of different documents in Die Nacht danach und der Morgen, some of which appear overtly autobiographical and others of which may be fictional, makes it impossible to define it as a conventional autobiography.

The narrative time is not chronological; rather it is syncopated with leaps back and forth within passages of interior monologue, giving the effect of snatches of memories being flung together. In this respect, the movement between temporal planes in the narrative closely resembles the same almost arbitrary process in Kindheitsmuster, in which the narrator glides between three different periods in her life: the Third Reich, her return to the site of her childhood in , and the writing up of both experiences from to Uwe Saegers 54 Buch […] ist der poetische Versuch, eben das zu tun.

The reasons for this decision emerge within the text, as it would appear to indicate that thorough selfknowledge lies beyond the grasp of the author. If this is true, how can subjectivity be conveyed in textual terms? On several occasions, the narrator throws up his hands in despair at being unable to explain himself and find the words or the form to do so. Gansel, p. So what is Saeger trying to achieve? Is this not postmodern playfulness after all, an aesthetic game? One need only acknowledge the strong moral and self-critical tone of the narrative to reject such an interpretation.

How could it be otherwise in a totalitarian system that sought quite deliberately to mould its citizens to fit a template? Saeger is driven by this same existential imperative: it underpins not only the description of his tortured efforts to write about his military service in the opening section, but also his struggles to deal with the social upheaval during the Wende. Ebooks and Manuals

The compulsion to write is evident, and even though the words prove frustratingly, almost cripplingly, elusive, it is this very compulsion that is key; it marks an attempt at least to articulate the self as coherently as possible, instead of surrendering to silence. By , individuation was still subject to debilitating pressures that stunted the growth of fully rounded identities. As a representative of the middle generation, Saeger bears all the scars of his GDR upbringing.

That the text bears no genre description underlines this fact: he simply does not know how best to define this intrinsically subjective text, and simply exploits a blend of different literary materials more in hope, it seems, than expectation of achieving his aim. DN, On this occasion, the narrator describes himself as being trapped in an iron construction, but aware of space opening up below, presumably room in which he might move. Uwe Saeger 91 trapped in iron, but truly rootless? As the complex structure of Die Nacht danach und der Morgen indicates, however, confronting the past is easier said than done, due to the depredations inflicted upon individuals by the State.

For Saeger, as we have seen, his passivity in the GDR engenders a deep sense of shame and guilt, but it is hard to censure him, when one considers the environment within which he grew up. The problems that Saeger has in coming to terms with his actions reflect the scale of those pressures, arguably in a more effective manner than Wolf was able to achieve in Was bleibt.

Die Nacht danach und der Morgen does raise similar concerns, but offers more insight into the nature of GDR society at large. And therein lies the considerable strength of this remarkable, challenging book. Ultimately, it matters little where precisely the line between fact and fiction is drawn in Die Nacht danach und der Morgen: what does count is that it conveys an authentic sense of 58 Ibid. Thus, the pressures placed upon individuals come to the fore, together with the sense of disorientation that many people were to feel as the GDR crumbled; not so much because the State was much beloved by its people, but rather that it had been their home and embodied familiar surroundings.

Many GDR commentators have described the effects of this overnight transition to freedom with detachment, but Saeger has arguably provided the earliest searching literary analysis of the ramifications from a subjective perspective. Preece, p. It should be noted that these young voices can now be heard. All subsequent references to this volume will appear in the text in the form ITM, All page references to this edition will appear in the text in he form WL, In this way, for all the contextual and stylistic correlations that exist, one ought to view If This is a Man and weiter leben rather as complementary texts which broaden the focus of debate on the Holocaust.

Survivors have come to terms with their experiences in a personal manner, and in this way their individual reflections rescue a sense of self from the collective dehumanisation that the concentration camps sought to impose on the prisoners. Subsequent page references to this edition will appear in the text in the form JSS, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, Wer sich selbst auszieht, der sagt, ich mach, was ich will, oder sogar, bitte, du kannst mich. Der Zustand ist neutral; der Kontext ist alles. WL, Each subjective account interprets that context anew, providing fresh perspectives on the experience and thereby contributing to a more differentiated appreciation of the Holocaust and its victims.

Although the picture of, what has been termed, the univers concentrationnaire may seem quite clear, by virtue of the many artistic and documentary representations of the Holocaust that now exist, each new account can provide different insights to shock or elucidate that humiliating experience still further. Erst jetzt, an dieser Stelle, frage ich mich, wieso Orte, wenn ich doch eine bin, die nirgendwo lange war und wohnt.

Wir fangen mit dem an, was blieb: Ortsnamen. Ultimately, as weiter leben indicates, it is not the form but the content of the material dealing with the univers concentrationnaire which counts. Die Holocaust-Literatur ist im Schnittpunkt zwischen dem einmaligen und dem wiederholbaren Megaverbrechen angesiedelt. Sie mag Gedicht, Fiktion, Drama, Berichterstattung und was es sonst noch gibt, sein. One cannot help but feel that objections to Jakob the Liar stemmed largely from the casting of eccentric comedian Robin Williams in the lead role.

Was stimmt hier denn nicht? WL, Despite the seemingly reductive function of poetry as a way of passing the time, its significance in keeping the author mentally alert should not be overlooked. Das Gedicht transzendierte die Wirklichkeit nicht mehr. It is futile, even facile, to attempt to reduce that experience to a universal template. The intellectual and emotional investment in literature, it seems, facilitates an active response instead of a passive absorption of the facts: Wer nur erlebt reim- und gedankenlos, ist in Gefahr, den Verstand zu verlieren […]. Ich hab den Verstand nicht verloren, ich hab Reime gemacht.

It comes as no great surprise, therefore, that in spite of her admiration for Paul Celan, she should be so critical of his complex poetry. Ernestine Schlant provides a detailed survey of the debate about whether or not the Holocaust should ever be conceptualised linguistically, summarising in particular how Adorno eventually rescinded his initially dogmatic refusal to countenance any literary adaptation thereof. Mapping the Contours of Oppression retain the memory that is perhaps the only meaningful association we can have with Auschwitz: never to forget the abyss of inhumanity of 15 which man is capable.

Irrespective of her own, rather harsh, assessment of their deficiencies, those of her poems that she interpolates into the text of weiter leben represent significant attempts to interpret the univers concentrationnaire and consequently possess intrinsic value for their blend of Wahrheit and Dichtung. The first poem she cites is one dealing with her father, who left his family behind in Vienna, only to perish in a concentration camp in France. In this way, her poems about him are to be seen as purely functional personal documents with validity solely as exorcisms.

Her Auschwitz poems might therefore be seen to perform a similar function. No attempt is made to embellish the description or to inject any sense of drama or pathos into the text. Worte wechselnd standen sie am Eingang der Baracke. Even less worthwhile is it to make friends with them, because they have no distinguished acquaintances in camp, they do not gain any extra rations, they do not work in profitable Kommandos and they know no secret method of organizing.

And in any case, one knows that they are only here on a visit, that in a few weeks nothing will remain of them but a handful of ashes in some near-by field and a crossed-out number on a register. To readers now, such ruthless pragmatism is decidedly unsettling. Nevertheless, as Steinfeld observes, there is no mistaking a frequent brusqueness in weiter leben.

Ich denke dann, die wollen mir mein Leben nehmen, denn das Leben ist doch nur die verbrachte Zeit, das einzige, was wir haben, das machen sie mir streitig, wenn sie mir das Recht des Erinnerns in Frage stellen. As a result, women should be entitled to articulate their memories in the same way as men, for there was an undeniable equality in persecution and suffering. A commitment to feminism underpins the text, therefore, but must be seen in the context of wresting a voice for all witnesses whose testimonies have been drowned out or ignored, for whatever reason.

In particular, it is the poems that are interpolated into the text that offer glimpses of an individual coming to terms with the Holocaust and rescuing a sense of self. The problem, she argues, stems from too many people being unable to deal with uncomfortable or traumatic memories, either their own or those of other people. Wir erinnern uns, nicht weil wir sollen oder wollen, um keines kategorischen Imperativs willen, sondern weil wir so veranlagt sind, weil es uns nicht gegeben ist, uns nicht zu erinnern.

But she is not only stressing the legitimacy of her need to articulate her own memories; more importantly, she is also demanding that others should listen. The text is replete with other such examples aimed at correcting some of the preconceived ideas the author has encountered. As a telling postscript to this situation, she believes that the postwar refusal of the Poles to commemorate separately the Polish Jews who were murdered at Auschwitz indicates a disturbing level of anti-Semitism and a significant distortion of the truth. Rather than promoting a better understanding of what happened, these memorials paradoxically run the risk of distorting the past because they cannot possibly recreate the horror experienced by the prisoners.

The horrific nature of the past thus remains elusive, beyond the reach of imagination. But rearranged for whose benefit, one might ask? Is it not possible that these pitiful collections of mundane objects might bring home the reality of the Holocaust to those fortunate enough not to have been there? As a consequence, the sincerity of the emotional response they arouse must be called into question. As Schlant observes in The Language of Silence, the authenticity of the hysterical responses generated in Germany by the broadcast of the American television film Holocaust in was equally suspect.

It is clear that she would rather readers of these texts — and by extension, visitors to concentration camp memorials, or viewers of television programmes — displayed the same emotional detachment which underpins weiter leben. Theresienstadt war kein KZ-Museum geworden. WL, In effect, the return of normality to the area is the best commemoration for the horrors of the past. Instead of an unnatural vacuum, life has begun again. Her dislike of the museum culture surrounding some KZ can be seen in the wider context of the problem she has raised of how best to represent the Holocaust.

By implication, it is such works that have helped shape the perceptions of those such as Gisela, who have subsequently trivialised or sentimentalised the Holocaust accordingly. Although Apitz himself spent eight years in the camp, his account was produced in the GDR in the mids and duly bears the hallmarks of Socialist Realism, with the attendant partial interpretation one would expect from such a work.

Produced in exile, Das siebte Kreuz is underpinned by a defiant optimism that National Socialism could be defeated and that a sense of humanity would prevail. Hoffen war Pflicht. It is especially evident on those occasions when the author addresses her readers directly. It is as if the author herself has been overwhelmed, albeit briefly, by her emotions or outrage, and resorts to the kind of sermonising approach that runs the risk of perpetuating the very responses she is endeavouring to counteract. Aber seid ihr das wirklich? Wollt ihr wirklich so sein?

She wants not only to engage them in discussion, but also to provoke a response in them. In view of the extermination that took place at Auschwitz, the fact that she was not allowed to sit on a park bench at seven years of age might seem banal. It is interesting to observe in autobiographies dealing with the Nazi period how often the role of cinema emerges, providing evidence of its value as both a propaganda tool and a barometer of the period. Es war der reine Terror. Juden ist der Eintritt ins Kino gesetzlich untersagt. Hast du das gesehen? Wo ein unsauberer Profit zu machen war, und sei er auch noch so kleinlich, wie die 10 Pfennige pro Judenstern, haben die Nazis einkassiert.

There were fundamental differences between the three camps she was imprisoned in, which explains why she devotes time to each in turn in her account. Nevertheless, highlighting the individual nature of each camp does not detract from the suffering that existed in them all. Although the experience was less brutally degrading than at Auschwitz, it was dehumanising nonetheless. In relative terms, juxtaposed alongside the description of her childhood in Vienna, it is easy to see why she might feel this way.

Yet one must not overlook the important qualification in her remark. Ein Ameisenhaufen, der zertreten wurde. WL, There is no qualification now. The chances of successful selection for the author were remote; she was just twelve and was certain she did not look any older than thirteen. Irrespective of the role of good fortune, that there was still the capacity for humanity to prevail is crucial.

Yet, ironically, weiter leben might be viewed in a similar way. For all the harrowing detail that they contain documenting the way totalitarian regimes persecute those deemed outsiders, there is something inevitably uplifting about the survival they depict. The poem appears to anticipate the disillusionment that the author would feel in the immediate postwar period, but by her own admission this fact should not diminish the elation of the freedom so suddenly attained.

Die Frage war nicht so sehr, wohin, das war nicht mein Anliegen. Freiheit bedeutete weg von. Das ist subjektives Verhalten und verringert das Elend der Zeit um keinen einzigen Toten. Wir haben viel gelacht auf dieser Flucht. It is as if she is eager not to allow the fact of her own survival to deflect from the Holocaust, conscious that many people, such as Gisela, have relativised the horror in this way and view survivors as an alibi.

And yet, one cannot fail to be affected by this simple reassertion of individuality and humanity, for one rarely has a sense of the author smiling or laughing in weiter leben. It is inevitable that this idyll could not last. Although they are able to blend in relatively Mapping the Contours of Oppression seamlessly, two incidents have a profound effect on the author and signal the end of their untroubled existence. Was mich von denen trennte, waren nur einige Wochen, nach jahrelanger Gemeinsamkeit. Und da waren sie nun, meine Leute.

Als die Amerikaner kurz darauf einmarschierten, hatte niemand je was gesehen. In diesem Sinne hatte nur ich sie gesehen. They are significant attempts to break the silence, to articulate that which others cannot or will not. It is especially true of her relationship with her mother, which is rarely less than antagonistic, despite the common suffering they endured in concentration camps. These lives are set in motion by the existence of tensions and secrets; there is a disruption, distortion, or omission in the family narrative that must be repaired.

In both cases, the commonality of experience fails to mitigate the generational conflict. Die ihrige dient nicht dem Gedankenaustausch, sondern der Manipulation. In spite of the shared trauma, there is no impression that the experience brought them closer together.

Although it is tempting, perhaps, to view weiter leben as conforming to the typical pattern of myriad mother-daughter texts that have been the focus of many recent feminist studies, it would be a rather narrow interpretation of the text as a whole. It seems to have imbued the young girl with a sense of independence and a strong-willed outlook that finds expression in the narrative tone of weiter leben.

Nichts zu machen. WL, 41 It is the distortion of this affiliation with her home that signalled the onset of National Socialism. She no longer belonged; she became exclusively Jewish, and therefore representative of the other. Any inclusive, positive affiliation with Vienna is irrevocably juxtaposed with exclusion and persecution: 34 Boa and Palfreyman, p. The poems she adored as a child were written in German, but so too were the anti-Semitic posters that comprised her first reading. WL, Rather than signifying any degree of reaffirmation of a cultural or linguistic identity, her profession remains rooted in an enduring ambivalence.

Die halbe Welt wohnt nicht mehr dort, wo sie geboren wurde. That a sense of freedom should have remained important to the author is axiomatic. Das bildet man sich ein. Pletter, p. Das steckt einem in den Knochen ein 40 Leben lang. The only similarity exists in the way these early experiences have subsequently conditioned their attitudes.

The same contrast can be found in their perception of German. As one might expect after enforced exile, Domin longed for nothing so much as the opportunity to return home: […] Ich verwaist und vertrieben, da stand ich auf und ging heim, in das Wort. Das Wort aber war das deutsche Wort. As any lapse into her native tongue could lead to arrest, she had to suppress her identity. Consequently, when the Allies liberated Amsterdam, the author sought to return to Germany at the earliest opportunity, even though she knew that her Heimat would be much changed. More important, however, was the chance to rediscover her true voice.

Wer war schon bibelfest bei uns zu Haus? WL, Despite her expectations, however, both her victim status and her record of events were challenged after the war, so that it became necessary for her to bear witness to the Holocaust, a process which reached fruition with weiter leben. Wegwischen, wie mit einem Schwamm, wie die Kreide von einer Tafel. Sicher ist so ein Bild eine Nachwirkung der Nazipropaganda, doch zu einer Zeit, die die Frauen abwertete, war es naheliegend, mich selbst abzuwerten.

She posits the theory, with hindsight, that she was suffering from culture shock. It is nevertheless striking that she should have associated her problems at the time with her Jewishness. With the passage of time, she clearly came to view the unwillingness of people around her to acknowledge her past suffering as a stifling of her identity.

From her own point of view, her Jewishness was no longer a problem; it was part of who she had become. She has effectively rescued her identity. Her assertion is borne out by weiter leben, which documents the pressures she had to withstand and distils out the elements that have enabled her to stay alive and have shaped her sense of self. Nevertheless, about one thing she is adamant. Brockmann, pp. There is danger that public observances of remembrance days and anniversaries lead to ritualization und relieve the individual from the responsibility to remember.

This increasingly public memory work is further enhanced through a plethora of films and TV series, documentaries, and exhibitions […]. Institutionalization, ritualization, mythization, spectacularization — all tend to absorb and obscure the reasons for which they were created 50 and to replace individual memory work with public gestures. It breaks the silence others sought to impose, whilst also celebrating the capacity of humanity to prevail, reflected most obviously in the title.

It seemed inevitable that Vierzig Jahre would be weighed down by so much expectation, and unsurprisingly the reception it was accorded was more mixed than that of its predecessor. Subsequent page references to this volume will appear in the text in the form VJ, Subsequent page references to this volume will appear in the text in the form ZB, Mai , ed. All that had changed were the expectations of some critics, who appeared to be demanding a searching socio-political survey, undoubtedly because the subject of the GDR and its legacy was very much on the contemporary agenda, with ever more Stasi revelations in particular making the headlines at the time.

But it was inappropriate to expect an author, whose fiction is marked by his even-handed treatment of his characters, to abandon discretion all of a sudden and to adopt the more denunciatory tack that many appeared to demand. The material is kept on a tight rein, being divided neatly into short thematic chapters that introduce an array of other characters — family, friends, writers, philosophers, aristocrats — with the result that Das Leben des Jean Paul Friedrich Richter reads in the main like an historical novel.

Both autobiographical volumes largely share this same construction, which allows de Bruyn to interweave private and public history to great effect, thereby revealing just how potentially damaging to the individual this interface could be in totalitarian climates. Tatsachenberichte einfallslos aneinandergereiht, ergeben nur blasse Geschichten; erst die Erfindung verleiht ihnen Kontur.

It is only natural that the qualities deemed essential for producing authentic literature should pertain to autobiography as well, a genre demanding the highest guarantee of authenticity to be in any way credible. EI, 66 In both volumes of his autobiographical project, de Bruyn selects and arranges his material in the manner outlined in the passage above, in an attempt to produce an accessible, and authentic, account.

Nevertheless, de Bruyn is careful to underline the conditional nature of the texts thus constructed. Rather than reducing the sense of authenticity, such caveats serve to enhance the credibility of the texts produced in that de Bruyn can be seen to be striving for the truth and seeks to corroborate his account wherever possible. It is an approach to autobiography that is both subjective and authentic. It is a particular feature of Zwischenbilanz, where the gap between narrated past and narrative present is wider than in the second volume of his autobiography, but attention is also drawn to unreliable memories in Vierzig Jahre, albeit less frequently.

He can vouch for the veracity of certain memories on account of the deeply painful impression they made. Where he is unable to corroborate an episode fully, de Bruyn is careful to draw attention to his misgivings, as in the scene with the American pilot, or to concede that some events may not have coincided exactly as he describes, even though it is entirely plausible.

It is no less important a day, therefore, than 30 January , in that both had ramifications for ordinary individuals; the only difference in Vierzig Jahre, however, is that the author knows the juxtaposition of private and public experience on 17 June definitely occurred. The unreliability of his memories in general is a leitmotif in both volumes, and it is this candour which ensures their credibility.

EI, 42 Where possible, de Bruyn employs documentary evidence in his reconstruction in order to test, correct, or supplement his memories. ZB, To underline further still the difficulties facing any autobiographer, de Bruyn, who as a youngster assiduously maintained a diary, is forced to acknowledge the inherent unreliability of this document.

Eigne Meinungen scheint er nicht zu haben […]. Von Heimweh ist genauso wenig die Rede wie von Angst […]. Nie ist von Polen oder Juden die Rede, aber auch nicht von Hitler. ZB, Rather than plugging gaps, his diary poses more questions. In conjunction, memory and documentation do therefore recreate an impression of the past, even if, ironically in this instance, it is the process of remembering that appears more accurate. So tief wie de Bruyn hat niemand bisher die Wahrheit ausgelotet. His handling of the whole episode reflects both his integrity and the rigorous self-assessment that characterises his autobiographical work.

The confrontation with the Stasi files indicates indeed how difficult it is to write the truth. He does not denunciate or condemn; he is merely critical where criticism is required. In particular, de Bruyn pokes fun at his various unrequited infatuations with women, such as G. That this realisation strikes him only on his wedding day, the description of which otherwise proves an effective vehicle for comedy, suggests that the portents for the newly-weds are not encouraging.

He proceeds to outline in embarrassing detail how the reality does not match the expectations aroused by Karl May, alluding perhaps to the same discrepancy between theory and practice in the GDR as a whole.

The horses are ill-tempered and frequently escape, and instead of being able to devote himself to his work, de Bruyn spends most of his time ensuring the horses are fed or chasing after them. With great relief, he is finally able to sell them. As well as injecting humour into the narrative, such selfdeprecating moments ensure that de Bruyn never appears in any way heroic.

At times, his self-portrait recalls the diffident anti-heroes in his fiction, thereby underlining the subjective authenticity of his work. Nevertheless, de Bruyn emerges as a figure with whom one can readily identify. The abiding impression of both Zwischenbilanz and Vierzig Jahre is of a man plagued with fear and forced into uncomfortable compromises with the prevailing totalitarian regimes.

In order to preserve his personal integrity, de Bruyn kept his distance from authority wherever possible, withdrawing into an inner emigration particularly in the GDR. The author continually wrestles with the issue of conformity and whether he could, and should, have been a more active opponent of the regime.

Despite the significant differences, however, the three accounts provide mutual corroboration of the pictures of Nazi Germany conveyed, especially in the case of de Bruyn and Kunert who were both born and raised in Berlin. By contrast, his brother, Karlheinz, who was active in the Catholic Neudeutschland youth organisation, explained what was happening outside the confines of the family, and in the process exerted a strong influence on the young boy as a positive model of resistance, albeit largely passive in nature.

Und deren Verlust war schlimmer als die Verachtung, die von anderen kam. Although never a formal member of the Hitler Youth, de Bruyn did attend a camp at the behest of his friend Hannes, only to be horrified by the bullying atmosphere he encountered. Victimised for his inability to march properly, de Bruyn is humiliated by one of the leaders. Aber das beeindruckte mich wenig. Ich war nicht jeder. Und unter den vielen, die sich einordnen konnten, waren nicht die, die ich suchte und brauchte.

His stubbornness at the Hitler Youth camp was replaced by a desperate attempt to conform during his Kindlandverschickung experience. What Zwischenbilanz uncovers is the all-pervasive influence that National Socialism exuded on society and how susceptible youngsters in particular were to these morally distorting forces. Nonetheless, there remained a life beyond the private sphere that had to be endured, and survived. Der innere Widerstand, der sich da und dort, auch bei mir, regte, war weder politisch motiviert, noch wurde er so empfunden.

ZB, By stressing the immaturity of his generation in his analysis, de Bruyn is careful to play down the suggestion that any coherent will to resist existed. His assessment is sober and not uncritical, but he is equally mindful to underline how the exclusion of more enlightened, critical influences inevitably led to their general conformity and stunted development.

Both teachers combatted the partial syllabi with provocatively allegorical interpretations in their respective subjects that threw critical light on the present, allusions not lost on the more perceptive pupils such as de Bruyn. Thank God our bodies have this capacity. I hope you too can appreciate the experience. Let your tears flow to purify stress and negativity. When a friend apologized for curling up in the fetal position on my floor, weeping, depressed over a failing romance, I told her, "Your tears blessed my floor.

There is nothing to apologize for. Also, you can have tears of joy, say when a child is born or tears of relief when a difficult time has passed. Crying makes us feel better, even when a problem persists. In addition to physical detoxification, emotional tears heal the heart. You don't want to hold tears back. Tears of ending and beginning, photographer Rose-Lynn Fisher. If there were wanting any argument to prove that man is not mortal, I would look for it in the strong, convulsive emotion of the breast, when the soul has been deeply agitated, when the fountains of feeling are rising, and when tears are gushing forth in crystal streams.

O, speak not harshly of the stricken one — weeping in silence! Break not the deep solemnity by rude laughter, or intrusive footsteps. Scoff not if the stern heart of manhood is sometimes melted to tears of sympathy — they are what help to elevate him above the brute. I love to see tears of affection. They are painful tokens, but still most holy. There is pleasure in tears — an awful pleasure!

If there were none on earth to shed a tear for me, I should be loth to live; and if no one might weep over my grave, I could never die in peace. February ; secondly presented by "The Mother's Assistant", attributed to Dr. Johnson, S. Life is too unfair. Why try at all? I'm devastated and I can continue to keep loving. June Reference : en. Douglas Bremner, M. A group of former depression patients agreed to drink a beverage that was spiked with an amino acid that blocks the brain's ability to absorb the neurotransmitter serotonin.

It induces the upbeat and happy feelings. Men's reaction after imbibing a serotonine inhibiting potion Women's reaction after imbibing a serotonine inhibiting potion John, a middle-aged businessman who had fully recovered from depression, thanks to a combination of psychotherapy and Prozac , shortly after drinking the brew, wanted to escape to a bar across the street. After taking the cocktail Sue, a mother of two in her mid-thirties was overwhelmed by her emotions.

She began to cry and express her sadness over the loss of her father two years ago. October Auflage 1. May Eric Maisel ericmaisel. June Stephen S. May Orthomolecular medicine approach high dosage of multivitamins Eric Maisel ericmaisel. December Kelly Brogan, M. March Neel Burton, Ph. August Artikel Todesursache gebrochenes Herz. August Vier Millionen Deutsche leiden an Depressionen. Oktober Artikel Entsteht Depression direkt im Mutterleib? Februar Artikel Entstehen Depressionen im Darm? Juli Artikel Melancholische Mikroben.

April Wikipedia entries Antidepressant i. Webb, published by Supporting Emotional Needs of the Gifted SENG , issuing date unknown "Gifted and talented persons are more likely to experience a type of depression referred to as existential depression. Treatment of Schizophrenia , W.

Freeman and Company , June Insight: Undetected reversible biochemical imbalances like low blood sugar level [hypoglycemia] which can masquerade as schizophrenia and other "mental" illnesses that can be changed with diet, food supplements and life style changes. Can you analyze your problems and feelings too much? February Depressives engage a mental ability known as cognitive and emotional processing.

Article Yale team discovers how stress and depression can shrink the brain , presented by Yale News , Bill Hathaway, Controversial research suggests that LSD and other psychedelic drugs could have vital medical uses. November 1. Existential depression — it's a depth the likes of which you cannot imagine. January Article on study Our pursuit of happiness makes us sad , presented by the nonprofit website that aggregates news articles about scientific research Futurity , Susanna Cornelius for University of Melbourne, Australia, June "Depression rates are higher in countries that place a premium on happiness.

Brock Bastian, Australian associate professor of social psychology, University of Melbourne Article Depression is a physical illness which could be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, scientists suggest , presented by the English daily online broadsheet, The Telegraph , Sarah Knapton, science editor, 8.

September Article Is everything you think you know about depression wrong? January Extracted from Hari's new book Lost Connections. January Article by Jed Diamond, Ph. March 1. Article Child abuse may change brain structure and make depression worse , presented by the UK-based weekly English-language international science magazine New Scientist , Ruby Prosser Scully, March A study of over a hundred people's brains suggests that abuse during childhood is linked to changes in brain structure that may make depression more severe in later life.

Juli Video Fernsehinterview mit Prof. September September Racist and elitist eugenics [dysgenics] was introduced by Charles Darwin's cousin Francis Galton in November , recorded by the event video production company Fora. December Audio interview with David D. Burns, M. March Audio conversation between Dorothy Rowe dorothyrowe. October , posted April Video interview with Katherine Shear , professor of psychiatry, Columbia University School of Social Work, Current insights on dying, panick attacks, depression, grieving and bereavement , presented by the US American web portal Big Think , host Austin Allen, minutes duration, recorded 3.

November , aired November Video interview with Elizabeth Debold, Ed. News, YouTube film, minutes duration, posted January Video interview with Jaak Panksepp, Ph. June Vimeo video presentation by Jaak Panksepp, Ph. December Video presentation by Kevin Breel , US American comedian, activist, Kevin Breel: Confessions of a depressed comic , presented by TEDxKids Ambleside , written transcript , minutes duration, filmed May , posted Video presentation by Andrew Solomon , US American writer on politics, culture and psychology, Depression, the secret we share , presented by TEDMET , minutes duration, filmed October , posted December Andrew Solomon: "The opposite of depression is not happiness, but vitality, and it was vitality that seemed to seep away from me in that moment.

May Depression is as real of a biological disease as is diabetes. Video presentation by Lisa Miller, Ph. August Video presentation by Ad Vingerhoets, Ph. November March Video presentation by Sean Blackwell , Brazilian psychology researcher, author presented by Bipolarorwakingup , posted July August Video presentation What is Medication Spellbinding? December Audios and videos on Psychiatry by Colin Ross, M. Audios and videos on Depression featuring Abram Hoffer, M. November Video interview with Colin Ross, M. October "Many thinkers contend that melancholy is necessary in gaining wisdom.

Letzte Bearbeitung: Papyrus Ebers. Galenus von Pergamon [Galen]. Innere Konflikte. Allopathische Medizin Pharmakonzerne. Romano Guardini. Quelle engl. Juli Zorn , Wut. Bitte, ich will nicht sterben. Akzeptanz , Zustimmung. Referenzen : de. Reference : en. Referenz : de. Depression : A psychological state characterized by lack of energy. Carl Gustav Jung Swiss psychiatrist, psychoanalytist, founder of a new school of depth psychology, author, source unknown.

Results of depression studies. Do you understand the old problem-solving consciousness? Father Richard Rohr O. The young male had to be taught somehow the way of tears. He had to be taught how to cry. In fact, if I were to sum up this whole spirituality of initiation in a one liner, it would be this; the young man who cannot cry is a savage, the old man who cannot laugh is a fool.

That's liminal space […] and that's when God can get at you. As long as the ego is in control, as long as you're into the fixing mode of thinking you can explain it. All of our Christian mystics say that the great teacher is darkness not light. Ego wants it so bad that it seems to me it settles for satisfying untruth. Ego wants satisfaction. Now unsatisfying truth is what I would call the theology of darkness. Follow the physically active routines of hunter-gatherers, agrarians. Ingest Omega-3 fatty acids cod liver oil. Get 1 hour, at least 30 minutes, of continued sunlight exposure daily.

Have close and frequent human exchange, social support, friendship. Join a dancing class. May Meanwhile scientists have dismissed the theory that Serotonin is a chemical that caused depression if it was naturally lacking in people's brains. The key effect that is making a lot of people depressed is when they have no control over their work. One scientific study asked Americans how many close friends they have who they can call on in a crisis.

Those who have had a traumatic childhood , are five times more likely to become depressed as an adult. A doctor's practice in London conducted an experiment. In the s, the Canadian government conducted an experiment in Dauphin, Manitoba. Main conclusion by the United Nations about depression: "The dominant biomedical narrative of depression" is based on "biased and selective use of research outcomes" that "must be abandoned". April 6. When the inequality gap gets acknowledged real solutions may be found.

Health is not an individual dynamic, but very much a product of the social and economic environment. The American nun study of aging and Alzheimer's disease founded and led by epidemiologist David Snowdon was a continuing longitudinal study Tears of ending and beginning, photographer Rose-Lynn Fisher Like the ocean, tears are salt water. They lubricate your eyes, remove irritants, reduce stress hormones and contain antibodies that fight pathogenic microbes.

Our bodies produce three kinds of tears: reflex, continuous and emotional. Each kind has different healing roles. For instance, reflex tears allow your eyes to clear out noxious particles when they're irritated by smoke or exhaust. The second kind, continuous tears, are produced regularly to keep our eyes lubricated.

These contain a chemical called "lysozyme" which functions as an anti-bacterial and protects our eyes from infection. Tears also travel to the nose through the tear duct to keep the nose moist and bacteria free. Typically, after crying, our breathing and heart rate decrease, and we enter into a calmer biological and emotional state. It is good to cry. It is healthy to cry. This helps to emotionally clear sadness and stress. Crying is also essential to resolve grief , when waves of tears periodically come over us after we experience a loss.

Tears help us process the loss so we can keep living with open hearts. Otherwise, we are a set up for depression if we suppress these potent feelings. Emotional tears have special health benefits. Biochemist and "tear expert" Dr. William Frey at the Ramsey Medical Center in Minneapolis discovered that reflex tears are 98 percent water, whereas emotional tears also contain stress hormones which get excreted from the body through crying.

After studying the composition of tears, Dr. Frey found that emotional tears shed these hormones and other toxins which accumulate during stress. Additional studies also suggest that crying stimulates the production of endorphins, our body's natural pain killer and "feel-good hormones. Other mammals and also salt-water crocodiles produce reflex tears which are protective and lubricating.

When there is an emotional crisis men are very ill equipped to handle them. The purpose of urination and tears are very similar. They clean out impurities in your system. Video interview with Warren Farrell Farrell. February There is a sacredness in tears. They are not the mark of weakness, but of power. They speak more eloquently than ten thousand tongues. They are the messengers of overwhelming grief, of deep contrition, of unspeakable love. When they encounter one another, when they press their foreheads against the bark of a centuries-old tree [ The soil needs this water.

Grief is but a gate, and our tears a kind of key opening a place of wonder thats been locked away. Page 16, line In the eighteenth Century it was used in con- trast with 3nlanb U. Goethe says YI. The knocking continued, and at intervals the most plaintive woman's voice cried out, entreating in good German that the door might be opened. Yielding at last, we opened the door. An old vlrandlere pressed in, car- rying soniething in her arms wrapped in a oloth, behind her a yoiing woman not ilMooking, bat colorless and exliausted, who could scarcely su] port herseif on her feet.

Having been delayed by this event, and ill-treated by peasants, they fiually reached our door in the night. The mother had been unable to give her child any nourishment since its birth. The old woman now deniauded boisterously flour, milk, an earthen dish, and linen for wrappiug up the child, As she could not speak French, we had to make the requests in her behalf ; but her authoritative manner, her vehemence gave to our words sufficient pan- tomimic weight and emphasis. One could not provide promptly enough what she demanded, and that which was provided was not good enough for her.

In return it was well worth seeing with what readiness she pro- ceeded. AVe were displaced from the fire, and the best seat taken posses- sion of for the sick woman, She occupied as much space as though she had the house all to herseif. In a trice the child was washed and dressed, and the porridge cooked. She fed the little creature and then the mother, not thinking of herseif. She then demanded fresh clothes for the invalid while her others were drying.

AYe regarded her with amazement ; she understood hoAv to levy contributions. The longer form with d is the prevailing one in the H. The verb naken, strip, occurs in M. The verb means also to retain in memory, mention, etc. Page 17, line IL with iraS. The adjective with nichts was formerly in the partitive genitive. The word means primarily the neigh- bors collectively, then the neighborhood. Goethe uses the same verb, in describing the original gift of the dressing-gown, for this purpose, I. The finger indicates ; the band gnides. These words in a similar use often occur separately in the Bible.

The words are used near each other in Ps. The band was the expression of God's presence in early Christian art, when reverence permitted no representation of bim as a person. Didron, Christian Icono- graphy. Eberhard, What he does for us through you, may he likewise do to you. The heavy prosaic character of this verse has strnck all comnientators.

Dorothea's prayer is uttered in simple language, bnt solemnly, and gains in impressiveness from the form in which it is expressed. It contains monosyllables npon each of which, in utterance, rests almost an equal stress. See below, 1. Kinbcr3eu9, a dactyle. Page 18, line It occurs three times in Iiis poem Ilmenau, am 3.

Tlie use of bamit, ba5U, bacon in foUowing lines was not euphonions in Humboldt's view. Spetf, from Med. Eberhard, , Brote, loaves. Compare E. In German parliamentary usage is equivalent to our " has the floor," the riglit to speak. Dcfters, not comparative in sense From the seventeenth Cen- tury the gen of the comparative of oft was used adverbially with the. Compare met rer. IX Similar precautions were taken on the German border in Letter of Freiligrath written from Cannstadt, July 27, , to his friend Eichmann.

A heavy spondaic line to indicate the apothecary's feelings. See also III. Page 19, line XPur5cIn, here in the old meaning of medicinal herbs. In Swabia, schoolmaster's assistant. Barfd aft, ready money, bareS elb. The first ber is emphatic, 7s that one, Is he ; tPoI]I increases the expression of surprise. XPcib, loife. Bartsch, No. See I. VOoti, remark. The mother intervenes to confirm Hermann's words by citing tlie father's example.

Page 20, line Often a pleasure resort on account of its beautiful Situation. For a similar passage see the Divan, Buch II. Werke 6, 40 D. Notice the repetition of brannten in tlie following line. For similar repetitions by Goethe see line f. See the description of the con- flagration in Schiller's Lied von der Glocke. See Wanderjahre, Buch II. These words are used with varying frequency and application in various sections of Germany. Goethe uses equally tlie form bef ommen.

Die Mitschuldigen, Aufz. Versuche, p. Xrumm, n. From the present plural a lengthened form Xr Ummern occurs Faust I. Pfcrb, originally a hybrid word, from an early M. A parallel form, palafredus, gives rise to the F. Goethe wrote Stiefeln, the weak pl. The plural is both St. From the Ital. A light covering for the feet. See TV. Page 22, line Seftnnung, sentiments. See Tasso, 1.

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See also Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm Aufz. Every begiuniug is difficult said the thief when he stole the anvil. Simrock, p. Goethe is fond of beginuing a verse with two short syllables. Eour times in the landlord's speech he begins a verse with unb and a Short syllable. XTtitgtft, f. Also in Mahomet, IV. The lengthened form appeared in the A. Diele ieinipanb von feinem unb ftarfem Semebe.

Compare I. This line as originally written had unb before bte fetten, and contained seven feet. Wolf had defended it as a Homeric liberty. Similarly in Canto III. Comp, note to verse IV. See Riemer II. In the edition of , Riemer and Ecker- mann restored the unb. The use of appositive adjectives is character- istic of the poem.

IL 1. Unge3ogen and unergogen differ in meaning; the one is rude, uncivil, the other is untrained, uneducaied. At times I also continued to go. Page 24, line Sunt 53eften geben is to give for the benefit of auything. Mistook misjudged the kindlg piirpose, Intention, feeling. Dftern, pl. The singular Cfter is found ordinarily only in Compounds ; as, Dfterfonntag; but plural forms are sometimes used in the sing.

Dftern was applied to a primitive Germanic spring festival of the god- dess Austro, the goddess of the bright spring light. Aurora, the goddess of the dawn. Bede states tliat this month was called pascalis mensis, or the pascal time. From I - E. Eor an Dftern, or an ben Cftcrn, 3U or auf Cftcrn are commonly used. Others received a Stipendium or purse. Quoted by Grimm. The last great work of the composer was produced in Vienna, Sept. Er is used with a slight contempt. Frederick William I. The use of the singular diminished, and the pronoun of the third person lost in respectability, and was applied to sub- ordinates, animals, etc.

Page 25, line The word was formally used of the favor of those of higher rank to those of lower. For the use of bezeigen and bezeugen with similar meaning see the corresponding articles in Grimm, I. Kneift, servanf, boy, squire, soldier. For the development of meaning in this word see the article,. Grimm, 5, f. Page 26, line It was here that he spent his last birthday in a visit to the piaces associated with friends of his youth.

CruIIc, or Grolle, M. In the Scandinavian languages in which the word is more common, it denotes an imp, hobgoblin, and earlier, a giant; M. This reference to the landlord's age would seem to imply that he was much older than his wife, There are similar references in 1. Olearius, Pers. The Muse of comedy, of merrj or idyllic poetry, represented with a Comic niask and a shepherd's staff or wreath of ivy. The third canto is a Citizens' talk, suggested by what has preceded, but having little to do with the action of the poem. Page 27, line 2. Hermann is represented as possessing no ambition, and there can be no hope of aspiring effort from him.

Hector, before departing from Andromaclie, takes his son As- tyanax in his arms and prays that Zeus and the other gods may give him renown, so that men may say hereafter he was better than his father. Dichtung und Wahrheit, Buch I. Quoted by Cholevius. See IX. Surely man should not spring like a inushroom from the ground to rot quickly on the spot that produced him.

Citrme, the towers of the gate-ways or defences of the city. Below, 1. Page 28, line BalFen, in the first ed. Goethe wrote, ber neuen ; the change was made at Humboldt's Suggestion. See also Elpenor 1. Goethe inherited the love of accuracy and of order which characterized his methodical father. Goethe's father proposed for him a similar, broad training. Chuquet II. Strassburg, Frankfurt, and Mannheim were the largest eitles in the locality of the poem. In Strassburg, Goethe completed his university studies, and received the degree of Doctor.

Mannheim, on the Neckar where it enters tlie Ehine, was rebuilt in , eleven years after its destruction by the French. It is laid out in Squares, or blocks, " like a chess-board," and the streets run at right angles. The city contains now about 61, inhabitants. Its symmetrical character, fine pavements, and admirable care, made it almost unique among the cities of Germany of the time. Its theatre was famous, and here Schiller's first plays. Die Rauher, FiesTco, and Kabale und Liebe were performed under his direction with the assistance of the famous actor and dramatist Iffland.

Goethe knew the city from various visits : his first great experience with ancieut art was in the hall of antiques in Mannheim, on his return from Strass- burg in Aug. Possibly Goethe visited Mannheim with Klopstock in Oct. See Y. So fu! The Roman roads in France bear the name of chaussees. Strohe meant originally a paved way. Both auf and an are used with ben! The peasauts bring their sitting hens into the house and place them in the corner between the Stove and the waU.

See illustrative passages from Goethe in Sanders, 1. The poem illustrates incidentally Goethe's views of education. X , Werke, H. IPtrt, not in a limited sense of host, landlord, but in the primi- tive sense of householder, head of a family. Page 30, line The landlord here refers to the educational theory which his wife had just expounded.

To his strenuous view, it is not possible to deserve praise without a worthy effort. Tliis proverb is not found in classical literatura L The Order was changed at Humboldt's Suggestion. See Artificial grottos are found in the grouuds laid out in the taste of the eighteenth Century. Bausrat, household furniture. Page 32, line Supply ben before Sinn. The angel Michael fought against the dragon. Rev xii. Page 33, line 4. Goethe uses the form given in the text. The word originally meaut the young of animals. The courts of the two estates, which had been united by the marriage of Hermann's father and mother.

The Compound adverb with verbs of motion, and the accusative indicating the space passed over, has al- most the force of a preposition governing the accusative. The noun is here used in a concrete sense, not of growth in general. Both words have a derivative meaning, and are applied to the branches of streams, the races of men, veins, points of a horn, antlers, etc.

Page 34, line Sraben, the dry moat surrounding the city without the walls. The garden of the inn extended back to the city wall, 1. Sutcbcl, a grape with green, red, and white varieties. Kleinere Trauben, a variety of grapes called Riesling, produc- ing the most aromatic Khine wine. The two words price, value, from M. See Prov. The meaning to read, to gathor the little sticks in which runic letters had been cut or scratched, arose later. A foreign, probably Italian, origin of the runes is established.

Zweite Epistel, Werke, I. It is applied also to fruit wines, Cbftlreine, from apples, pears, and quinces, as 5lpfelmoft. Goethe describes the vintage festival as he had Seen it observed in his youth near Frankfurt, when he accompanied his father to their vineyard before the Eriedberger Thor. Faust, 1. See numerous passages illustrating this use in Sanders, II. Page 35, line I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.

Kornes, grain. See V. Hain, m. The mention of the pear-tree is said by Cholevius to have been suggested by one of Goethe's favorite passages in the last book of the Odyssey. Every plant and tree has reminded him of bis cliildhood, and he waits before makmg himself known. Page 36, line Page 37, line Told me that it is so.

Here Seift is used; in 1. Kraft, see V. Chuquet calls attention to a certain resemblance between these verses and the French national hymn, the INIarseillaise, but there is a likeness in sentiment among all war lyrics, and the resemblance in this case seems casual. The first edition read tiefen for ttefften. Too long reflexion Avhen the motive for action is apparent is weakness.

Resolutions taken on the spur of the moment are not always the wisest, but certainly the most honest. The original meaning of this word, significant, important, became widely extended, largely through Goethe's influence, and came to mean prominent, influ- ential, decisive, distinguished. Compare II. See also 1. Page 38, line ITtontnr, umform ; Fr. Humboldt thought that oft should stand earlier in the verse, but found the verse hard when oft was placed after Beffer. Werke, X. UnbtH, f. JBiH is equity, fairness : The simple form of the noun is rare.

It occurs in an obviously revived usage in Voss. Voss, V. The adjective billig, just, fair, retains the original meaniDg. Page 39, line Humboldt criticised the spondaic close of this verse, foUowing, as it does, a division into two equal parts. The view of Hermann in these last two lines illustrates Goethe's words to the Germans respecting a rise against Napoleon.

The man is too strong for you. Numerous illustrations of the use might be given. The substantives beginn and Anfang, however, retaiu the idea of beginning. Compare the English hope in " forlorn hope. See Sanders II. Page 41, line Wallenstem's Tod, III. Humboldt objected to the repetition of ein am in this line. See lines III, U6, According to Diintzer this verse is from an expression of Rousseau, often quoted by Goethe. For Friedrich Vischer's criticism of this line, which is not justifiable, see G. Humboldt objected to the repetition of trerbe after its use in 1.

The form jeljo and iego were in vogue soon after tlie middle of the seventeenth Century, and were favorite forms until weithin the present Century. The classical writers vary in their use of jetjt and In the last quarter of the eighteenth Century jel]0 was regarded as the more elegant.

See Grimm, IV. The feminine pronoun is here used relating to a neuter noun. Condensed, pithy statement: It is os you have Said. Braut indicates in German the betrothed, not the newly mar- ried as in English. Notice throughout the passage the use of the present for the future. The future is assumed as present fact, and is thus made real. One of Goethe's favorite poets, Propertius, says, Na7n quis divitiis adverso gaudet amore. In the original edition the final word of 1. See also Matt. Page 43, line Goethe, Ital Reise, Oct. See VII. A constant wish joined to a resolute purpose. Qftigen ilBetje.

There are numerous similar proverbs in German. Page 44, 1. Page 45, line 1. Compare the passage I. Conservatism with progress was a part of Goethe's creed. This had been revived in an eccentric fashion by J. Rousseau, whose principal teaching was a return to nature. Umgetrieben for herumgetrieben. Page 46, line Page 47, line We directed oiir thoughts hither and thither j benfcn is often used in this sense with an or auf with the acc. Goethe is fond of using this form of the participle, which was in vogue among the people. It appears often in his earlier writiugs, and even in his letters.

Epiphaniasfest, Werke, I. So also in Luther's Translation of the Bible. Refers to I. See also Schiller's Lied von der Glocke. Page 48, line For our wishes often hide from us the ohject tuished for. Quoted by Chol. The judge speaks of the influence of crises, of great responsibil- ities, iu the development of character VI. Here affection quickens all the powers. In prose the plural form is common as in English, but in poetry the Singular occurs. Horace speaks of aiirea mediocritas, and Ovid, medio tutissimus ibis.

Metamorphoses, II. So also, bie 5! Jlitte treffen, finben, Ver- lieren, etc. Eile mit IDeile. Also, IX. See Briefwechsel mit Zelter, VI. Page 49, line Semetne, elsewhere Semetnbe. Semeinbe meant originally a common holdiug of land, property in common ; then Community, parish, congregation of believers. Comp- E. Words conceived of as winged and Aying from land to land, is a primitive Germanic conception. Nibelungenlied, Lachmann, , 2, and , I.

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Wackernagel prefers the form gefieberte; he holds that the Homeric words refer rather to stormy than to swift, though one seems to imply the other. See his article in his Kleinere Schriften. See also VII. Schiller uses it in obvious imitation of the antique in his poems on classical suhjects in Die Geschlechter, and elsewhere.

In mythology curses and opprobrious epithets are represented as flying. See Grimm, Myth. See VI. A word possibly coined by Goethe, as it is cited by Grimm from this passage alone. Streifen, the simple verb used for the Compound, uml erftretfen. Elenb, exile. Goethe had perhaps the original meaning of the word be- fore him in its felicitous present use. The original meaning of the ad- jective was, foreign, outlandish. Compare Elsass, from early medieval Latin, Ali-satia, O.

See note to I. Compare the M. Goethe by a single touch invests the history of Dorothea with romantic interest. Kings and the noble of the earth were in exile, and this young girl was beariug heroically the same destiny. She was allied to them in the cause which made her an exile from her native land. She not only suffered, but she glorified suffering by her helpfulness to others, and her forgetfulness of her own suffering.

St. Katharina (Wallerfangen)

A skilful application of his father's experience to secure a favorable judgment in his own behalf. Page 50, line Job iii. For the same expression see VI. The term is applied to cutting a ligament of a bird's tougue in order to teach it to talk. Grimm, YI. L III. The idea of the simple O. Goethe represents the exiled maiden as an orphan. Hermann, who knew nothing of her, not even her name, conld not have known this fact.

Page 51, line The force of the swift moving steeds. See the Iliad, Y. The personification of force, the use of abstract nouns for coucrete, or for adjectives characteriziug the noun, were of frequent occurrence. IL 2, Werke, X.