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I then directed a further examination, and a classification of all who were proven to have participated in massacres , as distinguished from participation in battles. As Lincoln told the Senate, only two had been convicted of rape. Curiously, the president allowed the executions of two men who were convicted merely for participating in battles.

Lincoln spared Godfrey, as the military commission requested, and two weeks later spared another man due to newly discovered exculpatory evidence. While these arguments are probably true in theory, the reality of the situation was different. This was wartime; Lincoln could not have reversed the convictions wholesale, either ordering new trials or disapproving the proceedings entirely.

The former would have caused great delay and the latter great outrage, either of which could have led to mob violence in Minnesota. Such actions would not necessarily have prevented the Dakota from being tried in state courts, where they would have received little sympathy from citizen juries.

His standard presented a plausible, practical effort to correct the verdicts and assign more appropriate standards of responsibility. Everything went off quietly, and the other prisoners are well secured. The Dakota plunged simultaneously to their deaths on one giant gallows before thousands of spectators. It remains the largest mass execution in American history. In the next year Sibley led a punitive expedition against those Dakota who had escaped after the conflict. A settler killed Little Crow after the Indian had sneaked back into Minnesota. After spending a freezing, disease-ridden winter at Fort Snelling, the remaining Dakota were banished to an inhospitable reservation in South Dakota.

All, that is, except one man named Chaska. In an example personifying the trial defects, Chaska—who had saved the lives of captive white women—was errantly hanged instead of one Chaskaydon, convicted of shooting and mutilating a pregnant woman. This article was written by Daniel W. Homstad and originally published in the December issue of American History Magazine. For more great articles, subscribe to American History magazine today! Both white and black damn near wiped out a race of people.

Speaking of not knowing anything. I guess, by that rationale, we should then throw all history out the window, except for modern history, simply because no one was there too eye witness the events. I thought it was the Dakota…or was it the settlers. I read this as part of my research for my next writing which I will focus on Abraham Lincoln. I published on an Internet site and have written poems concerning the Civil War. I have had a lady friend that is half Sioux and was born in South Dakota and raised in Montana.

This relationship with her has created a stronger interest in the Native American people that I have a great respect for.


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I live in Arizona where their is a significant Native population. I do believe that Lincoln was a strong supporter of human rights. The more you learn about history the more you realize that humankind and human behavior is very abnormal and that history is a lot of B.

People need to stop worshing Presidents and celebrities.. But you seem to have issues with reading comprehension. Had all been hung, the news would have spread to Europe and the chance of them sympathizing with the South would have made the war more difficult to win for the Union.

Adolf Hitler was both a racist and a mass murderer who we can definitely judge by different standards. Although Lincoln was by no means perfect, and I tend to agree with you on the point that a lot of history is left out, I do not think it is fair to even consider comparing him to Hitler in any way. The victor always writes the history, assuming this to be correct we have a white account of what happened. The native american version is not heard. I am sure if their truth were to be written the level of hatred, butchery,corruption and injustice wrought upon the native american people who were responding to the genocide of their people might be perceived differently.

As the article points out none spoke english, a biased interpret was used and no legal representation was allowed. Using todays standard of justice, ethics and human rights any person involved in this execution of the Native Americans is a murderer, thats includes honest Abe who gave the excutive approval to hang The truth hurts…but it sets you free. Particularly, as we have such great need to justify our own behavior, and those of our elected officials.

Execution by hanging is certainl gruesome, we seem to center our thought on the fact that these were native americans, and fail to recall the number of innocents who were victimized by these raiders. That is, of course if one insists on believing the accounts given in the article are accurate. It seems to me very clear that Lincoln grieved over any such decision whether it had to do with treason, or murder and rape. By Michael Gaddy Published Perhaps the veneer of lies and historical distortions that surround Abraham Lincoln are beginning to crack. The false sainthood and adulation afforded Lincoln has its basis in the incorrect assumption he fought the war to free an enslaved people.

To believe this propaganda one must ignore most everything Lincoln said about the Black race and his continued efforts at colonization.

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I do not think them, as a race, worth preserving. This mentality lead to the forced walk of all Cherokees from the mountains of Tennessee, North Carolina and Georgia to Oklahoma during the winter of Over 20, Cherokees were dragged from their homes, which were then plundered and burned. They were force marched most of them barefooted to Oklahoma during the dead of winter with the sky for their blanket and the earth for their pillow. Similar atrocities occurred all through the Lincoln Administration.

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In , the Santee Sioux of Minnesota grew tired of waiting for the 1. Appeals to President Lincoln fell on deaf ears. What made this even more egregious to the Sioux was the invasion of this yet unpaid for land by thousands of white settlers. Then, with a very poor crop in august of , many of the Indians were hungry and facing starvation with the upcoming winter.

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Black Seminoles

When Lincoln outright refused to pay the owed money, remember he had a war to finance the Indians revolted. They are to be treated as maniacs or wild beasts, and by no means as people with whom treaties or compromise can be made. The Indians were quickly defeated in October of and Pope herded all the Indians, men, women and children, into forts where military trials were immediately convened. None of the Indians tried were given any semblance of a defense. Their trials lasted approximately 10 minutes each. The authorities in Minnesota asked Lincoln to order the immediate execution of all males found guilty.

Lincoln was concerned with how this would play with the Europeans, whom he was afraid were about to enter the war on the side of the South. He offered the following compromise to the politicians of Minnesota: They would pare the list of those to be hung down to In return, Lincoln promised to kill or remove every Indian from the state and provide Minnesota with 2 million dollars in federal funds.

Remember, he only owed the Sioux 1. So, on December 26, , the Great Emancipator ordered the largest mass execution in American History, where the guilt of those to be executed was entirely in doubt. Regardless of how Lincoln defenders seek to play this, it was nothing more than murder to obtain the land of the Santee Sioux and to appease his political cronies in Minnesota. In , General Carleton and his subordinate, Colonel Kit Carson, invaded the Navajo land, especially those concentrated in the Canyon de Chelly area.

Crops were burned, innocents were murdered, women were raped and general chaos was rained upon these noble people simply because, like the Santee Sioux, they demanded from Lincoln what they had been promised; their land and to be left alone. Over Navajos died on this march and, eventually, over 2, perished before a treaty was signed in While at Bosque Redondo, the Navajo suffered the vilest conditions; bitter water, no firewood and impossible growing conditions for crops.

The soldiers and the Mexican guards subjected the women to rape and humiliating treatment. As our Founding Fathers did in our Declaration of Independence from the British, the Cherokee Nation listed its grievances with the Union when they declared their unification with the Confederate States on October 28th The Cherokee people had its origin in the South; its institutions are similar to those of the Southern States, and their interests identical with theirs. Long since it accepted the protection of the United States of America, contracted with them treaties of alliance and friendship, and allowed themselves to be to a great extent governed by their laws.

In peace and war, they have been faithful to their engagements with the United States. With much hardship and injustice to complain of, they resorted to no other means than solicitation and argument to obtain redress. Loyal and obedient to the laws and the stipulations of the treaties, they served under the flag of the United States, shared the common dangers, and were entitled to a share in the common glory, to gain which their blood was freely shed on the battlefield.

When the dissentions between the Southern and Northern States culminated in a separation of State after State from the Union, they watched the progress of events with anxiety and consternation. While their institutions and the contiguity of their territory to the states of Arkansas, Texas and Missouri made the cause of the seceding States necessarily their own cause, their treaties had been made with the United States, and they felt the utmost reluctance even in appearance to violate their engagements or set at naught the obligations of good faith.

But Providence rules the destinies of nations, and events, by inexorable necessity, overrule human resolutions. The number of the Confederate States increased to eleven, and their government is firmly established and consolidated. Maintaining in the field an army of two hundred thousand men, the war became for them but a succession of victories. Disclaiming any intention to invade the Northern States, they sought only to repel invaders from their own soil and to secure the right of governing themselves. They claimed only the privilege asserted by the Declaration of American Independence, and on which the right of the Northern States themselves to self-government is formed, of altering their form of government when it became no longer tolerable and establishing new forms for the security of their liberties.

Throughout the Confederate States, we saw this great revolution effected without violence or suspension of the laws or the closing of the courts, The military power was nowhere placed above the civil authorities. None were seized and imprisoned at the mandate of arbitrary power.

All division among the people disappeared, and the determination became unanimous that there should never again be any union with the Northern States. Almost as one man, all who were able to bear arms rushed to the defense of an invaded country, and nowhere has it been found necessary to compel men TO SERVE, or to enlist mercenaries by the offer of extraordinary bounties.

But, in the Northern States, the Cherokee people saw with alarm a violated constitution, all civil liberty put in peril, and all rules of civilized warfare and the dictates of common humanity and decency unhesitatingly disregarded. In states which still adhered to the Union, a military despotism had displaced the civil power and the laws became silent amid arms. Free speech and almost free thought became a crime. The right of the writ of habeas corpus, guaranteed by the constitution, disappeared at the nod of a Secretary of State or a general of the lowest grade.

The mandate of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was at naught by the military power, and this outrage on common right, approved by a President sworn to support the constitution. War on the largest scale was waged, and the immense bodies of troops called into the field in the absence of any law warranting it under the pretense of suppressing unlawful combination of men. The humanities of war, which even barbarians respect, were no longer thought worthy to be observed. Foreign mercenaries and the scum of the cities and the inmates of prisons were enlisted and organized into brigades and sent into Southern States to aid in subjugating a people struggling for freedom, to burn, to plunder, and to commit the basest of outrages on the women.

While the heels of armed tyranny trod upon the necks of Maryland and Missouri, and men of the highest character and position were incarcerated upon suspicion and without process of law, in jails, in forts, and prison ships, and even women were imprisoned by the arbitrary order of a President and Cabinet Ministers; while the press ceased to be free, and the publication of newspapers was suspended and their issues seized and destroyed. The tactics of murder, rape and pillaging, perfected in such places as Atlanta, the March to the Sea and the Shenandoah Valley, were repeated in places with names like Sand Creek and Wounded Knee.

This concept of government had been vetoed as unconstitutional by virtually every president, beginning with James Madison. The system called for the subsidizing of the railroads with stolen taxpayer money. Lincoln had long been the primary attorney representing the railroads before being elected President. Thus, Lincoln left his fingerprints on the campaign against the Indian well into the 19th century.

To continue to idolize Lincoln is to refute history and intellectual thought and to worship at the foot of Marxist government. Perhaps, in the not too distant future, Americans will be able to see the Lincoln Administration and its legacy of how we are governed today in the light of truth. We may even be able to see its consequences as clearly as the Cherokee Nation saw them in ! A mass hanging of these unlucky ones was […]. Hitler was rightly condemned for invading France and Poland and Russia and killing huge numbers of the natives of those countries.

Yet where is the condemnation of the Europeans that invaded the Americas, killed God knows how many natives, stole the land, slaughtered women and children, did their best to wipe out entire nations, etc. Is it any wonder that there is such close ties between the US and Israel, seeing as Israel is trying to do to the Palestinians what the Europeans did to the Native Americans.


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Every US President should start a tern by apologising to the Native Americans and making a large payment in compensation. Indeed the US should pay rent to the Native Americans for using their land along with a cut of all revenue from oil and minerals. Nothing can justify racism or genocide. People need to start researching and learning what they can about the history of the world before words are spoken that are more harmful and ignorant than they are beneficial. The history of this incident is part of offcial federal records — the government has never hidden it. Many other such similar incidents are found throughout government records dating back to when the U.

These records include the U. Serial Set, the Congressional Record, etc. It is the U. According to the U. Subsequently tribes have worked, with little success, to get the U. Any benefits the tribes and their members might receive from the U. Lincoln was Hitler but with a lot less firepower. Oddly enough if the Native Americans had been united under a crazy dictator like Stalin they would probably have come out on top. The victors write the history and the Yanks have been telling massive lies for centuries. It is no wonder the United States is such a messed up country when you consider its disgraceful history.

Most Americans are just as brainwashed and in denial as the Germans were in the thirties, or as most Muslims today. If it was not for the media coverage the Palestinians would have gone the same way as the Native Americans although it seems the Israelis have not completely given up on their genocidal intentions. By the way, Hitler murdered millions of Jews for no reason other than they were Jewish, Lincoln only sentenced 39 people of the who were convicted of terrible crimes. Only one of our holidays celebrates a American of morality and virtue […].

Talking about the false adulation and sainthood that we view past presidents with, you may be right about Lincoln to some degree, but the same can be said about JFK even more so than Lincoln. Also I would still argue if you actually study Lincoln he was by far a much greater president than many others especially JFK who has been propped up and viewed in a higher regard after his death than he ever would have been had he not been shot. Being moved to tears out of compassion and in the face of the mystery of suffering is holy, he said.

It is not the same thing as crying to manipulate or get something from someone. Latest News. Respond to suffering with eyes cleansed by tears, Francis urges young people. Cindy Wooden. Pope Francis hugs a child during his meeting with the youth AP. Slice 1. Read more.

The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, – A Political - Google Buku

Carol Glatz. Daily Herald : Chad Pecknold. The Freedmen's towns were made up of large, closely connected families. After allotment, "[f]reedmen, unlike their [Native] peers on the blood roll, were permitted to sell their land without clearing the transaction through the Indian Bureau. That made the poorly educated Freedmen easy marks for white settlers migrating from the Deep South.

Others left the state because of its conditions of racial segregation. As US citizens, they were exposed to the harsher racial laws of Oklahoma. Since , the Freedmen have been included in the constitution of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma. They have two bands, each representing more than one town and named for 19th-century band leaders: the Cesar Bruner band covers towns south of Little River ; the Dosar Barkus covers the several towns located north of the river.

Each of the bands elects two representatives to the General Council of the Seminole Nation. In , the U. The scouts became famous for their tracking abilities and feats of endurance. Four men were awarded the Medal of Honor , three for an action against the Comanche.

The Army disbanded the unit in The veterans and their families settled in and around Brackettville, where scouts and family members were buried in its cemetery. The town remains the spiritual center of the Texas-based Black Seminoles. Black Seminole descendants continue to live in Florida today. They can enroll in the Seminole Tribe of Florida if they meet its membership criteria for blood quantum : one-quarter Seminole ancestry. About 50 Black Seminoles, all of whom have at least one-quarter Seminole ancestry, live on the Fort Pierce Reservation , a acre parcel taken in trust in by the Department of Interior for the Tribe as its sixth reservation.

A few hundred refugees had left in the early nineteenth century from Cape Florida to go to the British-held islands for sanctuary from American enslavement. They have been sometimes referred to as "Black Indians", in recognition of their history. In , Seminole Freedmen numbered about 1, on the Oklahoma reservation, about one-third of the total population at the time. Members were registered on the Dawes Rolls for allocation of communal land to individual households. Others left because of having to deal with the harshly segregated society of Oklahoma.

The land allotments and participation in Oklahoma society altered relations between the Seminole and Freedmen, particularly after the s. Both peoples faced racial discrimination from whites in Oklahoma, who essentially divided society into two: white and "other".

Public schools and facilities were racially segregated. When the tribe reorganized under the Indian Reorganization Act of , some Seminole wanted to exclude the Freedmen and keep the tribe as Native American only. It was not until the s that the Black Seminole were officially recognized in the constitution. Another was adopted in , that restructured the government according to more traditional Seminole lines.

It established 14 town bands, of which two represented Freedmen. The two Freedmen's bands were given two seats each, like other bands, on the Seminole General Council. There have been "battles over tribal membership across the country, as gambling revenues and federal land payments have given Native Americans something to fight over. This was before removal west of the Mississippi. The judgement trust was based on the Seminole tribe as it existed in Black Seminoles were not recognized legally as part of the tribe, nor was their ownership or occupancy of land separately recognized.

The US government at the time would have assumed most were fugitive slaves, without legal standing. The Oklahoma and Florida groups were awarded portions of the judgement related to their respective populations in the early 20th century, when records were made of the mostly full-blood descendants of the time.

However, the Black Seminole descendants asserted their ancestors had also held and farmed land in Florida, and suffered property losses as a result of US actions. They filed suit in against the Department of Interior to share in the benefits of the judgement trust of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, of which they were members. In another aspect of the dispute over citizenship, in the summer of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma voted to restrict members, according to blood quantum , to those who had one-eighth Seminole ancestry, [43] basically those who could document descent from a Seminole ancestor listed on the Dawes Rolls , the federal registry established in the early 20th century.

At the time, during rushed conditions, registrars had separate lists for Seminole-Indian and Freedmen. They classified those with visible African ancestry as Freedmen, regardless of their proportion of Native American ancestry or whether they were considered Native members of the tribe at the time. This excluded some Black Seminole from being listed on the Seminole-Indian list who qualified by ancestry. The Dawes Rolls included in the Seminole-Indian list many Intermarried Whites who lived on Native American lands, but did not include blacks of the same status.

The Seminole Freedmen believed the tribe's 21st-century decision to exclude them was racially based and has opposed it on those grounds. The Department of Interior said that it would not recognize a Seminole government that did not have Seminole Freedmen participating as voters and on the council, as they had officially been members of the nation since In October , the Seminole Nation filed its own suit against the Interior Department, contending it had the sovereign right to determine tribal membership.

In April , the Seminole Freedmen's suit against the government was dismissed in federal district court; the court ruled the Freedmen could not bring suit independently of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, which refused to join. As a sovereign nation, they could not be ordered to join the suit. They noted that the treaty was made with a tribe that included black as well as white and brown members.

The treaty had required the Seminole to emancipate their slaves, and to give the Seminole Freedmen full citizenship and voting rights. The BIA stopped federal funding for a time for services and programs to the Seminole. Although the BIA could not issue CDIBs to the Seminole Freedmen, in the agency recognized them as members of the tribe and advised them of continuing benefits for which they were eligible. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Black Seminole. See also: Seminole music. The Seminole Freedmen: A History. University of Oklahoma Press. Yale University, Gilder Lehrman Center. Archived from the original on Retrieved Government Printing Office. The name, as is well known, is applied by the Creeks to people who remove from populous towns and live by themselves, and it is commonly stated that the Seminole consisted of "runaways" and outlaws from the Creek Nation proper.

A careful study of their history, however, shows this to be only a partial statement of the case. Sturtevant 1 November A Seminole sourcebook. The ethnonym is of Muskogee origin: simanoli earlier simaloni, surviving in some dialects means "wild, runaway," as applied to animals and plants. Linguistic Society of America": The Shorter Oxford Dictionary explains maroon 'fugitive negro slave' as from 'Fr.

But Eng. If there is a connection between Eng. Handbook of Texas Online. The History Press. Jennison 18 January University Press of Kentucky. Letters from the Frontiers. Philadelphia: J. Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved 27 October A Companion to American Indian History. Trigger; Wilcomb E. Washburn 13 October Cambridge University Press. Westward Expansion in America Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. Pete Times. Looking for Angola. Mackenzie 92— South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved April 15, Note: In trying to retrieve American slaves off the Encomium from colonial officials who freed them , the US consul in February was told by the Lieutenant Governor that "he was acting in regard to the slaves under an opinion of by Sir Christopher Robinson and Lord Gifford to the British Secretary of State.

June 29, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved 26 October Primary sources [ edit ] McCall, George A. Letters From the Frontiers. Miller, David Hunter, ed.